Following the Labour victory in the "May 2005 general election, "Michael Howard announced his resignation as leader of the Conservative Party and set a lengthy timetable for the "leadership election. Cameron announced on 29 September 2005 that he would be a candidate. Parliamentary colleagues supporting him included "Boris Johnson, Shadow Chancellor "George Osborne, Shadow Defence Secretary and deputy leader of the party "Michael Ancram, "Oliver Letwin and former party leader "William Hague. His campaign did not gain wide support until his speech, delivered without notes, at the 2005 Conservative "party conference. In the speech he vowed to make people "feel good about being Conservatives again" and said he wanted "to switch on a whole new generation." His speech was well-received; "The Daily Telegraph said speaking without notes "showed a sureness and a confidence that is greatly to his credit".
In the first ballot of Conservative MPs on 18 October 2005, Cameron came second, with 56 votes, slightly more than expected; "David Davis had fewer than predicted at 62 votes; "Liam Fox came third with 42 votes; and "Kenneth Clarke was eliminated with 38 votes. In the second ballot on 20 October 2005, Cameron came first with 90 votes; David Davis was second, with 57; and Liam Fox was eliminated with 51 votes. All 198 Conservative MPs voted in both ballots.
The next stage of the election process, between Davis and Cameron, was a vote open to the entire party membership. Cameron was elected with more than twice as many votes as Davis and more than half of all ballots issued; Cameron won 134,446 votes on a 78% "turnout, to Davis's 64,398. Although Davis had initially been the favourite, it was widely acknowledged that his candidacy was marred by a disappointing conference speech. Cameron's election as the Leader of the Conservative Party and "Leader of the Opposition was announced on 6 December 2005. As is customary for an Opposition leader not already a member, upon election Cameron became a member of the "Privy Council, being formally approved to join on 14 December 2005, and sworn of the Council on 8 March 2006.
Reaction to Cameron as Leader
Cameron's relative youth and inexperience before becoming leader have invited satirical comparison with "Tony Blair. "Private Eye soon published a picture of both leaders on its front cover, with the caption "World's first face transplant a success". On the "left, the New Statesman unfavourably likened his "new style of politics" to Tony Blair's early leadership years. Cameron was accused of paying excessive attention to appearance: "ITV News broadcast footage from the 2006 Conservative Party Conference in "Bournemouth shows him wearing four different sets of clothes within a few hours. In his "Guardian column, comedy writer and broadcaster "Charlie Brooker described the Conservative leader as "a hollow Easter egg with no bag of sweets inside" in April 2007.
On the "right of the party, "Norman Tebbit, the former "Conservative chairman, likened Cameron to "Pol Pot, "intent on purging even the memory of "Thatcherism before building a New Modern Compassionate Green Globally Aware Party". "Quentin Davies MP, who defected from the Conservatives to Labour on 26 June 2007, branded him "superficial, unreliable and [with] an apparent lack of any clear convictions" and stated that David Cameron had turned the Conservative Party's mission into a "PR agenda". "Traditionalist conservative columnist and author "Peter Hitchens wrote, "Mr Cameron has abandoned the last significant difference between his party and the established left", by embracing social liberalism. Daily Telegraph correspondent and blogger "Gerald Warner was particularly scathing about Cameron's leadership, saying that it alienated "traditionalist conservative elements from the Conservative Party.
Before he became Conservative leader, Cameron was reported to be known to friends and family as "Dave", though his preference is "David" in public. Labour used the slogan "Dave the Chameleon in their "2006 local elections party broadcast to portray Cameron as an ever-changing "populist, which was criticised as "negative campaigning by the conservative press including "The Telegraph, though Cameron asserted the broadcast had become his daughter's "favourite video".
Allegations of recreational drug use
During the leadership election, allegations were made that Cameron had used "cannabis and "cocaine recreationally before becoming an MP. Pressed on this point during the BBC television programme "Question Time, Cameron expressed the view that everybody was allowed to "err and stray" in their past. During his 2005 Conservative leadership campaign he addressed the question of drug consumption by remarking that "I did lots of things before I came into politics which I shouldn't have done. We all did."
Shadow Cabinet appointments
His "Shadow Cabinet appointments included MPs associated with the various wings of the party. Former leader "William Hague was appointed to the Foreign Affairs brief, while both "George Osborne and "David Davis were retained, as "Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer and "Shadow Home Secretary respectively. Hague, assisted by Davis, stood in for Cameron during his "paternity leave in February 2006.["citation needed] In June 2008 Davis announced his intention to "resign as an MP, and was immediately replaced as Shadow Home Secretary by "Dominic Grieve; Davis' surprise move was seen as a challenge to the changes introduced under Cameron's leadership.
In January 2009 a "reshuffle of the Shadow Cabinet was undertaken. The chief change was the appointment of former "Chancellor of the Exchequer "Kenneth Clarke as Shadow Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Secretary, David Cameron stating that "With Ken Clarke's arrival, we now have the best economic team." The reshuffle also saw eight other changes made.
European Conservatives and Reformists
During his successful 2005 campaign to be elected Leader of the Conservative Party, Cameron pledged that the Conservative Party's "Members of the European Parliament would leave the "European People's Party group, which had a "federalist" approach to the European Union. Once elected Cameron began discussions with right-wing and "Eurosceptic parties in other European countries, mainly in eastern Europe, and in July 2006 he concluded an agreement to form the "Movement for European Reform with the Czech "Civic Democratic Party, leading to the formation of a new European Parliament group, the "European Conservatives and Reformists, in 2009 after the "European Parliament elections. Cameron attended a gathering at "Warsaw's Palladium cinema celebrating the foundation of the alliance.
In forming the caucus, which had 54 "MEPs drawn from eight of the 27 "EU member states, Cameron reportedly broke with two decades of Conservative co-operation with the centre-right Christian Democrats, the "European People's Party (EPP), on the grounds that they are dominated by European "federalists and supporters of the "Lisbon treaty. EPP leader "Wilfried Martens, former "Prime Minister of Belgium, has stated "Cameron's campaign has been to take his party back to the centre in every policy area with one major exception: Europe. ... I can't understand his tactics. "Merkel and "Sarkozy will never accept his Euroscepticism."
