In the United States, the counterculture of the 1960s became identified with the rejection of conventional "social norms of the 1950s. Counterculture youth rejected the cultural standards of their parents, especially with respect to racial "segregation and initial widespread support for the "Vietnam War, and, less directly, the "Cold War—with many young people fearing that America's "nuclear arms race with the "Soviet Union, coupled with its involvement in Vietnam, would lead to a "nuclear holocaust.
In the United States, widespread tensions developed in the 1960s in American society that tended to flow along generational lines regarding the "war in Vietnam, "race relations, "sexual mores, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, and a "materialist interpretation of the "American Dream. White, "middle class youth—who made up the bulk of the counterculture in western countries—had sufficient leisure time, thanks to widespread economic "prosperity, to turn their attention to "social issues. These social issues included support for "civil rights, "women's rights, and "gay rights movements, and a rejection of the "Vietnam War. The counterculture also had access to a media which was eager to present their concerns to a wider public. Demonstrations for "social justice created far-reaching changes affecting many aspects of society. "Hippies became the largest countercultural group in the United States.
Rejection of mainstream culture was best embodied in the new genres of "psychedelic rock music, "pop-art and new explorations in "spirituality. Musicians who exemplified this era in the United Kingdom and United States included "The Beatles, "Neil Young, "Bob Dylan, "The Grateful Dead, "Jefferson Airplane, "Jimi Hendrix, "The Doors, "Frank Zappa, "The Rolling Stones, "Velvet Underground, "Janis Joplin, "The Who, "Joni Mitchell, "The Kinks, "Sly and the Family Stone and, in their early years, "Chicago. New forms of musical presentation also played a key role in spreading the counterculture, with large outdoor rock festivals being the most noteworthy. The climactic live statement on this occurred from August 15–18, 1969, with the "Woodstock Music Festival held in "Bethel, New York—with 32 of "rock's and "psychedelic rock's most popular acts performing live outdoors during the sometimes rainy weekend to an audience of half a million people. ("Michael Lang stated 400,000 attended, half of which did not have a ticket.) It is widely regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history—with "Rolling Stone calling it one of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock and Roll. According to Bill Mankin, "It seems fitting… that one of the most enduring labels for the entire generation of that era was derived from a rock festival: the ‘Woodstock Generation’."
Sentiments were expressed in song lyrics and popular sayings of the period, such as "do your own thing", ""turn on, tune in, drop out", "whatever turns you on", ""Eight miles high", ""sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll", and ""light my fire". Spiritually, the counterculture included interest in "astrology, the term ""Age of Aquarius" and knowing people's "astrological signs of the "Zodiac. This led Theodore Roszak to state "A ["sic] eclectic taste for "mystic, "occult, and magical phenomena has been a marked characteristic of our "postwar youth culture since the days of the "beatniks." In the United States, even actor "Charlton Heston contributed to the movement, with the statement "Don't trust anyone over thirty" (a saying coined in 1965 by activist "Jack Weinberg) in the 1968 film "Planet of the Apes; the same year, actress and social activist "Jane Fonda starred in the sexually-themed "Barbarella. Both actors opposed the "Vietnam War during its duration, and Fonda would eventually become controversially active in the "peace movement.
The counterculture in the United States has been interpreted as lasting roughly from 1964 to 1972—coincident with America's involvement in Vietnam—and reached its peak in August 1969 at the Woodstock Festival, New York, characterized in part by the film Easy Rider (1969). Unconventional or psychedelic dress; political activism; public protests; campus uprisings; pacifist then loud, defiant music; drugs; "communitarian experiments, and "sexual liberation were hallmarks of the sixties counterculture—most of whose members were young, white and middle-class.
In 1967 thousands of young people flocked to the "Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. The counterculture lifestyle integrated many of the ideals and indulgences of the time: peace, love, harmony, music, and "mysticism. "Meditation, "yoga, and "psychedelic drugs were embraced as routes to expanding one's consciousness. In "Toronto, "Canada, the "Yorkville district served as a kind of Haight-Ashbury North, serving as another major hippie and musical crossroads. In Quebec, the Front de libération du Québec was in a quest for an independent "socialist "Quebec during the 1960s to early 1970s. The group, an example of some of the countercultures seeking to disrupt society, resorted to bombings, kidnappings and murder in order to try achieve their goal.
