Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (Swedish: "[dɑːɡ ²hamarˌɧœld] ("" listen); 29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a "Swedish diplomat, economist, and author who served as the second "Secretary-General of the "United Nations, from April 1953 until his death in a plane crash in September 1961. At the age of 47 years upon his appointment, Hammarskjöld was the youngest to have held the post. Additionally, he is one of only four people to be awarded a posthumous "Nobel Prize and was the only United Nations Secretary-General to die while in office. He was killed in a Douglas DC-6 airplane "crash en route to "cease-fire negotiations. Hammarskjöld has been referred to as one of the two best secretaries-general, and his appointment has been mentioned as the most notable success for the UN. "United States President "John F. Kennedy called Hammarskjöld "the greatest statesman of our century."
Early life and education
Dag Hammarskjöld was born in "Jönköping to the noble family Hammarskjöld (alternatively spelt Hammarskiöld or Hammarsköld). His family was ennobled in 1610 due to deeds of the warrior Peder Mikaelsson (after 1610) Hammarskiöld (approximately 1560 - 12 April 1646), an officer in the cavalry who fought for both sides in the "War against Sigismund, where he took the name Hammarskiöld at his ennobling. Dag Hammarskjöd spent most of his childhood in "Uppsala. His home there, which he considered his childhood home, was "Uppsala Castle. The fourth and youngest son of "Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, "Prime Minister of Sweden from 1914 to 1917, and Agnes Hammarskjöld (née Almquist), Hammarskjöld's ancestors had served the "Monarchy of Sweden since the 17th century.
Hammarskjöld studied first at "Katedralskolan and then at "Uppsala University. By 1930, he had obtained "Licentiate of Philosophy and Master of Laws degrees. Before he finished his law degree he had already obtained a job as Assistant Secretary of the Unemployment Committee.
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From 1930 to 1934, Hammarskjöld was Secretary of a governmental committee on unemployment. During this time he wrote his economics thesis, "Konjunkturspridningen" ("The Spread of the Business Cycle"), and received a "doctorate from "Stockholm University. In 1936, he became secretary of the "Sveriges Riksbank and was soon promoted. From 1941 to 1948, he served as chairman of the bank.
Hammarskjöld quickly developed a successful career as a Swedish public servant. He was secretary of the Riksbank (the "central bank of Sweden) 1935–1941, state secretary in the Ministry of Finance 1936–1945, governor of the Riksbank 1941–1948, Swedish delegate to the OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation) 1947–1953, cabinet secretary for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1949–1951 and "minister without portfolio in "Tage Erlander's government 1951–1953.
He helped coordinate government plans to alleviate the economic problems of the post-"World War II period and was a delegate to the Paris conference that established the "Marshall Plan. In 1950, he became head of the Swedish delegation to UNISCAN, a forum to promote economic cooperation between the United Kingdom and the Scandinavian countries. Although Hammarskjöld served in a cabinet dominated by the "Social Democrats, he never officially joined any political party.
In 1951, Hammarskjöld was vice chairman of the Swedish delegation to the "United Nations General Assembly in Paris. He became the chairman of the Swedish delegation to the "General Assembly in New York in 1952. On 20 December 1954, he was elected to take his father's vacated seat in the "Swedish Academy.
United Nations Secretary-General
When "Trygve Lie resigned from his post as "UN Secretary-General in 1953, the "United Nations Security Council recommended Hammarskjöld to succeed him. It came as a surprise to Hammarskjöld. Seen as a competent "technocrat without political views, he was selected on 31 March by a majority of 10 out of 11 Security Council members. The UN General Assembly elected him in the 7–10 April session by 57 votes out of 60. In 1957, he was re-elected.
Hammarskjöld began his term by establishing his own secretariat of 4,000 administrators and setting up regulations that defined their responsibilities. He was also actively engaged in smaller projects relating to the UN working environment. For example, he planned and supervised every detail in the creation of a "meditation room" at the "UN headquarters. This is a place dedicated to silence, where people can withdraw into themselves, regardless of their faith, creed, or religion.
During his term, Hammarskjöld tried to smooth relations between "Israel and the "Arab states. Other highlights include a 1955 visit to "China to negotiate the release of 11 captured US pilots who had served in the "Korean War, the 1956 establishment of the "United Nations Emergency Force, and his intervention in the 1956 "Suez Crisis. He is given credit by some historians for allowing participation of the "Holy See within the United Nations that year.