Shortlists for Parliamentary candidates
Similarly, Cameron's initial ""A-List" of prospective parliamentary candidates was attacked by members of his party, and the policy was discontinued in favour of sex-balanced final shortlists. Before being discontinued, the policy had been criticised by senior Conservative MP and former Prisons Spokeswoman "Ann Widdecombe as an "insult to women", and she had accused Cameron of "storing up huge problems for the future."
In April 2009, "The Independent reported that in 1989, while "Nelson Mandela remained imprisoned under the "apartheid regime, David Cameron had accepted a trip to South Africa paid for by an anti-sanctions lobby firm. A spokesperson for Cameron responded by saying that the Conservative Party was at that time opposed to "sanctions against South Africa and that his trip was a fact-finding mission. However, the newspaper reported that Cameron's then superior at Conservative Research Department called the trip "jolly", saying that "it was all terribly relaxed, just a little treat, a perk of the job. The "Botha regime was attempting to make itself look less horrible, but I don't regard it as having been of the faintest political consequence." Cameron distanced himself from his party's history of opposing sanctions against the regime. He was criticised by Labour MP "Peter Hain, himself an anti-apartheid campaigner.
Raising teaching standards
At the launch of the Conservative Party's education "manifesto in January 2010, Cameron declared an admiration for the "brazenly elite" approach to education of countries such as "Singapore and South Korea and expressed a desire to "elevate the status of teaching in our country". He suggested the adoption of more stringent criteria for entry to teaching and offered repayment of the loans of maths and science graduates obtaining first or 2.1 degrees from "good" universities.
"Wes Streeting, then president of the "National Union of Students, said "The message that the Conservatives are sending to the majority of students is that if you didn't go to a university attended by members of the Shadow Cabinet, they don't believe you're worth as much."
During the "MPs expenses scandal in 2009, Cameron said he would lead Conservatives in repaying "excessive" expenses and threatened to expel MPs that refused after the expense claims of several members of his shadow cabinet had been questioned:
We have to acknowledge just how bad this is, the public are really angry and we have to start by saying, "Look, this system that we have, that we used, that we operated, that we took part in—it was wrong and we are sorry about that".
One day later, "The Daily Telegraph published figures showing over five years he had claimed £82,450 on his second home allowance. Cameron repaid £680 claimed for repairs to his constituency home. Although he was not accused of breaking any rules, Cameron was placed on the defensive over mortgage interest expense claims covering his constituency home, after a report in "The Mail on Sunday suggested he could have reduced the mortgage interest bill by putting an additional £75,000 of his own money towards purchasing the home in Witney instead of paying off an earlier mortgage on his London home. Cameron said that doing things differently would not have saved the taxpayer any money, as he was paying more on mortgage interest than he was able to reclaim as expenses anyway He also spoke out in favour of laws giving voters the power to "recall" or "sack" MPs accused of wrongdoing. In April 2014, he was criticised for his handling of the expenses row surrounding Culture Secretary "Maria Miller, when he rejected calls from fellow Conservative MPs to sack her from the front bench.
2010 general election
The Conservatives had last "won a general election in 1992. The "general election of 2010 resulted in the Conservatives, led by Cameron, winning the largest number of seats (306). This was, however, 20 seats short of an overall majority and resulted in the nation's first "hung parliament since "February 1974.
Talks between Cameron and "Liberal Democrat leader "Nick Clegg led to an agreed Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition. Cameron in late 2009 had urged the "Liberal Democrats to join the Conservatives in a new "national movement" saying there was "barely a cigarette paper" between them on a large number of issues. The invitation was rejected at the time by the Liberal Democrat leader, "Nick Clegg, who said that the Conservatives were totally different from his party and that the Lib Dems were the true "progressives" in UK politics.
||It has been suggested that portions of this section be "split out and merged into the article titled "Premiership of David Cameron, which already exists. ("Discuss) (April 2017)|
On 11 May 2010, following the resignation of "Gordon Brown as Prime Minister and on his recommendation, Queen "Elizabeth II invited Cameron to form a government. At age 43, Cameron became the youngest Prime Minister since "Lord Liverpool in 1812, beating the record previously set by "Tony Blair in May 1997. In his first address outside "10 Downing Street, he announced his intention to form a "coalition government, the first since the "Second World War, with the "Liberal Democrats.
Cameron outlined how he intended to "put aside party differences and work hard for the common good and for the national interest." As one of his first moves Cameron appointed "Nick Clegg, the leader of the Liberal Democrats, as "Deputy Prime Minister on 11 May 2010. Between them, the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats controlled 363 seats in the House of Commons, with a majority of 76 seats. On 2 June 2010, when Cameron took his first session of "Prime Minister's Questions (PMQs) as Prime Minister, he began by offering his support and condolences to those affected by the "shootings in Cumbria.
In June 2010 Cameron described the economic situation as he came to power as "even worse than we thought" and warned of "difficult decisions" to be made over spending cuts. By the beginning of 2015 he was able to claim that "his government's austerity programme had succeeded in halving the budget deficit, though critics described the claim as misleading since it was only true of the deficit measured as a percentage of GDP.
Cameron agreed to holding the "Scottish independence referendum, 2014 and eliminated the ""devomax" option from the ballot for a straight out yes or no vote. He supported the successful "Better Together campaign. He had also backed a successful campaign to retain the status quo in a "referendum on changing the voting system held at the request of his coalition partners.
He supported the introduction of "gay marriage despite more of his own Conservative MPs voting against the move than for it, meaning the support of Lib Dem MPs in government and Labour MPs in opposition was required to allow it to pass.
Earlier in his term he had managed to secure a huge majority for UK participation in UN-backed military action in Libya, but Cameron became the first prime minister in over 100 years to lose a foreign policy vote in the House of Commons over proposed military action against Assad's regime in Syria.