In the United States, the movement divided the population. To some Americans, these attributes reflected American ideals of "free speech, equality, "world peace, and the pursuit of happiness; to others, they reflected a self-indulgent, pointlessly rebellious, unpatriotic, and destructive assault on the country's traditional "moral order. Authorities banned the psychedelic drug "LSD, restricted political gatherings, and tried to enforce bans on what they considered "obscenity in books, music, theater, and other media.
The counterculture has been argued to have diminished in the early 1970s, and some have attributed two reasons for this. First, it has been suggested that the most popular of its political goals—"civil rights, "civil liberties, "gender equality, "environmentalism, and the end of the "Vietnam War—were "accomplished" (to at least some degree); and also that its most popular social attributes—particularly a "live and let live" mentality in personal lifestyles (the ""sexual revolution")—were co-opted by mainstream society. Second, a decline of idealism and "hedonism occurred as many notable counterculture figures died, the rest settled into mainstream society and started their own families, and the "magic economy" of the 1960s gave way to the "stagflation of the 1970s—the latter costing many in the middle-classes the luxury of being able to live outside conventional "social institutions. The counterculture, however, continues to influence "social movements, art, music, and society in general, and the post-1973 mainstream society has been in many ways a hybrid of the 1960s establishment and counterculture.
Starting in the late 1960s the "counterculture movement spread from the US like a wildfire. Britain did not experience the intense social turmoil Produced in America by the "Vietnam War and racial tensions. Nevertheless British youth readily identified with their American counterparts' desire to cast off the older generation's social mores. The new music was a powerful weapon. In this case, it took the form of a wholesale revolt against the class system, which was now being questioned for the first time in the nation's history. Rock music, which had first been introduced from the US in the 1950s, became a key instrument in the social uprisings of the young generation and Britain soon became a groundswell of musical talent thanks to groups like "the Beatles, "Rolling Stones, "The Who, "Pink Floyd, and more in coming years.
The antiwar movement in Britain closely collaborated with their American counterparts, supporting peasant insurgents in the Asian jungles. The ""Ban the Bomb" protests centered around opposition to "nuclear weaponry; the campaign gave birth to what was to become the "peace symbol of the 1960s.
Although not exactly equivalent to the English definition, the term Контркультура (Kontrkul'tura) became common in "Russian to define a 1990s "cultural movement that promoted acting outside of cultural conventions: the use of explicit language; graphical descriptions of sex, violence and illicit activities; and uncopyrighted use of "safe" characters involved in such activities.
During the early 1970s, the "Soviet government rigidly promoted optimism in Russian culture. Divorce and alcohol abuse were viewed as taboo by the media. However, Russian society grew weary of the gap between real life and the creative world,["citation needed] and underground culture became "forbidden fruit". General satisfaction with the quality of existing works led to parody, such as how the "Russian anecdotal joke tradition turned the setting of "War and Peace by "Leo Tolstoy into a grotesque world of sexual excess. Another well-known example is "black humor (mostly in the form of short poems) that dealt exclusively with funny deaths and/or other mishaps of small, innocent children.
In the mid-1980s, the "Glasnost policy permitted the production of less optimistic works. As a consequence, Russian cinema during the late 1980s and the early 1990s was "action movies with explicit (but not necessarily graphic) scenes of ruthless violence and social dramas about "drug abuse, "prostitution and failing relationships. Although Russian movies of the time would be "rated "R" in the United States due to violence, the use of explicit language was much milder than in American cinema.
In the late 1990s, Russian counterculture became increasingly popular on the "Internet. Several websites appeared that posted user-created short stories dealing with sex, drugs and violence. The following features are considered the most popular topics in such works:
- Wide use of explicit language;
- Deliberate misspelling;
- Descriptions of drug use and consequences of abuse;
- Negative portrayals of alcohol use;
- Sex and violence: nothing is a taboo – in general, violence is rarely advocated, while all types of sex are considered good;
- "Parody: media advertising, classic movies, "pop culture and children's books are considered fair game;
- Non-conformance; and
- "Politically incorrect topics, mostly "racism, "xenophobia and "homophobia.
