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Apple pie, baseball, and the United States flag are three American cultural icons
A cultural icon is an "artifact that is identified by members of a culture as representative of that culture. The process of identification is subjective, and "icons" are judged by the extent to which they can be seen as an authentic proxy of that culture. When individuals perceive a cultural icon, they relate it to their general perceptions of the cultural identity represented. Cultural icons can also be identified as an authentic representation of the practices of one culture by another.
In the "media, many items and persons of "popular culture have been called "iconic" despite their lack of durability; and the term ""pop icon" is often now used. Some commentators believe that the word is overused or misused.
A web-based survey was set up in 2006 allowing the public to nominate their ideas for "national icons of England and the results reflect the range of different types of icon associated with an English view of English culture. Some examples are:
"Matryoshka dolls are seen internationally as cultural icons of "Russia. In the former "Soviet Union, the "hammer and sickle symbol and statues of "Vladimir Lenin instead represented the country's most prominent cultural icons.
The values, norms and ideals represented by a cultural icon vary both among people who subscribe to it, and more widely among other people who may interpret cultural icons as symbolising quite different values. Thus an "apple pie is a cultural icon of the "United States, but its significance varies among Americans.
National icons can become targets for those opposing or criticising a regime, for example, crowds destroying statues of Lenin in Eastern Europe after the fall of communism or burning the "American flag to protest US actions abroad.
"Religious icons can also become cultural icons in societies where religion and culture are deeply entwined, such as representations of the "Madonna in societies with a strong Catholic tradition.
Describing something as iconic or as an icon has become very common in the popular media. This has drawn criticism from some: a writer in "Liverpool Daily Post calls "iconic" "a word that makes my flesh creep", a word "pressed into service to describe almost anything." The "Christian Examiner nominates "iconic" in its list of overused words, finding over 18,000 "iconic" references in news stories alone, with another 30,000 for "icon", including its use for "SpongeBob SquarePants.
- ^ Grayson, Kent; Martinec, Radan (2004-09-01). "Consumer Perceptions of Iconicity and Indexicality and Their Influence on Assessments of Authentic Market Offerings". Journal of Consumer Research. 31 (2): 296–312. "doi:10.1086/422109. "ISSN 0093-5301.
- ^ Motley, Carol M.; Henderson, Geraldine Rosa (2008-03-01). "The global hip-hop Diaspora: Understanding the culture". Journal of Business Research. Cross-Cultural Business Research. 61 (3): 243–253. "doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.06.020.
- ^ Heard about the famous icon? We have - far too often, The Independent (London), January 27, 2007
- ^ "Our Collection". icons.org.uk. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
- ^ a b c d British Postal Museum & Archive: Icons of England. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- ^ Holloway, J Christopher; Taylor, Neil. The Business of Tourism (7th ed., 2006 (First published 1983) ed.). Pearson Education. p. 217.
- ^ McManus, Erwin Raphael (2001). An Unstoppable Force: Daring to Become the Church God Had in Mind. Flagship Church Resources. p. 113.
- ^ BBC: Tea steams ahead in icon hunt. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- ^ Thorne, Tony (2011). The 100 Words that Make the English. Cuppa. Hachette Digital (e-book).
- ^ a b Jenkins, Simon; Dean Godson (editor) (October 2005). "Replacing the Routemaster" (PDF). p. 7. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- ^ a b c Culture24: Icons of England. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- ^ O'Neill, Brendan (2 April 2009). "Gulf News / Christian Science Monitor". To save a past that rings a bell. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- ^ Parker, Mike (2012). Cultural Icons: A Case Study Analysis of their Formation and Reception (PhD Thesis). Chapter 5: The Spitfire Aircraft. University of Central Lancashire. pp. 123–167.
- ^ Bobo, Suzanna (25 December 2012). "Scuttlebutt: Wooden toy tells a story of love and industry". Kodiak Daily Mirror. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- ^ Jones, Jonathan (December 9, 2013). "Why smashing statues can be the sweetest revenge". Guardian.
- ^ Laessing, ulf (September 14, 2012). "Anti-American fury sweeps Middle East over film". Reuters.
- ^ Anthony B Pinn and Benjamin Valentin, eds. (2009). Creating Ourselves, African Americans and Hispanic Americans on popular culture and religious expression. Duke University Press.
- ^ Let's hear it for the Queen's English, "Liverpool Daily Post
- ^ Modern word usage amazingly leaves us yearning for gay, old times Archived 2010-12-25 at the "Wayback Machine., "Christian Examiner
- Biedermann, Hans (1994). Dictionary of Symbolism: Cultural Icons and the Meanings Behind Them. Meridan.
- Brooker, Will (2001). Batman Unmasked: Analysing a Cultural Icon. Continuum.
- Edwards, Peter; Karl Enenkel, and Elspeth Graham (editors) (2011). The Horse as Cultural Icon: The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World. Brill.
- Foudy, Julie; Leslie Heywood; Shari L Dworkin (2003). Built to Win: The Female Athlete as Cultural Icon. University of Minnesota Press.
- Gilbert, Erik (2008). The Dhow as Cultural Icon. Boston University.* Heyer, Paul (2012). Titanic Century: Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Praeger.
- Heyer, Paul (2012). Titanic Century: Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Praeger.
- Meyer, Denis C. (2010). Cles Pour la France en 80 Icones Culturelles. Hachette.
- Nelkin, Dorothy; M Susan Lindee (2004). The DNA Mystique: The Gene as a Cultural Icon. University of Michigan Press.
- Reydams-Schils, Gretchen J (2003). Plato's Timaeus as Cultural Icon. University of Notre Dame Press.