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Congressional Black Caucus
""CBCfoundingmembers.jpg
The 13 founding members of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC)
Motto "Black people have no permanent friends, no permanent enemies ... just permanent interests."[1]
Predecessor Democratic Select Committee (DSC)
Formation March 30, 1971; 46 years ago (1971-03-30)[2]
Founder
Headquarters "Washington, D.C.
Membership

During the "115th Congress

Chair
"Cedric Richmond
Website Official website

The Congressional Black Caucus is a racial political organization made up of the black American members of the "United States Congress. Although they claim race and party affiliation are not officially requirements for membership, no white person has joined and most of them are "Democrats. Its chair is Representative "Cedric Richmond of "Louisiana.[3][4]

Contents

Goals[edit]

The "caucus describes its goals as "positively influencing the course of events pertinent to black Americans and others of similar experience and situation", and "achieving greater equity for persons of black descent in the design and content of domestic and international programs and services."

The CBC encapsulates these goals in the following priorities: closing the achievement and opportunity gaps in education, assuring quality health care for every American, focusing on employment and economic security, ensuring justice for all, retirement security for all Americans, increasing welfare funds, and increasing equity in foreign policy.[5]

Representative "Eddie Bernice Johnson, D-Tex., has said:

The Congressional Black Caucus is one of the world's most esteemed bodies, with a history of positive activism unparalleled in our nation's history. Whether the issue is popular or unpopular, simple or complex, the CBC has fought for thirty years to protect the fundamentals of democracy. Its impact is recognized throughout the world. The Congressional Black Caucus is probably the closest group of legislators on the Hill. We work together almost incessantly, we are friends and, more importantly, a family of freedom fighters. Our diversity makes us stronger, and the expertise of all of our members has helped us be effective beyond our numbers.

Mark Anthony Neal, a professor of African-American studies and popular culture at "Duke University, wrote a column in late 2008 that the Congressional Black Caucus and other black American-centered organizations are still needed, and should take advantage of "the political will that Obama's campaign has generated."[6]

Membership[edit]

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Map of congressional districts represented by African-Americans in the "114th Congress.
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Congressional Black Caucus Foundation Entrance

The caucus has grown steadily as more black members have been elected. At its formal founding in 1971, the caucus had thirteen members.[1] As of 2017, it had 45 members, including two who are non-voting members of the House, representing the "District of Columbia and the "U.S. Virgin Islands.

Senate members[edit]

As of 2017, there have been eight black American senators since the caucus's founding. The six black senators, all Democrats, who are or have been members of the Congressional Black Caucus are Senator "Cory Booker of New Jersey, elected in 2013, and Senator "Kamala Harris of California, elected in 2016, both currently serving; "Carol Moseley Braun (1993–1999) of Illinois, then-Senator "Barack Obama (2005–2008) of Illinois, "Mo Cowan (2013) of Massachusetts, and "Roland Burris (2008–2010). Burris was appointed by "Illinois Governor "Rod Blagojevich in December 2008 to fill Obama's seat for the remaining two years of his senate term. Cowan was appointed to temporarily serve until a special election after the seat was vacated by "John Kerry following his appointment as Secretary of State.

"Edward Brooke, a Republican senator from Massachusetts in the 60s and 70s, was not a member of the CBC. In 2013, "Tim Scott, Republican of South Carolina, also chose not to join the CBC after being appointed to fill the senate seat of "Jim DeMint.

Black-American Republicans in the CBC[edit]

The caucus is officially non-partisan; but, in practice, the vast majority of black Americans elected to Congress have been members of the "Democratic Party. Eight black "Republicans have been elected to Congress since the caucus was founded in 1971: Senator "Edward Brooke of Massachusetts (1967–1979), "Delegate "Melvin H. Evans of the Virgin Islands (1979–1981), Representative "Gary Franks of Connecticut (1991–1997), Representative "J. C. Watts of Oklahoma (1995–2003), Representative "Allen West of Florida (2011–2013), Senator "Tim Scott of South Carolina (2013–present), Representative "Will Hurd of Texas (2015–present), and Representative "Mia Love of Utah (2015–present). Of these eight, only half have joined the CBC: Evans, Franks, West, and Love.