Cameron said "immigration from outside the EU should be subject to annual limits. He said in July 2013 that "in the last decade we have had an immigration policy that's completely lax. The pressure it puts on our public services and communities is too great." In 2015, The Independent reported, "The Conservatives have failed spectacularly to deliver their pledge to reduce net migration to less than 100,000 a year. The "Office for National Statistics (ONS) announced a net flow of 298,000 migrants to the UK in the 12 months to September 2014—up from 210,000 in the previous year."
Defence and foreign affairs
In 2014, Cameron dismissed warnings that his cuts to the UK defence budget had left it less than a "first class-player in terms of defence" and no longer a "full partner" to the United States.
In the July 2015 budget Chancellor George Osborne announced that the UK defence spending would meet the NATO target of 2% of GDP.
NATO military intervention in Libya
Cameron condemned the "appalling and unacceptable" violence used against anti-Gaddafi protesters at the beginning of the "Libyan Civil War After weeks of lobbying by the UK and its allies, on 17 March 2011 the "United Nations Security Council approved a "no-fly zone to prevent government forces loyal to "Muammar Gaddafi from carrying out air attacks on "anti-Gaddafi rebels. Two days later the UK and the United States fired more than 110 "Tomahawk missiles at targets in Libya.
Cameron has said he is "proud" of the role United Kingdom played in the overthrow of Gaddafi's government. Cameron also stated that UK had played a "very important role", adding that "a lot of people said that Tripoli was completely different to Benghazi and that the two don't get on—they were wrong. ... People who said 'this is all going to be an enormous swamp of Islamists and extremists'—they were wrong."
In 2015 through 2016 the "Foreign Affairs Select Committee conducted an extensive and highly critical inquiry into the British involvement in the civil war. It concluded that the early threat to civilians had been overstated and that the significant Islamist element in the rebel forces had not been recognised, due to an intelligence failure. By summer 2011 the initial limited intervention to protect Libyan civilians had become a policy of "regime change. However that new policy did not include proper support and for a new government, leading to a political and economic collapse in Libya and the growth of "ISIL in North Africa. It concluded that Cameron was ultimately responsible for this British policy failure.
US President "Barack Obama also acknowledged there had been issues with following up the conflict planning, commenting in an interview with "The Atlantic magazine that Cameron had allowed himself be "distracted by a range of other things" 
In 2013, in response to "Argentina's calls for negotiations over the "Falkland Islands' sovereignty, "a referendum was called asking "Falkland Islanders whether they supported the continuation of their status as an "Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. With a turnout of 91.94%, an overwhelming 99.8% voted to remain a British territory with only three votes against.
In light of this, Cameron said: "We believe in the Falkland islanders' right to self-determination. They had a referendum. They couldn't have been more clear about wanting to remain with our country and we should protect and defend them".
Cameron supported Britain's close relationship with "Saudi Arabia. In January 2015, Cameron travelled to the Saudi capital "Riyadh to pay his respects following the death of the nation's "King Abdullah.
According to "WikiLeaks, Cameron initiated a secret deal with Saudi Arabia ensuring both were elected onto the "U.N. Human Rights Council. Cameron's government announced "firm political support" for the "2015 Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen against the "Shi'a "Houthis, re-supplying the Saudi military with weapons and providing them with training.
Cameron reiterated calls for an independent investigation into the "alleged war crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War. "There needs to be proper inquiries into what happened at the end of the war, there needs to be proper human rights, democracy for the "Tamil minority in that country" Cameron stated. He stated that, if this investigation was not completed by March 2014, he would press for an independent international inquiry. This followed a visit to "Jaffna, a war-ravaged town in the northern part of "Sri Lanka; Cameron was the first foreign leader to visit Jaffna since the island once colonised by Britain became independent in 1948. Cameron was mobbed by demonstrators, mostly women, seeking his assistance in tracing "missing relatives.
Turkey and Israel
In a speech in "Ankara in July 2010, Cameron stated unequivocally his support for Turkey's accession to the EU, citing economic, security and political considerations, and claimed that those who opposed Turkish membership were driven by "protectionism, narrow nationalism or prejudice". In that speech, he was also critical of Israeli action during the "Gaza flotilla raid and its Gaza policy, and repeated his opinion that Israel had turned Gaza into a "prison camp", having previously referred to Gaza as "a giant open prison". These views were met with mixed reactions. The Cameron government does not formally recognise the Ottoman Empire's massacres of Armenians as a "genocide".
During the EU referendum campaign, Cameron stated that Turkey was unlikely to be ready to join the EU 'until the year 3000' at its current rate of progress.
At the end of May 2011, Cameron stepped down as patron of the "Jewish National Fund, becoming the first British prime minister not to be patron of the charity in the 110 years of its existence.
In a speech in 2011 Cameron said: "You have a Prime Minister whose commitment and determination to work for peace in Israel is deep and strong. Britain will continue to push for peace, but will always stand up for Israel against those who wish her harm". He said he wanted to reaffirm his "unshakable" belief in Israel within the same message. He also voiced his opposition to the Goldstone Report, claiming it had been biased against Israel and not enough blame had been placed on Hamas.
In March 2014, during his first visit to Israel as Prime Minister, Cameron addressed Israel's "Knesset in "Jerusalem, where he offered his full support for peace efforts between Israelis and Palestinians, hoping a two-state solution might be achieved. He also made clear his rejection of trade or academic boycotts against Israel, acknowledged Israel's right to defend its citizens as "a right enshrined in international law," and made note of the "Balfour Declaration of 1917, as "the moment when the State of Israel went from a dream to a plan, Britain has played a proud and vital role in helping to secure Israel as a homeland for the Jewish people." During his two-day visit, he met with Israeli Prime Minister "Benjamin Netanyahu and with Palestinian Authority President "Mahmoud Abbas. Senior Foreign Office minister "The Baroness Warsi resigned over the Cameron government's decision not to condemn Israel for the "2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, saying that the government's "approach and language during the current crisis in Gaza is morally indefensible."