In 1960, the former "Belgian Congo and then newly independent "Congo asked for UN aid in defusing the "Congo Crisis. Hammarskjöld made four trips to Congo, but his efforts toward the decolonisation of Africa were considered insufficient by the "Soviet Union; in September 1960, the Soviet government denounced his decision to send a UN emergency force to keep the peace. They demanded his resignation and the replacement of the office of Secretary-General by a three-man directorate with a built-in veto, the ""troika." The objective was, citing the memoirs of Soviet leader "Nikita Khrushchev, to "equally represent interests of three groups of countries: capitalist, socialist and recently independent."
Flight path of Hammarskjöld's aircraft (pink line) and the decoy (black line), September 1961
In September 1961, Hammarskjöld learned about fighting between "non-combatant" UN forces and "Moise Tshombe's "Katangese troops. Hammarskjöld was en route to negotiate a "cease-fire on 18 September when his "Douglas DC-6 airliner "SE-BDY crashed with no survivors near "Ndola, "Northern Rhodesia (now "Zambia). Hammarskjöld and 15 others perished in the crash, whose circumstances are still unclear. There is some evidence that suggests the plane was shot down.
Göran Björkdahl (a Swedish aid worker) wrote in 2011 that he believed Dag Hammarskjöld's death was a murder committed, in part, to benefit mining companies like "Union Minière, after Hammarskjöld had made the UN intervene in the Katanga crisis. Björkdahl based his assertion on interviews with witnesses of the plane crash, near the border of the DRC with Zambia, and on archival documents. Former U.S. President "Harry Truman commented that Hammarskjöld "was on the point of getting something done when they killed him. Notice that I said 'when they killed him'."
On 16 March 2015, United Nations Secretary-General "Ban Ki-moon appointed members to an Independent Panel of Experts which would examine new information related to Hammarskjöld's death. The three-member panel, led by "Mohamed Chande Othman, the "Chief Justice of Tanzania, also included Kerryn Macaulay (Australia's representative to ICAO) and Henrik Larsen (a ballistics expert from the Danish National Police). The panel's 99-page report, released 6 July 2015, assigned "moderate" value to nine new eyewitness accounts and transcripts of radio transmissions. Those accounts suggested that Hammarskjöld's plane was already on fire as it landed, and that other jet aircraft and intelligence agents were nearby.
Spirituality and Markings
In 1953, soon after his appointment as United Nations Secretary-General, Hammarskjöld was interviewed on radio by "Edward R. Murrow. In this talk Hammarskjöld declared: "But the explanation of how man should live a life of active social service in full harmony with himself as a member of the community of spirit, I found in the writings of those great medieval mystics ["Meister Eckhart and "Jan van Ruysbroek] for whom 'self-surrender' had been the way to self-realization, and who in 'singleness of mind' and 'inwardness' had found strength to say yes to every demand which the needs of their neighbours made them face, and to say yes also to every fate life had in store for them when they followed the call of duty as they understood it."
Hammarskjöld's only book, "Vägmärken (Markings), was published in 1963. A collection of his diary reflections, the book starts in 1925, when he was 20 years old, and ends the month before his death in 1961. This diary was found in his New York house, after his death, along with an undated letter addressed to then Swedish Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Leif Belfrage. In this letter, Hammarskjöld wrote: "These entries provide the only true 'profile' that can be drawn ... If you find them worth publishing, you have my permission to do so". The foreword is written by "W.H. Auden, a friend of Hammarskjöld's.
Markings was described by the late theologian, Henry P. Van Dusen, as "the noblest self-disclosure of spiritual struggle and triumph, perhaps the greatest testament of personal faith written ... in the heat of professional life and amidst the most exacting responsibilities for "world peace and order." Hammarskjöld wrote, for example, "We are not permitted to choose the frame of our destiny. But what we put into it is ours. He who wills adventure will experience it – according to the measure of his courage. He who wills sacrifice will be sacrificed – according to the measure of his purity of heart."
Markings is characterised by Hammarskjöld's intermingling of prose and "haiku poetry in a manner exemplified by the 17th-century Japanese poet "Basho in his "Narrow Roads to the Deep North. In his foreword to Markings, the English poet "W. H. Auden quotes Hammarskjöld as stating: "In our age, the road to holiness necessarily passes through the world of action."
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates the life of Hammarskjöld as a renewer of society, on the anniversary of his death, 18 September.
- Hammarskjöld posthumously received the "Nobel Peace Prize in 1961, having been nominated before his death.
