Dag Hammarskjöld in 1959
|2nd "Secretary-General of the United Nations|
10 April 1953 – 18 September 1961
|Preceded by||"Trygve Lie|
|Succeeded by||"U Thant|
|Born||Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld
29 July 1905
"Jönköping, "United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway
(now Jönköping, "Sweden)
|Died||18 September 1961
"Ndola, "Northern Rhodesia, "Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
(now Ndola, "Zambia)
|"Alma mater||"Uppsala University
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (Swedish: "[dɑːɡ ²hamarˌɧœld] ("" listen); 29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish diplomat, economist, and author who served as the second "Secretary-General of the United Nations from April 1953 until his death in a plane crash in September 1961. At the age of 47 years upon his appointment, Hammarskjöld was the youngest to have held the post. Additionally, he is one of only four people to be awarded a posthumous "Nobel Prize and was the only United Nations Secretary-General to die while in office. He was killed in a "DC-6 airplane crash en route to "cease-fire negotiations during the "Congo Crisis.
Hammarskjöld has been referred to as one of the two best secretaries-general of the United Nations, and his appointment has been mentioned as the most notable success for the UN. "United States President "John F. Kennedy called Hammarskjöld "the greatest statesman of our century."
Dag Hammarskjöld was born in "Jönköping to the noble family Hammarskjöld (also spelled Hammarskiöld or Hammarsköld). He spent most of his childhood in "Uppsala. His home there, which he considered his childhood home, was "Uppsala Castle. He was the fourth and youngest son of "Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, "Prime Minister of Sweden from 1914 to 1917, and Agnes Hammarskjöld (née Almquist).
Hammarskjöld's family was ennobled in 1610 due to deeds of the warrior Peder Mikaelsson (after 1610) Hammarskiöld (approximately 1560 - 12 April 1646), an officer in the cavalry who fought for both sides in the "War against Sigismund, where he took the name Hammarskiöld at his ennobling. Hammarskjöld's ancestors had served the "Monarchy of Sweden since the "17th century.["citation needed]
Hammarskjöld studied first at "Katedralskolan and then at "Uppsala University. By 1930, he had obtained "Licentiate of Philosophy and Master of Laws degrees. Before he finished his law degree he had already obtained a job as Assistant Secretary of the Unemployment Committee.
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From 1930 to 1934, Hammarskjöld was Secretary of a governmental committee on unemployment. During this time he wrote his economics thesis, "Konjunkturspridningen" ("The Spread of the Business Cycle"), and received a "doctorate from "Stockholm University.["dead link] In 1936, he became secretary of the "Sveriges Riksbank and was soon promoted. From 1941 to 1948, he served as chairman of the bank.["citation needed]
Hammarskjöld quickly developed a successful career as a Swedish public servant. He was secretary of the Riksbank (the "central bank of Sweden) 1935–1941, state secretary in the Ministry of Finance 1936–1945, governor of the Riksbank 1941–1948, Swedish delegate to the OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation) 1947–1953, cabinet secretary for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1949–1951 and "minister without portfolio in "Tage Erlander's government 1951–1953.["dead link]
He helped coordinate government plans to alleviate the economic problems of the post-"World War II period and was a delegate to the Paris conference that established the "Marshall Plan. In 1950, he became head of the Swedish delegation to UNISCAN, a forum to promote economic cooperation between the United Kingdom and the Scandinavian countries. Although Hammarskjöld served in a cabinet dominated by the "Social Democrats, he never officially joined any political party.["citation needed]
In 1951, Hammarskjöld was vice chairman of the Swedish delegation to the "United Nations General Assembly in Paris. He became the chairman of the Swedish delegation to the "General Assembly in New York in 1952. On 20 December 1954, he was elected to take his father's vacated seat in the "Swedish Academy.["citation needed]
On 10 November 1952 "Trygve Lie announced his resignation as "Secretary-General of the United Nations. Several months of debate and negotiations between the Western powers and the Soviet Union in the "UN Security Council ensued, during which many successors were suggested but no compromise was reached. On 23 March 1953 British Foreign Secretary "Anthony Eden, acquainted with Hammarskjöld from his service at the Organization for European Economic Cooperation and impressed by his work there, recommended him to the United Kingdom's ambassador to the UN, "Gladwyn Jebb. Jebb, who did not know Hammarskjöld very well, in turn passed the suggestion to "Henri Hoppenot, France's permanent representative to the Security Council. The Americans and the Soviets were not well acquainted with Hammarskjöld either. They hoped to seat a secretary-general that would focus on administrative issues and refrain from participating in political discussion. Hammarskjöld's reputation at the time was, in the words of biographer Emery Kelèn, "that of a brilliant economist, an unobtrusive technician, and an aristro-bureaucrat". As a result, there was little to no controversy in his recommendation; the Soviet permanent representative, "Valerian Zorin, found Hammarskjöld "harmless". The United Kingdom, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union secretly negotiated his nomination as a compromise. On 31 March Hammarskjöld's name was officially submitted to the Security Council for a vote. The other council members were unaware of the discussions between the world powers and were surprised by the recommendation. Regardless, he won the nomination with 10 votes in favor, none in opposition, and one abstention (from the "Republic of China, which was upset with Sweden's diplomatic recognition of the "People's Republic of China).