Military intervention in Iraq and Syria
In August 2013, Cameron lost a motion in favour of bombing Syrian armed forces in response to the "Ghouta chemical attack, becoming the first prime minister to suffer such a foreign-policy defeat since 1782. In September 2014, MPs passed a motion in favour of British planes joining, at the request of the Iraqi government, a bombing campaign against "Islamic State (IS) targets in Iraq; the motion explicitly expressed parliament's disapproval of UK military action in Syria. Cameron promised that, before expanding UK air strikes to include IS units in Syria, he would seek parliamentary approval.
In July 2015, a "Freedom of Information (FOI) request by "Reprieve revealed that, without the knowledge of UK parliamentarians, RAF pilots had, in fact, been bombing targets in Syria, and that Cameron knew of this. The prime minister, along with Defence Secretary "Michael Fallon, faced strong criticism, including from Tory MPs, for not informing the Commons about this deployment; the Ministry of Defence said that the pilots concerned were "embedded" with foreign military forces, and so were "effectively" operating as such, while Fallon denied that MPs had been, as he put it, "kept in the dark". The Reprieve FoI request also revealed that British drone pilots had been embedded, almost continuously, with American forces at "Creech Air Force Base since 2008. These drone operators, who were "a gift of services", meaning the UK still paid their salaries and covered their expenses, had been carrying out operations that included reconnaissance in Syria to assist American strikes against IS.
Fallon said that it was "illogical" for the UK not to bomb ISIL in Syria as the organisation does not "differentiate between Syria and Iraq" and is "organised and directed and administered from Syria". Following the "terrorist attacks on Paris in November 2015, for which Islamic State claimed responsibility, Cameron began pushing for a strategy for the "Royal Air Force to bomb Syria in retaliation. Cameron set out his case for military intervention to Parliament on 26 November, telling MPs that it was the only way to guarantee Britain's safety and would be part of a "comprehensive" strategy to defeat IS. On 3 December 2015 MPs voted 397–223 in favour of launching air strikes against ISIL targets in Syria. The vote for military action was supported by all but seven members of the Parliamentary Conservative Party, as well as 66 Labour MPs who backed the government in defiance of their leader, "Jeremy Corbyn, who had expressed his opposition to air strikes.
2015 general election
On 7 May 2015, Cameron was re-elected UK Prime Minister with a majority in the Commons. The Conservative Party's decisive win in the general election was as a surprise victory, as most polls and commentators predicted the outcome would be too close to call and result in a second "hung parliament. Cameron said of his first term when returned as Prime Minister for a second term that he was "proud to lead the first coalition government in 70 years" and offered particular thanks to Clegg for his role in it. Forming the first "Conservative majority government since 1992, David Cameron became the first Prime Minister to be re-elected immediately after a full term with a larger popular vote share since "Lord Salisbury at the "1900 general election.
In response to the "November 2015 Paris attacks, Cameron secured the support of the House of Commons to extend air strikes against "ISIS into Syria. Earlier that year, Cameron had outlined a five-year strategy to counter Islamist extremism and subversive teachings.
2016 referendum and resignation
As promised in the election manifesto, Cameron set a date for a "referendum on whether the UK should remain a member of the European Union, and announced that he would be campaigning for Britain to remain within a "reformed EU". The terms of the UK's membership of the EU were "re-negotiated, with agreement reached in February 2016.
The referendum came to be know as "Brexit, a "portmanteau of "British" and "exit". The referendum was held on 23 June 2016 and the British electorate voted by 52% to 48% in favour of leaving the European Union. On 24 June, a few hours after the results became known, Cameron announced that he would resign the office of Prime Minister by the start of the Conservative Party Conference in October 2016. In a farewell speech outside 10 Downing Street, he stated that, on account of his own advocacy on behalf of remaining in the EU, "I do not think it would be right for me to try to be the captain that steers our country to its next destination."
Very intense criticism followed the realisation of just how much the referendum had split the country, with The Independent calling the referendum an act of "indescribably selfish recklessness." In late July, the "Foreign Affairs Select Committee was told that Cameron had refused to allow the Civil Service to make plans for Brexit, a decision the committee described as "an act of gross negligence."
The "Conservative Party leadership election was scheduled for 9 September and the new leader was expected to be in place by the autumn conference, set to begin on 2 October. On 11 July, following the withdrawal of "Andrea Leadsom from the Conservative Party leadership election and the confirmation of "Theresa May as the new "leader of the Conservative Party, Cameron announced he would hold a final cabinet meeting on 12 July and then following a final "Prime Minister's Questions submit his resignation to the Queen on the afternoon of 13 July. After his final Prime Minister's Questions, Cameron received a standing ovation from MPs; his final comment was, "I was the future once" – a reference to his 2005 quip to Tony Blair, "he was the future once". Cameron then submitted his resignation to the Queen later that day.
Although no longer serving as Prime Minister, Cameron originally stated that he would continue inside Parliament, on the Conservative "backbenches. On 12 September, however, he announced that he was resigning his seat with immediate effect. He was succeeded as MP for Witney by fellow Conservative "Robert Courts. The Washington Post described him as having "sped away without glancing back" once Theresa May had "vaulted herself out of the hurricane-strength political wreckage of Britain's vote to leave the European Union."
Policies, views and image
Self-description of views
Cameron described himself in December 2005 as a "modern "compassionate conservative" and spoke of a need for a new style of politics, saying that he was "fed up with the "Punch and Judy politics of "Westminster". He was "certainly a big "Thatcher fan, but I don't know whether that makes me a Thatcherite", claiming to be a "liberal Conservative", though "not a deeply ideological person." As Leader of the Opposition, Cameron asserted that he did not intend to oppose the government as a matter of course, and would offer his support in areas of agreement. He has urged politicians to concentrate more on improving people's happiness and "general well-being", instead of focusing solely on "financial wealth". There were claims that he described himself to journalists at a dinner during the leadership contest as the "heir to Blair".
