9 July 1937 |
"Bradford, "West Riding of Yorkshire, England
|Education||"Bradford School of Art (1953–1958)
"Royal College of Art (1959–1962)
|Known for||Painting, "printmaking, photography, "set design|
|Awards||"John Moores Painting Prize (1967)
"Companion of Honour (1997)
"Order of Merit 2012;
Honorary Doctorate, "Otis College of Art and Design, 1985
David Hockney, "OM, "CH, "RA (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draughtsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer. An important contributor to the "pop art movement of the 1960s, he is considered one of the most influential British artists of the 20th century.
Hockney has a home and studio in "Kensington, London and two residences in California, where he has lived on and off for over 30 years: one in "Nichols Canyon, Los Angeles, and an office and archives on "Santa Monica Boulevard in "West Hollywood, California.
Hockney was born in "Bradford, England, to Laura and Kenneth Hockney (a "conscientious objector in the "Second World War), the fourth of five children. He was educated at Wellington Primary School, "Bradford Grammar School, "Bradford College of Art (where his teachers included "Frank Lisle and his fellow students included Norman Stevens, David Oxtoby and "John Loker)["citation needed] and the "Royal College of Art in London, where he met "R. B. Kitaj. While there, Hockney said he felt at home and took pride in his work. At the Royal College of Art, Hockney featured in the exhibition "Young Contemporaries—alongside "Peter Blake—that announced the arrival of British "Pop art. He was associated with the movement, but his early works display "expressionist elements, similar to some works by "Francis Bacon. When the RCA said it would not let him graduate in 1962, Hockney drew the sketch The Diploma in protest. He had refused to write an essay required for the final examination, saying he should be assessed solely on his artworks. Recognising his talent and growing reputation, the RCA changed its regulations and awarded the diploma. After leaving the RCA, he taught at Maidstone College of Art for a short time.
A visit to California, where he subsequently lived for many years, inspired him to make a series of paintings of swimming pools in the comparatively new "acrylic medium rendered in a highly realistic style using vibrant colours. The artist moved to Los Angeles in 1964, returned to London in 1968, and from 1973 to 1975 lived in Paris. In 1974 he began a decade-long personal relationship with Gregory Evans who moved with him to the US in 1976 and as of 2017 remains a business partner. In 1978 he rented the canyon house in which he lived when he moved to Los Angeles, and later bought and expanded it to include his studio. He also owned a 1,643-square-foot beach house at 21039 Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, which he sold in 1999 for around $1.5 million.
Hockney is openly gay, and unlike "Andy Warhol, whom he befriended, he openly explored the nature of gay love in his portraiture. Sometimes, as in We Two Boys Together Clinging (1961), named after a poem by "Walt Whitman, the works refer to his love for men. Already in 1963, he painted two men together in the painting Domestic Scene, Los Angeles, one showering while the other washes his back. In summer 1966, while teaching at "UCLA he met "Peter Schlesinger, an art student who posed for paintings and drawings, and with whom he was romantically involved.
On the morning of 18 March 2013, Hockney's 23-year-old assistant, Dominic Elliott, died as a result of drinking drain cleaner at Hockney's Bridlington studio; he had also earlier drunk alcohol and taken cocaine, ecstasy and temazepam. Elliott was a first- and second-team player for "Bridlington rugby club. It was reported that Hockney's partner drove Elliott to "Scarborough General Hospital where he later died. The inquest returned a verdict of "death by misadventure and Hockney was never implicated.
In November 2015 Hockney sold his house in Bridlington, a five-bedroomed former guesthouse, for £625,000, cutting all his remaining ties with the town. He retains a studio in London and a house in "Malibu, California.  Hockney has smoked cigarettes for over 60 years but has been a teetotaler since 1990 when he had a heart-attack. He holds a "California Medical Marijuana Verification Card, which enables him to buy "cannabis for medical purposes. He has used hearing aids since 1979, but realised he was going deaf long before that. He swims for half an hour each day and can stand for six hours at the easel.