Hammarskjöld first heard of his nomination via a phone call that night from a Stockholm journalist.[a] He initially did not believe the news, though more calls from the media eventually convinced him it was true. The Swedish mission in New York confirmed the nomination at 03:00 and a communique from the Security Council was soon thereafter delivered to him. Following consultation with the Swedish cabinet and his father, Hammarskjöld decided to accept the nomination. He sent a wire to the Security Council:
"With strong feeling personal insufficiency I hesitate to accept candidature but I do not feel I could refuse to assume the task imposed on me should the [UN General] Assembly follow the recommendation of the Security Council by which I feel deeply honoured."
Later in the day Hammarskjöld held a press conference at the Swedish Foreign Ministry. According to diplomat "Sverker Åström, he displayed an intense interest and knowledge in the affairs of the UN which he had never indicated he had before. The UN General Assembly elected Hammarskjöld on 7 April with 57 votes out of 59. He was sworn in as Secretary-General on 10 April 1953. He was unanimously reelected on 26 September 1957 for another term, taking effect on 10 April 1958.
Immediately following the assumption of the Secretariat, Hammarskjöld attempted to establish a good rapport with his staff. He made a point in going to every UN department to shake hands with as many workers as possible, eating in the cafeteria as often as possible, and relinquishing the Secretary-General's private elevator for general use. He began his term by establishing his own secretariat of 4,000 administrators and setting up regulations that defined their responsibilities. He was also actively engaged in smaller projects relating to the UN working environment. For example, he planned and supervised every detail in the creation of a "meditation room" at the "UN headquarters. This is a place dedicated to silence, where people can withdraw into themselves, regardless of their faith, creed, or religion.
During his term, Hammarskjöld tried to smooth relations between "Israel and the "Arab states. Other highlights include a 1955 visit to "China to negotiate the release of 11 captured US pilots who had served in the "Korean War, the 1956 establishment of the "United Nations Emergency Force, and his intervention in the 1956 "Suez Crisis. He is given credit by some historians for allowing participation of the "Holy See within the United Nations that year.
In 1960, the former "Belgian Congo and then newly independent "Congo asked for UN aid in defusing the "Congo Crisis. Hammarskjöld made four trips to Congo, but his efforts toward the decolonisation of Africa were considered insufficient by the "Soviet Union; in September 1960, the Soviet government denounced his decision to send a UN emergency force to keep the peace. They demanded his resignation and the replacement of the office of Secretary-General by a three-man directorate with a built-in veto, the ""troika." The objective was, citing the memoirs of Soviet leader "Nikita Khrushchev, to "equally represent interests of three groups of countries: capitalist, socialist and recently independent."
In September 1961, Hammarskjöld learned about fighting between UN forces and "Moise Tshombe's "Katangese troops. Hammarskjöld was en route to negotiate a "cease-fire on 18 September when his "Douglas DC-6 airliner "SE-BDY crashed with no survivors near "Ndola, "Northern Rhodesia (now "Zambia). Hammarskjöld and 15 others perished in the crash, whose circumstances are still unclear. There is some evidence that suggests the plane was shot down. Hammarskjöld's death set off a succession crisis at the United Nations, as there was no line of succession and the Security Council had to "vote on a successor.