In his first Conservative Conference speech as party leader in "Bournemouth in 2006, he described the "National Health Service as "one of the 20th Century's greatest achievements". He went on to say, ""Tony Blair explained his priorities in three words: education, education, education. I can do it in three letters: N.H.S." He also talked about his severely disabled son, Ivan, concluding "So, for me, it is not just a question of saying the NHS is safe in my hands—of course it will be. My family is so often in the hands of the NHS, so I want them to be safe there."
Cameron said that he believes in "spreading freedom and democracy, and supporting humanitarian intervention" in cases such as the "genocide in "Darfur, "Sudan. However, he rejected "neo-conservatism because, as a "conservative, he recognises "the complexities of "human nature, and will always be sceptical of grand schemes to remake the world." A supporter of "multilateralism as "a country may act alone—but it cannot always succeed alone", he believes multilateralism can take the form of acting through ""NATO, the "UN, the "G8, the "EU and other institutions", or through international "alliances. Cameron said that "If "the West is to help other countries, we must do so from a position of genuine moral authority" and "we must strive above all for "legitimacy in what we do."
He believes that British "Muslims have a duty to "integrate into British culture, but noted in an article published in 2007 that the Muslim community finds aspects such as high divorce rates and drug use uninspiring, and that "Not for the first time, I found myself thinking that it is mainstream Britain which needs to integrate more with the British Asian way of life, not the other way around." In his first speech as PM on radicalisation and the causes of terrorism in February 2011, Cameron said that 'state "multiculturalism' had failed. In 2010 he appointed the first Muslim member of the British cabinet, "Baroness Warsi, as a minister without portfolio, and in 2012 made her a special minister of state in foreign affairs. She resigned, however, in August 2014 over the government's handling of the "2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.
Whilst urging members of his party to support the coalition's proposals for "same-sex marriage, Cameron said that he backed gay marriage not in spite of his conservatism but because he is a conservative, and claimed it was about equality. In 2012, Cameron publicly apologised for Thatcher-era policies on homosexuality, specifically the introduction of the controversial "Section 28 of the "Local Government Act 1988, which he described as "a mistake".
In 2006 Cameron described poverty as a "moral disgrace" and promised to tackle "relative poverty. In 2007 Cameron promised, "We can make British poverty history, and we will make British poverty history". Also in 2007 he stated "Ending child poverty is central to improving child well-being". In 2015 "Polly Toynbee questioned Cameron's commitment to tackling poverty, contrasting his earlier statements agreeing that "poverty is relative" with proposals to change the government's poverty measure, and saying that cuts in "child tax credits would increase child poverty among low-paid working families.
In 2010 Cameron was given a score of 36% in favour of lesbian, gay and bisexual equality by "Stonewall. Prior to 2005, Cameron was opposed to gay rights, calling it a "fringe agenda" and attacking the then-Prime Minister "Tony Blair for "moving heaven and earth to allow the promotion of homosexuality in our schools" by repealing the anti-gay "Section 28 of the "Local Government Act 1988. Cameron is also recorded by "Hansard as having voted against same-sex adoption rights in 2002, but he denies this, claiming he abstained from the "three-line whip imposed on him by his party. In 2008, he wanted lesbians who receive IVF treatment to be required to name a father figure, which received condemnation from LGBT equality groups. However, Cameron supported commitment for gay couples in a 2005 speech, and in October 2011 urged Conservative MPs to support gay marriage.
In November 2012, Cameron and Nick Clegg agreed to fast-track legislation for introducing same-sex marriage. Cameron stated that he wanted to give religious groups the ability to host gay "marriage ceremonies, and that he did not want to exclude gay people from a "great institution". In 2013, the "Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 became law despite opposition from more than half of his fellow Conservative MPs, including Cabinet ministers "Owen Paterson and "David Jones. He also subsequently appointed two women who had voted against same-sex marriage as ministers in the "Government Equalities Office, "Nicky Morgan and "Caroline Dinenage following the 2015 general election.
In August 2013, he rejected calls by "Stephen Fry and others to strip Russia from hosting the "2014 Winter Olympics due to its anti-gay laws. Cameron did not attend the games but denied it was a boycott in protest at Russia's laws, having previously raised the issue of gay rights in the country with "Vladimir Putin.
Comments on other parties and politicians
Cameron criticised "Gordon Brown (when Brown was "Chancellor of the Exchequer) for being "an analogue politician in a digital age" and referred to him as "the roadblock to reform". As Prime Minister, he reacted to press reports that Brown could be the next head of the "International Monetary Fund by hinting that he may block the appointment, citing the huge national debt that Brown left the country with as a reason for Brown not being suitable for the role.
He said that "John Prescott "clearly looks a fool" after Prescott's personal indiscretions were revealed in spring 2006, and wondered if the Deputy Prime Minister had broken the ministerial code. During a speech to the Ethnic Media Conference in November 2006, Cameron also described "Ken Livingstone, the "Mayor of London, as an "ageing "far left politician" following Livingstone's criticism of "Trevor Phillips, head of the Commission for Racial Equality.
In 2006, Cameron made a speech in which he described extremist "Islamic organisations and the "British National Party as "mirror images" to each other, both preaching "creeds of pure hatred". Cameron is listed as being a supporter of "Unite Against Fascism.
In April 2006, Cameron accused the "UK Independence Party of being "fruitcakes, loonies and closet racists, mostly," leading UKIP MEP "Nigel Farage (who became leader in September of that year) to demand an apology for the remarks. Right-wing Conservative MP "Bob Spink, who later defected to UKIP, also criticised the remarks, as did "The Daily Telegraph. Cameron was seen encouraging Conservative MPs to join the "standing ovation given to "Tony Blair at the end of his last Prime Minister's Question Time; he had paid tribute to the "huge efforts" Blair had made and said Blair had "considerable achievements to his credit, whether it is peace in Northern Ireland or his work in the developing world, which will endure".
In September 2015, after the election of "Jeremy Corbyn as Labour leader, Cameron called the party a "threat" to British national and economic security, on the basis of Corbyn's defence and fiscal policies.