Edward Brooke was the only serving black-American U.S. Senator when the CBC was founded in 1971, but he never joined the group and often clashed with its leaders.[7] In 1979 "Melvin H. Evans, a non-voting delegate from the Virgin Islands, became the first Republican member in the group's history. "Gary Franks was the first Republican voting congressman to join in 1991, though he was at times excluded from CBC strategy sessions, skipped meetings, and threatened to quit the caucus.[8] "J. C. Watts did not join the CBC when he entered Congress in 1995, and after Franks left Congress in 1997, no Republicans joined the CBC for fourteen years until "Allen West joined the caucus in 2011, though fellow freshman congressman "Tim Scott declined to join.[9] After West was defeated for re-election, the CBC became a Democrat-only caucus once again in 2013.[10] After Democrat "Mo Cowan stepped down in July 2013, the political situation bore a striking resemblance to four decades earlier: the only serving black Republican congressman (Edward Brooke in the 1971, Tim Scott in 2013) was a U.S. Senator who refused to join the CBC.

In "2014, two black American Republicans were elected to the House. Upon taking office, "Will Hurd of Texas declined to join the caucus, while "Mia Love of Utah, the first black Republican congresswoman, joined,[11] declaring an intent to "try to take that thing apart from the inside out," saying that "in order to effect change, you can't do it from the outside in."[12]

White membership[edit]

All past and present members of the caucus have been "African-American. In 2006, while running for Congress in a "Tennessee district which is 60% black, white candidate "Steve Cohen pledged to apply for membership in order to represent his constituents. However, after his election, his application was refused.[13] Although the bylaws of the caucus do not make race a prerequisite for membership, former and current members of the caucus agreed that the group should remain "exclusively black". In response to the decision, Rep. Cohen referred to his campaign promise as "a social faux pas" because "It's their caucus and they do things their way. You don't force your way in. You need to be invited."[13]

Rep. "William Lacy Clay, Jr., Democrat of Missouri, the son of Rep. "William Lacy Clay Sr., a co-founder of the caucus, said: "Mr. Cohen asked for admission, and he got his answer. He's white and the caucus is black. It's time to move on. We have racial policies to pursue and we are pursuing them, as Mr. Cohen has learned. It's an unwritten rule. It's understood." Clay also issued the following statement:

Quite simply, Rep. Cohen will have to accept what the rest of the country will have to accept—there has been an unofficial Congressional White Caucus for over 200 years, and now it's our turn to say who can join 'the club.' He does not, and cannot, meet the membership criteria unless he can change his skin color. Primarily, we are concerned with the needs and concerns of the black population, and we will not allow white America to infringe on those objectives.

Later the same week Representative "Tom Tancredo, Republican of Colorado, objected to the continued existence of the CBC as well as the "Democratic "Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the "Republican "Congressional Hispanic Conference arguing that "It is utterly hypocritical for Congress to extol the virtues of a color-blind society while officially sanctioning caucuses that are based solely on race. If we are serious about achieving the goal of a colorblind society, Congress should lead by example and end these divisive, race-based caucuses."[14]

History[edit]

Founding[edit]

A predecessor to the caucus was founded in January 1969 as a "Democratic Select Committee" by a group of African-American members of the "House of Representatives, including "Shirley Chisholm of New York, "Louis Stokes of "Ohio and "William L. Clay of "Missouri. African-American representatives had begun to enter the House in increasing numbers during the 1960s, and they had a desire for a formal organization.[1] The first chairman, "Charles Diggs, served from 1969 to 1971. All the members of the caucus landed on the "master list of Nixon political opponents.["citation needed]