A notable aspect of counterculture at the time was the influence of contra-cultural developments on Russian pop culture. In addition to traditional Russian styles of music, such as songs with jail-related lyrics, new music styles with explicit language were developed.
In the recent past, Dr. "Sebastian Kappen, an Indian theologian, has tried to redefine counterculture in the Asian context. In March 1990, at a seminar in Bangalore, he presented his countercultural perspectives (Chapter 4 in S. Kappen, Tradition, modernity, counterculture: an Asian perspective, Visthar, Bangalore, 1994). Dr. Kappen envisages counterculture as a new culture that has to negate the two opposing cultural phenomena in Asian countries:
- invasion by Western "capitalist culture, and
- the emergence of "revivalist movements.
Kappen writes, "Were we to succumb to the first, we should be losing our identity; if to the second, ours would be a false, obsolete identity in a mental universe of dead symbols and delayed myths".
The most important countercultural movement in "India had taken place in the state of "West Bengal during the 1960s by a group of poets and artists who called themselves "Hungryalists.
- "Deviance (sociology)
- "Dialectic of Enlightenment
- "Exi (subculture)
- "Freak scene
- "Guerrilla theatre
- "La Movida Madrileña
- "Punk subculture
- "Second-wave feminism
- "Timeline of 1960s counterculture
- "Underground (British subculture)
- Bennett, Andy (2012). Reappraising "counterculture". "Volume!, n°9-1, Nantes, Éditions Mélanie Seteun.
- Curl, John (2007), Memories of Drop City, The First Hippie Commune of the 1960s and the Summer of Love, a memoir, iUniverse. "ISBN 0-595-42343-4. http://www.red-coral.net/DropCityIndex.html
- Freud, S. (1905). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. (Vol. 7, pp. 123–245). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1905)
- Gelder, Ken (2007), Subcultures: Cultural Histories and Social Practice, London: Routledge.
- Goffman, Ken (2004), Counterculture through the ages Villard Books "ISBN 0-375-50758-2
- "Heath, Joseph and "Andrew Potter (2004) "Nation of Rebels: Why Counterculture Became Consumer Culture Collins Books "ISBN 0-06-074586-X
- Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo (2009), Daughters of Aquarius: Women of the Sixties Counterculture. University Press of Kansas. "ISBN 978-0700616336
- Hall, Stuart and Tony Jefferson (1991), Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain, London: Routledge.
- Hazlehurst, Cameron and Kayleen M. Hazlehurst (1998), Gangs and Youth Subcultures: International Explorations, New Brunswick & London: Transaction Publishers.
- Hebdige, Dick (1979), Subculture: the Meaning of Style, London & New York: Routledge.
- Paul Hodkinson and Wolfgang Deicke (2007), Youth Cultures Scenes, Subcultures and Tribes, New York: Routledge.
- Macfarlane, Scott (2007),The Hippie Narrative: A Literary Perspective on the Counterculture, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co Inc, "ISBN 0-7864-2915-1 & "ISBN 978-0-7864-2915-8.
- McKay, George (1996), Senseless Acts of Beauty: Cultures of Resistance since the Sixties. London Verso. "ISBN 1-85984-028-0.
- Nelson, Elizabeth (1989), The British Counterculture 1966-73: A Study of the Underground Press. London: Macmillan.
- "Roszak, Theodore (1968) "The Making of a Counter Culture.
- Isadora Tast (2009), Mother India. Searching For a Place. Berlin: Peperoni Books, "ISBN 978-3-941825-00-0
- Whiteley, Sheila (2012). Countercultures: Music, Theories & Scenes. "Volume!, n°9-1, Nantes, Éditions Mélanie Seteun.
- Whiteley, Sheila (2012). Countercultures: Utopias, Dystopias, Anarchy. "Volume!, n°9-1&2, Nantes, Éditions Mélanie Seteun.
- Whiteley, Sheila and Sklower, Jedediah (2014), Countercultures and Popular Music, Farnham: "Ashgate Publishing, "ISBN 978-1-4724-2106-7.
- Беляев, И. А. Культура, субкультура, контркультура / И. А. Беляев, Н. А. Беляева // Духовность и государственность. Сборник научных статей. Выпуск 3; под ред. И. А. Беляева. — Оренбург: Филиал УрАГС в г. Оренбурге, 2002. — С. 5-18.