Hockney made prints, "portraits of friends, and "stage designs for the "Royal Court Theatre, "Glyndebourne, "La Scala and the "Metropolitan Opera in New York City. Born with "synaesthesia, he sees synesthetic colours in response to musical stimuli. This does not show up in his painting or photography artwork, but is a common underlying principle in his designs for stage sets for ballet and opera—where he bases background colours and lighting on the colours he sees while listening to the piece's music.
Hockney painted portraits at different periods in his career. From 1968, and for the next few years he painted friends, lovers, and relatives just under lifesize and in pictures that depicted good likenesses of his subjects. Hockney's own presence is often implied, since the lines of perspective converge to suggest the artist's point of view. Hockney has repeatedly returned to the same subjects – his parents, artist Mo McDermott (Mo McDermott, 1976), various writers he has known, fashion designers "Celia Birtwell and "Ossie Clark ("Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy, 1970–71), curator "Henry Geldzahler, art dealer Nicholas Wilder, George Lawson and his ballet dancer lover, "Wayne Sleep.
On arrival in California, Hockney changed from oil to acrylic paint, applying it as smooth flat and brilliant colour. In 1965, the print workshop "Gemini G.E.L. approached him to create a series of lithographs with a Los Angeles theme. Hockney responded by creating a ready-made art collection.
In the early 1980s, Hockney began to produce "photo collages, which he called "joiners", first using Polaroid prints and subsequently 35mm, commercially processed colour prints. Using "Polaroid snaps or photolab-prints of a single subject, Hockney arranged a patchwork to make a composite image. An early photomontage was of his mother. Because the photographs are taken from different perspectives and at slightly different times, the result is work that has an affinity with "Cubism, one of Hockney's major aims—discussing the way human vision works. Some pieces are "landscapes, such as Pearblossom Highway #2, others "portraits, such as Kasmin 1982, and My Mother, Bolton Abbey, 1982.
While working on his photo collages, Hockney started to play around with studying movement. Unlike his other works, such as his portraits which represent the stillness of his subject, these collages show the movement of his subjects. His study began when he photographed a skater in New York. He would take these images and create a photo collage that would show the movement of the skater through several different photographs. Hockney found that by working with photos and movement, he could explore the characteristics of a photograph as well as the challenges he faced to create the movement. One example of these collages is the Bill Brandt and his Wife, Noya 1982. This photo collage represents the two reacting to his process behind his photo collages. Some of his other well known photo collages are Luncheon at the British Embassy, Canyon Looking North, September 1891, and Luxembourg Paris 10th August 1985. As he continued his work studying movement, Hockney briefly photographed his friends wedding, using his recent techniques to create a photo collage that showed the movement of the ceremony. Hockney also began to incorporate narratives into his photo collages. These photo collages not only represent movement, but also time moving through space. This idea came to him when he was visiting Japan and he created The Zen Garden at the Ryoanji Temple of Kyoto Feb 21st. 
Creation of the "joiners" occurred accidentally. He noticed in the late sixties that photographers were using cameras with wide-angle lenses. He did not like these photographs because they looked somewhat distorted. While working on a painting of a living room and terrace in Los Angeles, he took Polaroid shots of the living room and glued them together, not intending for them to be a composition on their own. On looking at the final composition, he realised it created a narrative, as if the viewer moved through the room. He began to work more with photography after this discovery and stopped painting for a while to exclusively pursue this new technique. Frustrated with the limitations of photography and its 'one eyed' approach, however, he returned to painting.
In 1976, at "Atelier Crommelynck, Hockney created a portfolio of 20 etchings, The Blue Guitar: Etchings By David Hockney Who Was Inspired By Wallace Stevens Who Was Inspired By Pablo Picasso. The etchings refer to themes in a poem by "Wallace Stevens, "The Man with the Blue Guitar". It was published by Petersburg Press in October 1977. That year, Petersburg also published a book, in which the images were accompanied by the poem's text.