This organization was renamed the Congressional Black Caucus in February 1971 on the motion of "Charles B. Rangel of New York. Founding members of the caucus were "Shirley Chisholm, "William L. Clay Sr., "George W. Collins, "John Conyers, "Ronald Dellums, "Augustus F. Hawkins, "Ralph Metcalfe, "Parren Mitchell, "Robert Nix, "Charles Rangel, "Louis Stokes, and Washington D.C. Delegate "Walter Fauntroy.[15]

Nixon refused to meet with the newly formed group, and so the group chose to boycott his 1971 State of the Union, leading to their first joint political victory and press coverage.[1]

TransAfrica and Free South Africa Movement[edit]

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South African President "Nelson Mandela with members of the Congressional Black Caucus, including Representative "Kweisi Mfume, at an event at the "Library of Congress

In 1977, the organization was involved in the founding of "TransAfrica, an education and advocacy affiliate that was formed to act as a resource on information on the African continent and its Diaspora.[16] They worked closely with this organization to start the national anti-apartheid movement in the US, "Free South Africa Movement (characterized by sit-ins, student protests, it became the longest lasting civil disobedience movement in U.S history) and to devise the legislative strategy for the "Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 that was later vetoed by "Ronald Reagan, and subsequently overridden. The organization continues to be active today and works on other campaigns.[16][17]

Funding[edit]

In late 1994, after "Republicans "attained a majority in the House, they announced plans to rescind funding for 28 "legislative service organizations" which received taxpayer funding and occupied offices at the Capitol, including the CBC. Then-chairman "Kweisi Mfume protested the decision. The House did abolish the legislative service organizations, including the CBC, by a voice vote on H.Res.6 on January 4, 1995, which prohibited “the establishment or continuation of any legislative service organization..."[18] The CBC reconstituted as a Congressional Member Organization.[19]

Events[edit]

The caucus is sometimes invited to the "White House to meet with the president.[20] It requests such a meeting at the beginning of each Congress.[20]

Chairs[edit]

The following representatives have served as chairs of the Congressional Black Caucus:[21]

Members of the caucus during the 115th Congress[edit]

Officers of the 115th Congress

During the "115th Congress (2017–present), the CBC has 2 Senators, 45 voting Representatives and 2 non-voting Delegates as members: [22]

Senate
Senator Party State
"Cory Booker Democratic "New Jersey
"Kamala Harris Democratic "California
House
Representative Party State – Congressional District
"Alma Adams Democratic "North Carolina – "12th
"Karen Bass Democratic "California – "37th
"Joyce Beatty Democratic "Ohio – "3rd
"Sanford Bishop Democratic "Georgia – "2nd
"Lisa Blunt Rochester Democratic "Delaware – "At-large
"Anthony Brown Democratic "Maryland – "4th
"G. K. Butterfield Democratic North Carolina – "1st
"André Carson Democratic "Indiana – "7th
"Yvette Clarke Democratic "New York – "9th
"William Lacy Clay Jr. Democratic "Missouri – "1st
"Emanuel Cleaver Democratic Missouri – "5th
"Jim Clyburn Democratic "South Carolina – "6th
"John ConyersDean Democratic "Michigan – "13th
"Elijah Cummings Democratic Maryland – "7th
"Danny Davis Democratic "Illinois – "7th
"Val Demings Democratic "Florida – "10th
"Keith Ellison Democratic "Minnesota – "5th
"Dwight Evans Democratic "Pennsylvania – "2nd
"Marcia Fudge Democratic Ohio – "11th
"Al Green Democratic "Texas – "9th
"Alcee Hastings Democratic Florida – "20th
"Hakeem Jeffries Democratic New York – "8th
"Eddie Bernice Johnson Democratic Texas – "30th
"Hank Johnson Democratic Georgia – "4th
"Robin Kelly Democratic Illinois – "2nd
"Brenda Lawrence Democratic Michigan – "14th
"Al Lawson Democratic Florida – "5th
"Barbara Lee Democratic California – "13th
"Sheila Jackson Lee Democratic Texas – "18th
"John Lewis Democratic Georgia – "5th
"Mia Love Republican "Utah – "4th
"Donald McEachin Democratic "Virginia – "4th
"Gregory Meeks Democratic New York – "5th
"Gwen Moore Democratic "Wisconsin – "4th
Delegate "Eleanor Holmes Norton Democratic "District of Columbia – "At-large
(non voting congressional delegate)
"Donald Payne Jr. Democratic "New Jersey – "10th
Delegate "Stacey Plaskett Democratic "U.S. Virgin Islands – "At-large
(non voting congressional delegate)
"Cedric Richmond Democratic "Louisiana – "2nd
"Bobby Rush Democratic Illinois – "1st
"Bobby Scott Democratic Virginia – "3rd
"David Scott Democratic Georgia – "13th
"Terri Sewell Democratic "Alabama – "7th
"Bennie Thompson Democratic "Mississippi – "2nd
"Marc Veasey Democratic Texas – "33rd
"Maxine Waters Democratic California – "43rd
"Bonnie Watson Coleman Democratic New Jersey – "12th
"Frederica Wilson Democratic Florida – "24th

