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A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an "Internet "top-level domain generally used or reserved for a "country, sovereign state, or "dependent territory identified with a "country code.

All "ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs. In 2010, the "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing "internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to "ISO 3166-1 "alpha-2 "country codes.



As of 2015, IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[1]

Delegation and management[edit]

IANA is responsible for determining an appropriate trustee for each ccTLD. Administration and control is then delegated to that trustee, which is responsible for the policies and operation of the domain. The current delegation can be determined from IANA's list of ccTLDs. Individual ccTLDs may have varying requirements and fees for registering "subdomains. There may be a local presence requirement (for instance, citizenship or other connection to the ccTLD), as for example the "Canadian ("ca) and "German ("de) domains, or registration may be open.


The first registered ccTLDs were ".us, ".uk, and ".il, all registered in 1985. In 1986, ".au, ".de, ".fi, ".fr, ".jp, ".kr, ".nl and ".se were registered.

Relation to ISO 3166-1[edit]

The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.

Unused ISO 3166-1 codes[edit]

Almost all current ISO 3166-1 codes have been assigned and do exist in DNS. However, some of these are effectively unused. In particular, the ccTLDs for the Norwegian dependency "Bouvet Island ("bv) and the designation "Svalbard and Jan Mayen ("sj) do exist in DNS, but no subdomains have been assigned, and it is "Norid policy not to assign any at present. Two "French territories, "bl ("Saint Barthélemy) and "mf ("Saint Martin), still await local assignment by France's government.

The code "eh, although eligible as ccTLD for "Western Sahara, has never been assigned and does not exist in "DNS. Only one subdomain is still registered in "gb[3]["not in citation given ("See discussion.)] (ISO 3166-1 for the "United Kingdom) and no new registrations are being accepted for it. Sites in the United Kingdom generally use "uk (see below).

The former ".um ccTLD for the "U.S. Minor Outlying Islands was removed in April 2008. Under RFC 1591 rules ".um is eligible as a ccTLD on request by the relevant governmental agency and local Internet user community.

ASCII ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1[edit]

Several ASCII ccTLDs are in use that are not ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes. Some of these codes were specified in older versions of the ISO list.

Historical ccTLDs[edit]

There are three ccTLDs that have been deleted after the corresponding 2-letter code was withdrawn from ISO 3166-1: "cs (for "Czechoslovakia), "zr (for "Zaire) and "tp (for "East Timor). There may be a significant delay between withdrawal from ISO 3166-1 and deletion from the DNS; for example, ZR ceased to be an ISO 3166-1 code in 1997, but the zr ccTLD was not deleted until 2001. Other ccTLDs corresponding to obsolete ISO 3166-1 codes have not yet been deleted. In some cases they may never be deleted due to the amount of disruption this would cause for a heavily used ccTLD. In particular, the Soviet Union's ccTLD "su remains in use more than twenty years after SU was removed from ISO 3166-1.

The historical country codes "dd for the "German Democratic Republic and yd for "South Yemen were eligible for a ccTLD, but not allocated; see also "de and "ye.

The temporary reassignment of country code cs ("Serbia and Montenegro) until its split into "rs and "me ("Serbia and "Montenegro, respectively) led to some controversies[4][5] about the stability of ISO 3166-1 country codes, resulting in a second edition of ISO 3166-1 in 2007 with a guarantee that retired codes will not be reassigned for at least 50 years, and the replacement of RFC 3066 by RFC 4646 for country codes used in "language tags in 2006.

The previous ISO 3166-1 code for "Yugoslavia, YU, was removed by ISO on 2003-07-23, but the "yu ccTLD remained in operation. Finally, after a two-year transition to Serbian "rs and Montenegrin "me, the .yu domain was phased out in March 2010.

Australia was originally assigned the "oz country code, which was later changed to "au with the .oz domains moved to

Internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

An "internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such as a "web browser, in its language-native script or "alphabet, such as the "Arabic alphabet, or a non-alphabetic "writing system, such as "Chinese characters. IDN ccTLDs are an application of the "internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, or independent geographic regions.

ICANN started to accept applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009,[6] and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names for the countries of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 languages.[7]

ICANN requires all potential international TLDs to use at least one letter that does not resemble a Latin letter, or have at least three letters, in an effort to avoid "IDN homograph attacks. Nor shall the international domain name look like another domain name, even if they have different alphabets. Between Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, for example, this could happen.

Unconventional usage[edit]

Lenient registration restrictions on certain ccTLDs have resulted in various "domain hacks. Domain names such as,, and form well-known English phrases, whereas others combine the "second-level domain and ccTLD to form one word or one title, creating domains such as " of "South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ("gs), " of "Belgium ("be), " of the "United States ("us), and " of "Tonga ("to). The .co domain of Colombia has been cited since 2010 as a potential competitor to generic TLDs for commercial use, because it may be an abbreviation for company.[8]

Several ccTLDs allow the creation of "emoji domains.

Some ccTLDs may also be used for "typosquatting. The domain cm of "Cameroon has generated interest due to the possibility that people might miss typing the letter o for sites in the com.[9]

Commercial usage[edit]

Some of the world's smallest countries and non-sovereign or colonial entities with their own country codes have opened their TLDs for worldwide commercial use, some of them free like ".tk.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "IANA root zone database". Retrieved 2015-11-10. 
  2. ^ "Jon Postel (March 1994). "RFC 1591 - Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  3. ^ "DNS loookup for". 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-03. 
  4. ^ Leslie Daigle (2003-09-24). "IAB input related to the .cs code in ISO 3166". "IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  5. ^ Leslie Daigle (2003-09-24). "IAB comment on stability of ISO 3166 and other infrastructure standards". "IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  6. ^ "ICANN Bringing the Languages of the World to the Global Internet" (Press release). Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 30 October 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2009. 
  7. ^ "'Historic' day as first non-Latin web addresses go live". BBC News. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  8. ^ "General .CO FAQs: What makes .CO such a unique opportunity?". Colombia: .CO Internet S.A.S. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  9. ^ "The man who owns the Internet". CNN Money. 2007-06-01. Retrieved 2010-11-05. 

External links[edit]

Related websites

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