Hockney was commissioned to design the cover and pages for the December 1985 issue of the French edition of "Vogue. Consistent with his interest in "cubism and admiration for "Pablo Picasso, Hockney chose to paint "Celia Birtwell (who appears in several of his works) from different views, as if the eye had scanned her face diagonally.
In December 1985, Hockney used the "Quantel Paintbox, a computer program that allowed the artist to sketch directly onto the screen. Using the program was similar to drawing on the "PET film for prints, with which he had much experience. The resulting work was featured in a BBC series that profiled a number of artists.
Hockney returned more frequently to Yorkshire in the 1990s, usually every three months, to visit his mother who died in 1999. He rarely stayed for more than two weeks until 1997, when his friend "Jonathan Silver who was terminally ill encouraged him to capture the local surroundings. He did this at first with paintings based on memory, some from his boyhood. Hockney returned to Yorkshire for longer and longer stays, and by 2005 was painting the countryside "en plein air. He set up residence and an immense redbrick seaside studio, a converted industrial workspace, in the seaside town of Bridlington, about 75 miles from where he was born. The oil paintings he produced after 2005 were influenced by his intensive studies in watercolour (for over a year in 2003–2004). He created paintings made of multiple smaller canvases—nine, 15 or more—placed together. To help him visualise work at that scale, he used digital photographic reproductions; each day's work was photographed, and Hockney generally took a photographic print home.
In June 2007, Hockney's largest painting, "Bigger Trees Near Warter, which measures 15 feet by 40 feet, was hung in the "Royal Academy's largest gallery in its annual "Summer Exhibition. This work "is a monumental-scale view of a coppice in Hockney's native Yorkshire, between Bridlington and York. It was painted on 50 individual canvases, mostly working in situ, over five weeks last winter." In 2008, he donated it to the "Tate Gallery in London, saying: "I thought if I'm going to give something to the Tate I want to give them something really good. It's going to be here for a while. I don't want to give things I'm not too proud of ... I thought this was a good painting because it's of England ... it seems like a good thing to do." The painting was the subject of a BBC1 Imagine film documentary by Bruno Wollheim called David Hockney: A Bigger Picture' (2009) which followed Hockney as he worked outdoors over the preceding two years.
Since 2009, Hockney has painted hundreds of portraits, still lifes and landscapes using the Brushes "iPhone and "iPad application, often sending them to his friends. His show Fleurs fraîches (Fresh flowers) curated by "Charlie Scheips was held at La Fondation Pierre Bergé in Paris. A Fresh-Flowers exhibit opened in 2011 at the "Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, featuring more than 100 of his drawings on 25 "iPads and 20 "iPods. In late 2011, Hockney revisited California to paint "Yosemite National Park on his iPad. For the season 2012–2013 in the "Vienna State Opera he designed, on his iPad, a large scale picture (176 sqm) as part of the exhibition series Safety Curtain, conceived by "museum in progress.
In September 2016 Hockney announced the issue of a new book David Hockney: A Bigger Book, scheduled to be published in October by "Benedikt Taschen and costing £1,750 (£3,500 with an added loose print). The book, weighing almost 70lbs, had gone through 19 proof stages. He unveiled the book at the "Frankfurt Book Fair where he was the keynote speaker at the opening press conference.