In an interview on "Friday Night with Jonathan Ross in 2006, Cameron said that he supported the decision of the then Labour Government to go to "war in Iraq, and said that he thought supporters should "see it through". He also supported a motion brought by the SNP and Plaid Cymru in 2006 calling for an inquiry into the government's conduct of the Iraq war. In 2011, he oversaw the withdrawal of British soldiers from Iraq. He repeatedly called for the "Chilcot Inquiry into the Iraq war to conclude and publish its findings, saying "People want to know the truth".
Cameron was a strong advocate of increased ties between India and the United Kingdom, describing Indian–British relations as the "New "Special Relationship" in 2010.
In October 2012, as "Narendra Modi rose to prominence in India, the UK rescinded its boycott of the then-"Gujarat state Chief Minister over "religious riots in Gujarat in 2002 that left more than 2,000 dead, and in November 2013, Cameron commented that he was "open" to meeting Modi. Modi was later elected as Prime Minister in a landslide majority, leading to Cameron calling Modi and congratulating him on the "election success", one of the first Western leaders to do so.
While "Leader of the Conservative Party, Cameron has been accused of reliance on "old-boy networks", and conversely attacked by his party for the imposition of selective shortlists of women and ethnic minority "prospective parliamentary candidates.
Some of Cameron's senior appointments, such as "George Osborne as "Chancellor of the Exchequer, are former members of the "Bullingdon Club. "Michael Gove conceded it was "ridiculous" how many fellow Cabinet ministers were old-Etonians, though he placed the blame on the failings of the state education system rather than Cameron. However, Michael Mosbacher, co-founder of "Standpoint magazine, wrote that Cameron's Cabinet has the lowest number of Etonians of any past Conservative government: "David Cameron's government is the least patrician, least wealthy and least public-school-educated—indeed the least Etonian Conservative-led government this country has ever seen".
Plots against leadership
Following poor results in the "May 2012 local elections after a difficult few months for the government, with Labour increasing its lead in the polls, there were concerns from Conservative MPs about Cameron's leadership and his electability. "David Davies, the chairman of the "Welsh Affairs Select Committee, accused the Tory leadership of "incompetence" and hinted that it could risk Cameron's leadership. "Nadine Dorries warned the Prime Minister that a leadership challenge could happen.
Later that year, Tory MP "Brian Binley openly said that Cameron's leadership was like being a "maid" to the Liberal Democrats, and accused him of leading the party to defeat. In January 2013 it was revealed that "Adam Afriyie was planning his own bid for the Tory leadership with the support of fellow MPs "Mark Field, "Bill Wiggin, "Chris Heaton-Harris, "Patrick Mercer, "Jonathan Djanogly and "Dan Byles. "The Times and "ConservativeHome revealed that a 'rebel reserve' of 55 Tory MPs gave firm pledges to a co-ordinating MP to support a motion of 'no confidence' and write to Brady simultaneously, more than the 46 MPs needed to trigger a vote of no confidence. "Andrew Bridgen openly called for a vote of confidence in Cameron's leadership and claimed that the Prime Minister had a "credibility problem" but he dropped his bid for a contest a year later.
Cameron and Andy Coulson
In 2007 Cameron appointed "Andy Coulson, former editor of the "News of the World, as his director of communications. Coulson had resigned as the paper's editor following the conviction of a reporter in relation to "illegal phone hacking, although stating that he knew nothing about it. In June 2010 "Downing Street confirmed Coulson's annual salary as £140,000, the highest pay of any special adviser to UK Government.
In January 2011 Coulson left his post, saying coverage of the phone-hacking scandal was making it difficult to give his best to the job. In July 2011 he was arrested and questioned by police in connection with further allegations of illegal activities at the News of the World, and released on bail. Despite a call to apologise for hiring Coulson by the leader of the opposition, Cameron defended the appointment, saying that he had taken a conscious choice to give someone who had screwed up a second chance. On 20 July, in a special parliamentary session at the "House of Commons, arranged to discuss the "News International phone hacking scandal, Cameron said that he "regretted the furore" that had resulted from his appointment of Coulson, and that "with hindsight" he would not have hired him. Coulson was detained and charged with perjury by "Strathclyde Police on 30 May 2012. Coulson was convicted of conspiracy to hack phones in June 2014. Prior to the jury handing down their verdict, Cameron issued a "full and frank" apology for hiring him, saying "I am extremely sorry that I employed him. It was the wrong decision and I am very clear about that." The judge hearing Coulson's trial was critical of the prime minister, pondering whether the intervention was out of ignorance or deliberate, and demanded an explanation.
Cameron and Lord Ashcroft
Although "Lord Ashcroft played a significant role in the 2010 election, he was not offered a ministerial post. In June 2012, shortly before a major Tory rebellion on "House of Lords reform, journalist "Peter Oborne credited Ashcroft with "stopping the Coalition working" by moving policy on Europe, welfare, education, taxation to the right. According to Oborne, Ashcroft, owner of both the "ConservativeHome and PoliticsHome websites and a "brutal critic of the Coalition from the start", had established "megaphone presence" in the on-line media. He believes Cameron's philosophy of liberal conservatism has been destroyed by "coordinated attacks on the Coalition" and "the two parties are no longer trying to pretend that they are governing together."
In The Observer, "Andrew Rawnsley commented that he believes that Ashcroft uses carefully timed opinion polls to "generate publicity", "stir trouble for the prime minister" and influence the direction of the party. In 2015 Ashcroft released "Call Me Dave, an unauthorised biography of Cameron written with journalist "Isabel Oakeshott, which attracted significant media attention for various lurid allegations about Cameron's time at university. The book includes an anonymous anecdote about Cameron, now referred to as "Piggate. No evidence for the anecdote has been produced. Many commentators have described the accusations as a "revenge job" by Ashcroft, who was not offered a senior role in government when Cameron came to power in 2010. Ashcroft initially claimed the book was "not about settling scores", while Oakeshott said that they had held back publication until after the 2015 general election to avoid damaging Cameron and the Conservatives' electoral chances. Ashcroft subsequently admitted that the initiation allegations "may have been case of mistaken identity" and has stated that he has a personal "beef" with Cameron. Cameron later went on to deny these allegations and stated that Ashcroft's reasons for writing the book were clear and the public could see clearly through it.