- Honorary degrees: "Carleton University in Ottawa (then called Carleton College) awarded its first-ever honorary degree to Hammarskjöld in 1954, when it presented him with a "Legum Doctor, honoris causa. The University has continued this tradition by conferring an honorary doctorate upon every subsequent Secretary-General of the United Nations. He also held honorary degrees from "Oxford University, United Kingdom; in the United States from "Harvard, "Yale, "Princeton, "Columbia, the "University of Pennsylvania, "Amherst, "Johns Hopkins, the "University of California, and "Ohio University; in Sweden, Uppsala University; and in Canada from "McGill University as well as Carleton.
- Refusal to resign: One of Hammarskjöld's greatest moments was refusing to give in to Soviet pressure to resign. He said: "It is very easy to bow to the wish of a big power. It is another matter to resist it. If it is the wish of those nations who see the organization their best protection in the present world, I shall do so again."
- He is credited with saying: "I would rather live my life as though there is a God and die to find out that there isn't, than to live my life as though there is no God and die to find out there is." (See: "Pascal's Wager)
- Clergyman "M. Craig Barnes has reflected on a quotation of Hammarskjöld's published in a placard: "The humility that comes from others having faith in you...” Barnes reflects on the quote's importance for humility and connectionalism in contemporary leadership.
- "John F. Kennedy: After Hammarskjöld's death, U.S. president John F. Kennedy regretted that he had opposed the UN policy in the Congo and said: "I realise now that in comparison to him, I am a small man. He was the greatest statesman of our century."
- In 2011, "The Financial Times wrote that Hammarskjöld has remained the benchmark against which later UN Secretaries-General have been judged.
- Historians' views:
- Historian "Paul Kennedy hailed Hammarskjöld in his book, The Parliament of Man, as perhaps the greatest UN Secretary-General because of his ability to shape events, in contrast with his successors.
- In contrast, the conservative "popular historian "Paul Johnson, in A History of the Modern World from 1917 to the 1980s (1983), was highly critical of Hammarskjöld's judgment.
- Buildings and rooms:
- The "Waterloo Co-operative Residence Incorporated has a "student dormitory named after Dag Hammarskjöld.
- "Columbia University: The School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University has a Dag Hammarskjöld Lounge. The graduate school is dedicated to the principles of international peace and cooperation that Hammarskjöld embodied.
- "Stanford University: Dag Hammarskjöld House, on the Stanford University campus, is a residence cooperative for undergraduate and graduate students with international backgrounds and interests at Stanford.
- The Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations in Geneva, Switzerland, has a room named after him.
- "Dag Hammarskjöld Stadium is the main football stadium of "Ndola, Zambia. Hammarskjöld's flight crashed in the outskirts of Ndola.
- Dag Hammarskjöld College: founded in "Columbia, Maryland, in 1972, educated international students from 1972-1974. The concept that international relations are relationships between individuals, and that the better we understand each other, the better chance there is for world peace, was the centerpiece for this college. The college admitted students from both undergraduate and postgraduate levels while they lived in an international community.
- Makerere University in Uganda has Dag Hammarskjöld Hall of residence for graduate students.
- Dag Hammarskjöldsleden is a road in "Gothenburg, Sweden.
- Dag Hammarskjölds Gade is a street in "Aalborg, Denmark.
- Dag Hammarskjölds Väg is a street in "Lund, Sweden.
- Dag Hammarskjölds Väg is at about 8.2 km one of the longest streets in Uppsala, Sweden. Several other streets in Sweden share this name.
- Dag Hammarskjølds vei is a residential street in "Fyllingsdalen, in Bergen, Norway.
- Dag Hammarskjöld's "Allé is a street in "Copenhagen, Denmark.
- The headquarters of the "United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (CEPAL) in "Santiago, Chile lies on Avenida Dag Hammarskjöld.
- The headquarters of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (German Society for International Cooperation, "GIZ), is on Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg in "Eschborn, Germany.
- Hammarskjöldplatz is the wide square to the north entrance of the "Messe Berlin fairgrounds in "Berlin, Germany.
- "Dag Hammarskjöld Plaza is "public park near the "headquarters of the United Nations in "New York City; several of the surrounding office buildings are also named after him, like:
- There's a public square in "Haedo, Buenos Aires, Argentina, named after him.
- Dag Hammarskjöldhof is a street and a shopping center in the town of "Utrecht, Netherlands.
- Dag Hammarskjöldlaan is a street in the town of "Castricum, Netherlands.