Hockney's first opera designs, for "Stravinsky's "The Rake's Progress at the "Glyndebourne Festival Opera in England in 1975 and "The Magic Flute (1978) were painted drops. In 1981, he agreed to design sets and costumes for three 20th-century French works at the "Metropolitan Opera House with the title Parade. The works were "Parade, a ballet with music by "Erik Satie; "Les mamelles de Tirésias, an opera with libretto by "Guillaume Apollinaire and music by "Francis Poulenc, and "L'enfant et les sortilèges, an opera with libretto by "Colette and music by "Maurice Ravel. The set for "L'enfant et les sortilèges is a permanent installation at the "Spalding House branch of the "Honolulu Museum of Art. He designed sets for "Puccini's Turandot in 1991 at the "Chicago Lyric Opera and a "Richard Strauss "Die Frau ohne Schatten in 1992 at the "Royal Opera House in London. In 1994, he designed costumes and scenery for twelve opera arias for the TV broadcast of "Plácido Domingo's "Operalia in Mexico City. Technical advances allowed him to become increasingly complex in model-making. At his studio he had a proscenium opening 6 feet (1.8 m) by 4 feet (1.2 m) in which he built sets in 1:8 scale. He also used a computerised setup that let him punch in and program lighting cues at will and synchronise them to a soundtrack of the music.
Hockney had his first one-man show when he was 26 in 1963, and by 1970 the "Whitechapel Gallery in London had organised the first of several major retrospectives, which subsequently travelled to three European institutions. In 2004, he was included in the cross-generational "Whitney Biennial, where his portraits appeared in a gallery with those of a younger artist he had inspired, "Elizabeth Peyton.
In October 2006, the "National Portrait Gallery in London organised one of the largest ever displays of Hockney's portraiture work, including 150 paintings, drawings, prints, sketchbooks, and photocollages from over five decades. The collection ranged from his earliest self-portraits to work he completed in 2005. Hockney assisted in displaying the works and the exhibition, which ran until January 2007, was one of the gallery's most successful. In 2009, "David Hockney: Just Nature" attracted some 100,000 visitors at the Kunsthalle Würth in "Schwäbisch Hall, Germany.
From 21 January 2012 to 9 April 2012, the Royal Academy presented "A Bigger Picture, which included more than 150 works, many of which take entire walls in the gallery's brightly lit rooms. The exhibition is dedicated to landscapes, especially trees and "tree tunnels. Works include oil paintings and watercolours inspired by his native Yorkshire. Around 50 drawings were created on an iPad and printed on paper. Hockney said, in a 2012 interview, "It's about big things. You can make paintings bigger. We're also making photographs bigger, videos bigger, all to do with drawing." The exhibition moved to the "Guggenheim Museum in "Bilbao, Spain from 15 May to 30 September, and from there to the "Ludwig Museum in "Cologne, Germany, between 27 October 2012 and 3 February 2013.
From 26 October 2013 to 30 January 2014 David Hockney: A Bigger Exhibition was presented at the "de Young Museum, one of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, showing work since 2002 and including Photoshop portraits, multi-canvas oils, iPad landscapes and digital movies shot with multiple cameras.
'Hockney, Printmaker', curated by Richard Lloyd, International Head of Prints at "Christie's, was the first major exhibition to focus on Hockney's prolific career as a printmaker. The exhibition ran from 5 February 2014 to 11 May 2014 at "Dulwich Picture Gallery before going on tour to "The Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle.
From 9 February to 29 May 2017 David Hockney was presented at the "Tate Britain. The exhibition gathered together "an extensive selection of David Hockney’s most famous works celebrating his achievements in painting, drawing, print, photography and video across six decades".
Many of Hockney's works are housed in "Salts Mill, in "Saltaire, near his home town of Bradford. Writer "Christopher Isherwood's collection is considered the most important private collection of his work. In the 1990s, Isherwood's long-time partner "Don Bachardy donated the collection to a foundation. His work is in numerous public and private collections worldwide, including:
In 1967, Hockney's painting, Peter Getting Out of Nick's Pool, won the "John Moores Painting Prize at the "Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. Hockney was offered a "knighthood in 1990 but declined, before accepting an "Order of Merit in January 2012. He was awarded The "Royal Photographic Society's Progress medal in 1988 and the Special 150th Anniversary Medal and Honorary Fellowship (HonFRPS) in recognition of a sustained, significant contribution to the art of photography in 2003. He was made a "Companion of Honour in 1997 and awarded The Cultural Award from the German Society for Photography (DGPh). He is a "Royal Academician. In 2012, "Queen Elizabeth II appointed him to the "Order of Merit, an honour restricted to 24 members at any one time for their contributions to the arts and sciences.