Standing in opinion polls
An ICM poll in September 2007 saw Cameron rated the least popular of the three main party leaders. A "YouGov poll on party leaders conducted on 9–10 June 2011 found 44% of the electorate thought he was doing well and 50% thought he was doing badly, whilst 38% thought he would be the best PM and 35% did not know. In the run up to the 2015 election, Cameron achieved his first net positive approval rating in four years, with a YouGov poll finding 47% of voters thought he was doing well as prime minister compared with 46% who thought he was doing badly.
In September 2015, a Opinium poll had similar results to the one shortly before the election, with voters split with 42% who approved of him and 41% who did not. Cameron had significantly better net approval ratings in polls conducting in December and January (getting −6 in both) than Labour leader "Jeremy Corbyn (who got −38 and −39). However, following the "Panama Papers leak in April 2016, his personal approval ratings fell below Corbyn's.
In September 2016, Cameron announced that he would resign as MP for "Witney.
In October 2016, Cameron became chairman of the "National Citizen Service Patrons.
In January 2017, he was appointed president of "Alzheimer's Research UK to address misconceptions surrounding "dementia and campaign for medical research funding to tackle the condition.
Cameron is married to "Samantha Gwendoline Sheffield, the daughter of "Sir Reginald Sheffield, 8th Baronet, and Annabel Lucy Veronica Jones (now "Viscountess Astor). A "Marlborough College school friend of Cameron's sister Clare, Samantha accepted Clare's invitation to accompany the Cameron family on holiday in "Tuscany, Italy, after graduating from Bristol School of Creative Arts. It was then David and Samantha's romance started. They were married on 1 June 1996 at the Church of St Augustine of Canterbury, "East Hendred, "Oxfordshire, five years before Cameron was elected to "parliament. The Camerons have had four children. Their first, Ivan Reginald Ian, was born on 8 April 2002 in "Hammersmith and Fulham, London, with a rare combination of "cerebral palsy and a form of severe "epilepsy called "Ohtahara syndrome, requiring round-the-clock care. Recalling the receipt of this news, Cameron was quoted as saying: "The news hits you like a freight train ... You are depressed for a while because you are grieving for the difference between your hopes and the reality. But then you get over that, because he's wonderful." Ivan was cared for at the specialist NHS Cheyne Day Centre in West London, which closed shortly after he left it. Ivan died at "St Mary's Hospital, "Paddington, London, on 25 February 2009, aged six.
The Camerons have two daughters, Nancy Gwen (born 2004) and Florence Rose Endellion (born 24 August 2010), and a son, Arthur Elwen (born 2006). Cameron took "paternity leave when Arthur was born, and this decision received broad coverage. It was also stated that Cameron would be taking paternity leave after his second daughter was born. She was born on 24 August 2010, three weeks prematurely, while the family was on holiday in "Cornwall. Her third given name, Endellion, is taken from the village of "St Endellion near where the Camerons were holidaying.
In early May 2008, the Camerons decided to enrol their daughter Nancy at a "state "primary school. For three years before that they had been attending its associated church, "St Mary Abbots, near the Cameron family home in "North Kensington. Cameron's constituency home is in "Dean, Oxfordshire, and the Camerons have been described as key members of the "Chipping Norton set.
On 8 September 2010, it was announced that Cameron would miss "Prime Minister's Questions in order to fly to "southern France to see his father, Ian Cameron, who had suffered a "stroke with coronary complications. Later that day, with David and other family members at his bedside, Ian died. On 17 September 2010, Cameron attended a private ceremony for the funeral of his father in "Berkshire, which prevented him from hearing the address of "Pope Benedict XVI in "Westminster Hall, an occasion he would otherwise have attended.
Inheritance and family wealth
In October 2010, David Cameron inherited £300,000 from his father's will. The Camerons' family fortune was built up by his late father, Ian Cameron, who had worked as a stockbroker in "the City. Ian Cameron used multimillion-pound investment funds based in offshore tax havens, such as "Jersey, "Panama City, and "Geneva, to increase the family wealth. In 1979 he took advantage of the end of "capital controls made by Margaret Thatcher during her first month in power, which made it lawful to take money out of the country without it being taxed or subject to any financial controls by the UK government. In 1982, Ian Cameron created the Panamanian Blairmore Holdings Inc. an "offshore investment fund, valued at about $20 million in 1988, "not liable to taxation on its income or capital gains", which used "bearer shares until 2006.
In April 2016, following the "Panama Papers financial documents leak, David Cameron faced calls to resign after he was forced to admit that he and his wife Samantha profited from Ian Cameron's offshore fund. He owned £31,500 of shares in the fund and sold them for a profit of £19,000 shortly before becoming Prime Minister in 2010. The former Mayor of London, "Ken Livingstone, even argued that Cameron "shouldn't just resign, he should be sent to prison". David Cameron argued that the fund was set up in Panama so that people who wanted to invest in dollar-denominated shares and companies could do so. Cameron had personally intervened in 2013 to water down a planned EU crackdown on tax evasion. Thousands of protesters held two marches in London in April 2016 to demand Cameron's resignation.
An estimate of his worth is £3.2 million, though this figure excludes the six-figure legacies Cameron is expected to inherit from both sides of his family.
Before becoming prime minister, Cameron regularly used his bicycle to commute to work. In early 2006, he was photographed cycling to work, followed by his driver in a car carrying his belongings. His Conservative Party spokesperson subsequently said that this was a regular arrangement for Cameron at the time. Cameron is an occasional jogger and in 2009 raised funds for charities by taking part in the Oxford 5K and the "Great Brook Run.
Cameron supports "Aston Villa, although at a press conference on 25 April 2015 jokingly claimed he would rather people support "West Ham United – who wear the same colours as Villa – than "Manchester United. This "brain fade" (as Cameron himself called his slip-up) received widespread "Twitter coverage under the name '#villagate'. Cameron is also a keen "cricket fan and has appeared on "Test Match Special.