- Dag Hammarskjöldhof is a street in the town of "Gouda, Netherlands.
- Dag Hammarskjöldlaan is a street in the town of "Hellevoetsluis, Netherlands.
- Hammarskjöldstraat is a street in the town of "Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
- Dag Hammarskjöldsvei street in Fyllingsdalen, Bergen, Norway
- Hammarskjöld Road is a road in the town of "Harlow, UK.
- Hammarskjöld Drive in Burnaby, BC, Canada.
- Dag Hammarskjöld is a street in "Tunis, Tunisia.
- Schools: Several schools have been named after Hammarskjöld, including "Hammarskjold Middle School in "East Brunswick Township, New Jersey; "Dag Hammarskjold Middle School in "Wallingford, Connecticut; Dag Hammarskjold Elementary School in "Parma, Ohio; Dag Hammarskjold Elementary (PS 254) in "Brooklyn, New York; Dag Hammarskjold School#6 in "Rochester, New York; Dag Hammarskjold Elementary School in Oakland (now an airport parking business) and "Hammarskjold High School in "Thunder Bay, Ontario.
- "Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation:
In 1962, the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation was created as Sweden's national memorial to Dag Hammarskjöld.
The Dag Hammarskjöld centre in Uppsala (housing the secretariat of the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation)
- Religious commemoration: He is also commemorated as a peacemaker in the "Calendar of Saints of the "Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on 18 September of each year.
- Memorial awards:
- Medal: On 22 July 1997, the U.N. Security Council in resolution 1121(1997) established the "Dag Hammarskjöld Medal in recognition and commemoration of those who have lost their lives as a result of UN peacekeeping operations. Hammarskjöld himself was one of the first three recipients.
- Prize in Peace and Conflict Studies: "Colgate University annually awards a student the Dag Hammarskjöld Prize in Peace and Conflict Studies based on outstanding work in the program.
- Medallion by the sculptor Harald Salomon issued in Denmark 1962 to help financing the Danish Foreign Aid Program.
1962 Medal Dag Hammarskjöld by the Danish sculptor Harald Salomon
- Postage Stamps: Many countries issued postage stamps commemorating Hammarskjöld. The "United Nations Postal Administration issued 5- and 15-cent stamps in 1962. They show the UN flag at "half-mast and bear the simple inscription, "XVIII IX MCMLXI". The United States Hammarskjöld commemorative 4-cent postage stamp, issued on 23 October 1962, was actually released twice. Famous for its misprint, the second issue is often referred to as the "Dag Hammarskjöld invert.
- On 6 April 2011, the "Bank of Sweden announced that Hammarskjöld's image will be used on the 1000-"kronor banknote, the highest-denomination banknote in Sweden. Copyright problems have delayed making the new currency design official.
Memorial at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City
- Durel, Bernard, op, (2002), «Au jardin secret d’un diplomate suédois: Jalons de Dag Hammarskjöld, un itinéraire spirituel», La Vie Spirituelle (Paris). T. 82, pp. 901–922.
- Fröhlich, Manuel (2008) "Political ethics and the United Nations: Dag Hammarskjöld as Secretary-General". Routledge, London.
- Lipsey, Roger Hammarskjöld: A Life (University of Michigan Press; 2013) 670 pages; scholarly biography
- Urquhart, Brian, (1972), Hammarskjold. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
- Velocci, Giovanni, cssr, (1998), «Hammarskjold Dag», in Luigi Borriello, ocd – Edmondo Caruana, ocarm – Maria Rosaria Del Genio – N. Suffi (dirs.), Dizionario di mistica. Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano, pp. 624–626.
- Lichello, Robert (1972) "Dag Hammarskjold: A Giant in Diplomacy." Samhar Press, Charlotteville, N.Y. "ISBN "978-0-87157-501-2.
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- ^ Associated Press (6 July 2015). "Panel: Possible Aerial Attack on Hammarskjold Plane in 1961". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 July 2015. Over the years, there have been multiple claims that the plane was shot down, and that Hammarskjöld was actually killed in an assassination plot involving some combination of the CIA, a Belgian Mining Company, a South African paramilitary unit, and British intelligence, because he was pushing for the Congo’s independence, which would have hurt the interests of any of those forces. Adding fuel to the theories was a copy of a secret government document that surfaced in South Africa 18 years ago, which suggested that the CIA, MI5, and the South African government were in on Hammarskjöld ’s death. They presented statements from CIA director Allen Dulles, saying “Dag is becoming troublesome … and should be removed.”
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