Göran Björkdahl (a Swedish aid worker) wrote in 2011 that he believed Dag Hammarskjöld's death was a murder committed, in part, to benefit mining companies like "Union Minière, after Hammarskjöld had made the UN intervene in the Katanga crisis. Björkdahl based his assertion on interviews with witnesses of the plane crash, near the border of the DRC with Zambia, and on archival documents. Former U.S. President "Harry Truman commented that Hammarskjöld "was on the point of getting something done when they killed him. Notice that I said 'when they killed him'."
On 16 March 2015, United Nations Secretary-General "Ban Ki-moon appointed members to an Independent Panel of Experts which would examine new information related to Hammarskjöld's death. The three-member panel, led by "Mohamed Chande Othman, the "Chief Justice of Tanzania, also included Kerryn Macaulay (Australia's representative to ICAO) and Henrik Larsen (a ballistics expert from the Danish National Police). The panel's 99-page report, released 6 July 2015, assigned "moderate" value to nine new eyewitness accounts and transcripts of radio transmissions. Those accounts suggested that Hammarskjöld's plane was already on fire as it landed, and that other jet aircraft and intelligence agents were nearby.
Over the years, multiple claims have been made that the plane was shot down, and that Hammarskjöld was actually killed in an assassination plot involving some combination of the CIA, MI6, a Belgian Mining Company, a South African paramilitary unit, because he was pushing for the Congo’s independence, which would have hurt the interests of any of those forces. Documents suggesting CIA involvement came to light when the "South African National Intelligence Agency turned over a file to the "South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission related to the 1993 assassination of "Chris Hani, the leader of the South African Communist Party. These documents included an alleged plot to "remove" Hammarskjöld and contained a supposed statement from CIA director "Allen Dulles that: "Dag is becoming troublesome … and should be removed." However the authenticity of these documents has not been established.
Following his appointment as UN Secretary-General, Hammarskjöld carried a copy of the oath of office with him on his travels. It was found in one of his books in the Ndola crash site.
In 1953, soon after his appointment as United Nations Secretary-General, Hammarskjöld was interviewed on radio by "Edward R. Murrow. In this talk Hammarskjöld declared:
But the explanation of how man should live a life of active social service in full harmony with himself as a member of the community of spirit, I found in the writings of those great medieval mystics ["Meister Eckhart and "Jan van Ruysbroek] for whom 'self-surrender' had been the way to self-realization, and who in 'singleness of mind' and 'inwardness' had found strength to say yes to every demand which the needs of their neighbours made them face, and to say yes also to every fate life had in store for them when they followed the call of duty as they understood it.
Hammarskjöld's only book, "Vägmärken (Markings), was published in 1963. A collection of his diary reflections, the book starts in 1925, when he was 20 years old, and ends the month before his death in 1961. This diary was found in his New York house, after his death, along with an undated letter addressed to then Swedish Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Leif Belfrage. In this letter, Hammarskjöld wrote:
These entries provide the only true 'profile' that can be drawn ... If you find them worth publishing, you have my permission to do so.
Markings was described by the late theologian, Henry P. Van Dusen, as "the noblest self-disclosure of spiritual struggle and triumph, perhaps the greatest testament of personal faith written ... in the heat of professional life and amidst the most exacting responsibilities for "world peace and order." Hammarskjöld wrote, for example:
We are not permitted to choose the frame of our destiny. But what we put into it is ours. He who wills adventure will experience it – according to the measure of his courage. He who wills sacrifice will be sacrificed – according to the measure of his purity of heart.
Markings is characterised by Hammarskjöld's intermingling of prose and "haiku poetry in a manner exemplified by the 17th-century Japanese poet "Basho in his "Narrow Roads to the Deep North. In his foreword to Markings, the English poet "W. H. Auden quotes Hammarskjöld as stating:
In our age, the road to holiness necessarily passes through the world of action.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates the life of Hammarskjöld as a renewer of society, on the anniversary of his death, 18 September.["citation needed]
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|Positions in intergovernmental organisations|
" "Trygve Lie
|" "United Nations Secretary-General
April 1953 – September 1961
" "U Thant
|Awards and achievements|
|"Laureate of the "Nobel Peace Prize