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Office of the Historian (2008). ""Creation and Evolution of the Congressional Black Caucus," Black Americans in Congress, 1870–2007". History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  2. ^ "The History of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC)". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  3. ^ Rainey, Richard (November 30, 2016). "Cedric Richmond elected chair of Congressional Black Caucus". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved November 30, 2016. 
  4. ^ "Cedric Richmond elected chair of Congressional Black Caucus". NOLA.com. Retrieved 2017-06-06. 
  5. ^ "Priorities of the Congressional Black Caucus for the 109th Congress". U.S. House of Representatives. Archived from the original on December 30, 2005. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  6. ^ Jackson, Camille (December 19, 2008). "Hitting the Ground Running". "Duke University This Month at Duke. Retrieved February 7, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Brooke, Edward William, III". History, Art & Archives: United States House of Representatives. January 3, 2015. Retrieved March 2, 2015. 
  8. ^ Barnes, Fred (March 17, 2011). "Rep. Allen West – and the Congressional Black Caucus". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved March 2, 2015. 
  9. ^ Southall, Ashley (January 5, 2011). "Republican Allen West Joins Congressional Black Caucus". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  10. ^ Alvarez, Lizette (November 20, 2012). "Republican Concedes House Race in Florida". The New York Times. 
  11. ^ "Congressional Black Caucus Members". Congressional Black Caucus. Retrieved January 26, 2015. 
  12. ^ Ross, Chuck (January 6, 2015). "Republican Mia Love Joins Congressional Black Caucus, Group She Wants To Reform". Daily Caller. 
  13. ^ a b Hearn, Josephine (January 23, 2007). "Black Caucus: Whites Not Allowed". Politico.com. Retrieved January 23, 2007. 
  14. ^ "Tancredo: Abolish black, Hispanic caucuses". "MSNBC. January 25, 2007. Retrieved April 19, 2009. 
  15. ^ "History". Congressional Black Caucus. Retrieved 2016-02-06. 
  16. ^ a b "TransAfrica". African Activist Archives. Michigan State University. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  17. ^ "Senate Rebukes Reagan". The Courier. October 3, 1986. p. 28. Retrieved 20 February 2016. 
  18. ^ thomas.loc.gov 104th Congress, H.Res.6, Section 222
  19. ^ Cortés, Carlos E. (2013). "House of Representatives, U.S.". Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 1118. "ISBN "9781452276267. 
  20. ^ a b Josephine Hearn (February 13, 2007). "Black Caucus to Make Rare White House Visit". "The Politico. 
  21. ^ "Congressional Black Caucus Chairmen and Chairwomen, 1971–Present". Black Americans in Congress. "U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved November 27, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Congressional Black Caucus celebrates history with 49 members in the 115th Congress". The Birmingham Times. 2017-01-07. Retrieved 2017-01-10. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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