At a Q&A in August 2013, Cameron described himself as a practising "Christian and an active member of the "Church of England. On religious faith in general he has said: "I do think that organised religion can get things wrong but the Church of England and the other churches do play a very important role in society." He says he considers the "Bible "a sort of handy guide" on morality. He views Britain as a "Christian country" and aims to put faith back into "politics.
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I am here to make the case for Turkey's membership of the European Union and to fight for it.
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- Eaton, George (24 June 2015). "David Cameron has retreated from his promises on child poverty – but will it cost him?". New Statesman (London).
- "Ending child poverty by 2020". Child Poverty Action Group. n.d.
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- "MPs' voting records". Stonewall. 2010.
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- "Gay marriage: MPs back bill despite Conservative backbench opposition". BBC News. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
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- "Fry's Russia Winter Olympics switch call rejected by PM". BBC News. 10 August 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
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- "Cameron attacks 'past it' Brown". BBC News. 22 March 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2006.
- "Cameron hints at blocking Brown bid for IMF job". BBC News. 19 April 2011.
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- "Founding signatories". Unite Against Fascism. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- Assinder, Nick (4 April 2006). "UKIP and Cameron's war of words". BBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
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- "UKIP deserves better". "The Daily Telegraph. 5 April 2006. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- "Cameron praises Blair achievement". BBC News. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Stone, Jon (13 September 2015). "David Cameron claims Jeremy Corbyn is a 'threat to national security'". The Independent. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- "Cameron backs Blair on Iraq war". BBC News. 23 June 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- MacAskill, Ewan (21 August 2015). "David Cameron pushes Chilcot for Iraq report: 'We want this inquiry finished'". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Morris, Chris (27 July 2010). "Does India want a 'special relationship' with UK?". BBC News.
- Nelson, Dean (7 July 2010). "Ministers to build a new 'special relationship' with India". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Burke, Jason (22 October 2012). "UK government ends boycott of Narendra Modi". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- Mason, Rowena (14 November 2013). "Cameron open to meeting Indian Hindu nationalist Narendra Modi". The Guardian. London.
- Roy, Shubhajit (17 May 2014). "Barack Obama dials Modi". "The Indian Express. Mumbai. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
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- The Party Leaders.["dead link] "YouGov. 14 June 2011.
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- Can Boy Wonder save the Tories?". "The Sunday Times (London). 9 October 2005.
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- Edgar, James (19 January 2014). "David Cameron reveals family rules at Number 10". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
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- Elliott, Francis; Hanning, James (2012). Cameron: Practically a Conservative. Fourth Estate. "ISBN "978-0-00-743642-2.
Books about Cameron as leader
- "Nadler, Jo-Anne (2007). David Cameron: The Regeneration Game. Politico's Publishing. "ISBN "978-1-84275-194-7.
- "O'Hara, Kieron (2007). After Blair: David Cameron and the Conservative Tradition. Icon Books. "ISBN "978-1-84046-795-6.
- Lee, Simon; Beech, Matt (2009). The Conservatives under David Cameron: Built to Last?. Palgrave Macmillan. "ISBN "978-0-230-57565-3.
- "Snowdon, Peter (2010). Back from the Brink: The Extraordinary Fall and Rise of the Conservative Party. HarperPress. "ISBN "978-0-00-730884-2.
- "Hitchens, Peter (2010). The Cameron Delusion. Continuum. "ISBN "978-1-4411-3505-6.
- "Jones, Dylan (2010). Cameron on Cameron: Conversations with Dylan Jones. Fourth Estate. "ISBN "978-0-00-728537-2.
- "Seymour, Richard (2010). The Meaning of David Cameron. O Books. "ISBN "978-1-84694-456-7.
- "Bale, Tim (2011). The Conservative Party: From Thatcher to Cameron. Polity Press. "ISBN "978-0-7456-4858-3.
- Lee, Simon; Beech, Matt (2011). The Cameron-Clegg Government: Coalition Politics in an Age of Austerity. Palgrave Macmillan. "ISBN "978-0-230-29644-2.
- Heppell, Timothy; Seawright, David (2012). Cameron and the Conservatives: The Transition to Coalition Government. Palgrave Macmillan. "ISBN "978-0-230-31410-8.
- "Toynbee, Polly; Walker, David (2012). Dogma and Disarray: Cameron at Half-Time. Mount Caburn Publishing. "ISBN "978-0-9573953-0-5.
- Toynbee, Polly; Walker, David (2015). "Cameron's Coup. Guardian Books. "ISBN "978-1-78335-043-8.
Published works by and about
- Works by or about David Cameron in libraries ("WorldCat catalog)
- David Cameron's articles at "The Guardian
- Profile at "Parliament of the United Kingdom
- Contributions in Parliament at "Hansard 2010–present
- Contributions in Parliament during 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 at Hansard Archives
- Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803–2005
- Voting record at "Public Whip
- Record in Parliament at "TheyWorkForYou
- Profile at Westminster Parliamentary Record
- Articles authored at "Journalisted
- David Cameron collected news and commentary at "Al Jazeera English
- "David Cameron collected news and commentary". "The Guardian.
- "David Cameron collected news and commentary". "The New York Times.
- David Cameron collected news and commentary at "The Telegraph
- Brian Wheeler, The David Cameron story, "BBC News, 6 December 2005
- David Cameron official government website
- David Cameron official Conservative Party profile
- David Cameron at "DMOZ
|"Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament
|"Conservative Policy Review Coordinator
Title next held by"Oliver Letwin
as Conservative Policy Review Chair
|"Shadow Secretary of State for Education and Skills
|"Leader of the Opposition
|"Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
|"Minister for the Civil Service
|"First Lord of the Treasury
|Party political offices|
|"Leader of the Conservative Party
|Chairperson of the "Group of 8
"José Manuel Barroso
"Herman Van Rompuy