- Yinger, John Milton (1982). Countercultures: The Promise and Peril of a World Turned Upside Down. New York: Free Press.
- "counterculture," Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, 2008, MWCCul.
- Eric Donald Hirsch. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Houghton Mifflin. "ISBN 0-395-65597-8. (1993) p 419. "Members of a cultural protest that began in the U.S. In the 1960s and Europe before fading in the 1970s... fundamentally a cultural rather than a "political protest."
- F.X. Shea, S.J., "Reason and the Religion of the Counter-Culture", "Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 66/1 (1973), pp. 95-111, JSTOR-3B2-X.
- “Contraculture and Subculture” by J. Milton Yinger, Source: American Sociological Review, Vol. 25, No. 5 (Oct., 1960) https://www.jstor.org/stable/2090136
- Gollin, Andrea (April 23, 2003). "Social critic Theodore Roszak *58 explores intolerance in new novel about gay Jewish writer". PAW Online. Retrieved June 21, 2008.
- "Roszak, Theodore, The Making of a Counter Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition, 1968/1969, Doubleday, New York, "ISBN 978-0-385-07329-5.
- His conception of the counterculture is discussed in Whiteley, 2012 & 2014 and Bennett, 2012.
- Gelder, Subcultures (2007) p. 4. "...to the banalities of mass cultural forms".
- Hodkinson and Deicke, Youth Cultures (2007), p. 205. "...opposition to, the middle-class establishment of adults."
- Hebdige, Subculture (1979), p.127. "defining themselves against the parent culture."
- Hall & Jefferson, Resistance Through Rituals (1991), p.61. "They make articulate their opposition to dominant values and institutions—even when, as frequently occurred, this does not take the form of an overtly political response."
- Hazlehurst & Hazlehurst, Gangs and Youth Subcultures (1998), p.59. "There does seem to be some general commitment towards antiauthoritarianism, a rejection of the traditional party political system which is considered irrelevant."
- Yablonsky, Lewis (1968), The Hippie Trip, New York: Western Publishing, Inc., "ISBN 978-0595001163, pp 21-37.
- Cf. Whiteley, 2012 & 2014.
- Cf. Andy Bennett, 2012.
- London a Map of the Underground
- Mushroom Books, Nottingham
- Founder of radical bookshop dies
- "Making Sense of Marcel Duchamp". www.understandingduchamp.com. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- "Many are finding this shocking piece hidden inside Banksy's 'Dismaland' gut-wrenching". Tech Insider. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- "Stop Fooling Yourself: Coachella Style Is Trash—"Counterculture" and "subculture" have been assimilated into a commercialized "pop culture" product". Complex CA. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Kornblum, William (January 31, 2011). Sociology in a Changing World. Cengage Learning. "ISBN "9781133172857.
- Hoffman, Amy (2007) An Army of Ex-Lovers: My life at the Gay Community News. University of Massachusetts Press. pp.xi-xiii. "ISBN 978-1558496217
- "Gay Liberation Front: Manifesto. London". 1978 .
- See "sodomy law for more information
- Freud 1992, pp. 423–424
- Kaiser, C (1997). The Gay Metropolis. New York: Harcourt Brace. "ISBN "0-15-600617-0.
- (2007) The 1970s, "ISBN 978-0-313-33919-6, p.203–204: "During the late 1960s various male counterculture groups, most notably gay, but also heterosexual black and Latino, created an alternative to rock'n'roll, which was dominated by white—and presumably heterosexual—men. This alternative was disco"
- Disco Double Take: New York Parties Like It's 1975. "Village Voice.com. Retrieved on August 9, 2009.
- What's That Sound? • W. W. Norton and Company, Inc.. What's That Sound? • W. W. Norton and Company, Inc. wwnorton.com. Retrieved on August 4, 2009
- MacArthur's Disco : Disco Clubs at DiscoMusic.com. Discotheques and Clubs of the 1970s/80s: "MacArthur's Disco". DiscoMusic.com. Retrieved on August 4, 2009.
- (1998) "The Cambridge History of American Music", "ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: "Initially, disco musicians and audiences alike belonged to marginalized communities: women, gay, black, and Latinos"
- (2002) "Traces of the Spirit: The Religious Dimensions of Popular Music", "ISBN 978-0-8147-9809-6, p.117: "New York City was the primary center of disco, and the original audience was primarily gay African Americans and Latinos."