He was a Distinguished Honoree of the National Arts Association, Los Angeles, in 1991 and received the First Annual Award of Achievement from the "Archives of American Art, Los Angeles, in 1993. He was appointed to the Board of Trustees of the American Associates of the Royal Academy Trust, New York in 1992 and was given a Foreign Honorary Membership to the "American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1997. In 2003, Hockney was awarded the Lorenzo de' Medici Lifetime Career Award of the Florence Biennale, Italy.
Commissioned by The Other Art Fair, a November 2011 poll of 1,000 British painters and sculptors declared him Britain's most influential artist of all time. In 2012, Hockney was among the "British cultural icons selected by artist Sir "Peter Blake to appear in a new version of his most famous artwork – the Beatles' "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover – to celebrate the British cultural figures of his life that he most admires.
His A Bigger Grand Canyon, a series of 60 paintings that combined to produce one enormous picture, was bought by the "National Gallery of Australia for $4.6 million.
"Beverly Hills Housewife (1966–67), a 12-foot-long acrylic that depicts the collector "Betty Freeman standing by her pool in a long hot-pink dress, sold for $7.9 million at "Christie's in New York in 2008, the top lot of the sale and a record price for a Hockney.
This was topped in 2016 when his Woldgate Woods landscape made £9.4 million at auction.
In the 2001 television programme and book, Secret Knowledge, Hockney posited that the "Old Masters used "camera obscura techniques that projected the image of the subject onto the surface of the painting. Hockney argues that this technique migrated gradually to Italy and most of Europe, and is the reason for the photographic style of painting we see in the "Renaissance and later periods of art. He published his conclusions in the 2001 book "Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Lost Techniques of the Old Masters," which was revised in 2006.
Hockney was a founder of the "Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 1979. He serves on the advisory board of the political magazine "Standpoint, and contributed original sketches for its launch edition, in June 2008.
In 1966, while working on a series of etchings based on love poems by the Greek poet "Constantine P. Cavafy, Hockney starred in a documentary by filmmaker "James Scott, entitled Love's Presentation. He was the subject of Jack Hazan's 1974 biopic, "A Bigger Splash, named after Hockney's 1967 "pool painting of the same name. Hockney was also the inspiration of artist "Billy Pappas in the documentary film Waiting for Hockney (2008), which debuted at the "Tribeca Film Festival in 2008.
In 2005 "Burberry creative director "Christopher Bailey centred his entire spring/summer menswear collection around the artist and in 2012 fashion designer "Vivienne Westwood, a close friend, named a checked jacket after Hockney In 2011 British "GQ named him one of the 50 Most Stylish Men in Britain and in March 2013 he was listed as one of the Fifty Best-dressed Over-50s by "The Guardian.
David Hockney: A Rake's Progress (2012) is a biography of Hockney covering the years 1937–75, by writer/photographer Christopher Simon Sykes.
On 14 August 2012 Hockney was the subject of "BBC Radio Four's The New Elizabethans, presented by "James Naughtie. In December 2012, "The Sunday Times published for the first time works that it had commissioned Hockney to produce on a 1963 trip to "Egypt and which had been shelved because of the "Assassination of John F. Kennedy. Hockney had been paid in full but the works had never been previously published.
In 2012, Hockney, worth an estimated $55.2 million (approx. £36.1 m) transferred paintings valued at $124.2 million (approx. £81.5 m) to the David Hockney Foundation, and gave an additional $1.2 million (approx. £0.79 m) in cash to help fund the foundation's operations. The artist plans to give away the paintings, through the foundation, to galleries including the "Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the "Tate in London.
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