- (1976) "Stereo Review", University of Michigan, p.75: "[..] and the result—what has come to be called disco—was clearly the most compelling and influential form of black commercial pop music since the halcyon days of the ""Motown Sound" of the middle Sixties."
- Shapiro, Peter. "Turn the Beat Around: The Rise and Fall of Disco", Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: "'Broadly speaking, the typical New York discotheque DJ is young (between 18 and 30), Italian, and gay,' journalist Vince Aletti declared in 1975...Remarkably, almost all of the important early DJs were of Italian extraction...Italian Americans have played a significant role in America's dance music culture...While Italian Americans mostly from Brooklyn largely created disco from scratch..." .
- Allmusic Disco genre
- Allmusic bio The Village People
- Allmusic bio Sylvester
- Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):719.
- Lord, A., and Zajicek, A. M. "The history of the contemporary grassroots women's movement in northwest Arkansas, 1970–2000." Fayetteville, AR
- Polletta, Francesca. "Free Spaces in Collective Action" Theory and Society, 28/1. (Feb 1999):1.
- Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):720-722.
- Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):720-719.
- Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land". Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):729.
- Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):734.
- Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land". Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):732.
- Conger, J. J. (1975) "Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the Annual meeting of the Council of Representatives." American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.
- Triumph of the New "Newsweek on Campus reprinted by the "Michigan Daily March 2, 1984
- Rip it Up and Start Again Post Punk 1978-1984 by "Simon Reynolds United States Edition pp. 332-352
- Cateforis, Theo. Are We Not New Wave Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. The University of Michigan Press, 2011. "ISBN 0-472-03470-7.
- "LAWRENCE ET AL. v. TEXAS" (PDF). June 26, 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
- Bill Osgerby, "Youth Culture" in Paul Addison and Harriet Jones, eds. A Companion to Contemporary Britain: 1939-2000 (2005) pp 127–44, quote at p. 132.
- Mary Works Covington, Rockin' At the Red Dog: The Dawn of Psychedelic Rock, 2005.
- "Krugman, Paul (2007). "The Conscience of a Liberal. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. "ISBN "0-393-06069-1. Chapter 5. Economist Paul Krugman comments on the effects of the economy on the counterculture: "In fact," he argues, "you have to wonder whether the "Nixon "recession of 1969-1971 [which nearly doubled the "unemployment rate] didn't do more to end the "hippie movement than the killings at "Altamont."
- Carlos Santana: I’m Immortal interview by Punto Digital, October 13, 2010
- "State Investigating Handling of Tickets At Woodstock Fair". New York Times. August 27, 1969. p. 45.
- "Woodstock in 1969". Rolling Stone. June 24, 2004. Retrieved April 17, 2008.
- Mankin, Bill. We Can All Join In: How Rock Festivals Helped Change America. Like the Dew. 2012.
- Riech, Robert (2004). "Reason: Why Liberals Will Win the Battle for America. Alfred A. Knopf. "ISBN "1-4000-4221-6. Chapter 1, pp. 13-14
- Ankony, Robert C., "Counterculture of the 1960s," Criminology Brief of Theorists, Theories, and Terms, CFM Research, Jul. 2012. p.36.
- Henderson, Stuart (2011). Making the Scene: Yorkville and Hip Toronto in the 1960s and the year was. University of Toronto Press. "ISBN "978-1-4426-1071-2.
- Macionis, Gerber, John, Linda (2010). Sociology 7th Canadian Ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Inc. pp. 71
- Yenne, Bill (1989). The Beatles. Longmeadow Press. "ISBN "0-681-00576-9. pp. 46-55
- Elizabeth Nelson, The British Counter-Culture, 1966-73: A Study of the Underground Press (1989) excerpt
- Steven D. Stark, Meet the Beatles: a cultural history of the band that shook youth, gender, and the world (2005).
- Barry J. Faulk, British rock modernism, 1967-1977: the story of music hall in rock (2016).
- William Osgerby, Youth in Britain since 1945 (1998)
- Sylvia A. Ellis, "Promoting solidarity at home and abroad: the goals and tactics of the anti-Vietnam War movement in Britain." European Review of History: Revue européenne d’histoire 21.4 (2014): 557-576.
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