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Death and state funeral
of Nelson Mandela
""Madiba's house 4.jpg
Candlelight vigil outside Mandela's home.
Date 5–15 December 2013
Location "Johannesburg, "Gauteng
(Memorial service)
"Pretoria, "Gauteng
(Public viewing)
"Qunu, "Eastern Cape
(State funeral and burial)
Website www.mandela.gov.za

On 5 December 2013, "Nelson Mandela, the first "President of South Africa to be "elected in a fully representative democratic election, as well as the country's first black head of state, died at the age of 95 after suffering from a prolonged "respiratory infection. He died at around 20:50 "local time (UTC+2) at his home in "Houghton, "Johannesburg, "South Africa, surrounded by his family.[1] His death was announced by President "Jacob Zuma.[1][2] Reactions from governments, international organizations, and notable individuals, gained worldwide media coverage.

"South Africa observed a national mourning period of 10 days. During this time numerous memorial services were conducted across the country. The official memorial service was held at "FNB Stadium, "Johannesburg, on 10 December where the 95,000 seat stadium was two-thirds full because of the cold, rain, and transport challenges.[3] His body "lay in state at the "Union Buildings in "Pretoria from 11 to 13 December 2013. A "state funeral was held on 15 December 2013 in "Qunu in the "Eastern Cape province, where his body was buried.

President "Jacob Zuma announced Mandela's death on national television on 6 December 2013 at 23:45 "local time (UTC+2).[4][5]

Contents

Official funeral events[edit]

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Members of the public paying their respects outside Mandela's "Houghton home.
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"South African flag flying half-mast outside "Drakenstein Correctional Centre where Mandela was imprisoned from 1988 to his release in 1990.
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The largest "South African flag flying half-mast at the Donkin Reserve, "Port Elizabeth.
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US President "Barack Obama delivering his speech at Mandela's state memorial service.
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Members of the public queueing to view Mandela's body at the "Union Buildings.
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"Qunu village in the "Eastern Cape, where Mandela's funeral was held on 15 December 2013.

The "South African government announced a period of 10 days of national mourning ending with the state funeral on 15 December 2013.[6] Zuma ordered that all flags on government buildings be flown at "half-mast for the duration of this period.[7]

On 9 December "the government confirmed that at least 80 foreign heads of state and government would travel to South Africa to attend events.[6] African heads of state confirmed to be attending include the "Prime Minister of Lesotho, the "President of Mozambique, the "President of Namibia, the "President of Niger, the "President of Nigeria, the "Prime Minister of Swaziland, the "President of Tanzania, the "President of Tunisia, the "President of Uganda, the "President of Zimbabwe, and the "President of Zambia. "Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma attended in her capacity as "Chairperson of the African Union Commission.[6]

Other notable guests include the "President of the United States and three former presidents of the United States; the "President of India; the "Prime Minister of Italy; the "Vice President of China; the "President of Brazil; the "President of France; the "President of Ireland; the "Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; the "President of Germany; the "Prime Minister of Australia; two former "Governors General of Canada, the "Prime Minister of Canada, and four former Prime Ministers of Canada; the "Prime Minister of Jamaica; the "Prime Minister of Jordan; and the "President of Afghanistan. Royal dignitaries attending include, the "King of the Netherlands, the "King of Belgium, the "Prince of Wales, the "Prince of Asturias, the "Crown Prince of Denmark, the "Crown Princess of Sweden, the "Crown Prince of Norway, the "Crown Prince of Japan, and the "Queen Rania of Jordan.[6]

Day of prayer and reflection[edit]

The South African government declared Sunday, 8 December 2013 to be observed as a national day of prayer and reflection.[6]

We call upon all our people to gather in halls, churches, mosques, temples, synagogues and in their homes for prayer services and meditation, reflecting on the life of Madiba and his contribution to our country and the world.

— "Jacob Zuma, 6 December 2013

State memorial service[edit]

The official memorial service was held at "FNB Stadium in "Johannesburg on Tuesday, 10 December 2013 commencing at 11:00 "local time (UTC+2).[8][9] 91 heads of state and government; and 10 retired presidents were expected to attend this service.[10][11]

Sign language interpretation[edit]

In what was characterised as a national embarrassment, during the memorial service it became evident that the official sign language interpreter, Thamsanqa Jantjie, was a fake.[12] DeafSA, a South African association for the deaf, stated that Jantjie had made a "mockery of "South African sign language" and that the "deaf community was in outrage".[13] Jantjie, who stood on the memorial stage alongside world leaders throughout the event, made meaningless hand gestures that did not reflect established signs. How Jantjie had obtained the job and received security clearance raised questions about bureaucratic mismanagement.[13]

On 12 December, Jantjie apologised if he had offended anyone, explaining that his performance was impaired due to a hallucination brought on by his "schizophrenia. He added that he suffers from violent tendencies and stated that he had been hospitalised in a mental health facility for 19 months, beginning around 2006. Nonetheless, he maintained that he performed well, calling himself "a champion of sign language".[14][15]

The same day, Deputy Minister for Women, Children and People with Disabilities Hendrietta Bogopane-Zulu admitted, "In the process, and in the speed of the event, a mistake happened." However, she rejected the view that Jantjie was a fraud, stating, "we should not say that he is a fake interpreter because he does have a basic sign language translation qualification. He started off very well and got tired in the process ... [H]e has interpreted to deaf people in court before and is able to communicate with his deaf friends very well. It's just that (on that day) he did not sign what was expected of him."[16] The South African news broadcaster "eNCA alleges that between 1994 and 2003 Jantjie was charged, but not sentenced, for various crimes ranging from rape and housebreaking to attempted murder and kidnapping. According to the report he was sentenced to three years in prison for theft but the other charges were dropped as he was judged "mentally unfit to stand trial.[12] Another report states that Jantjie was part of a group that found two men with a stolen television, and then burned them to death by setting fire to tires placed around their necks (a practice known as ""necklacing").[17]

Booing of President Jacob Zuma[edit]

South African President "Jacob Zuma was unexpectedly booed and jeered by some in the crowd, though other sections cheered him. The booing faded when Zuma addressed the crowd.[18] The negative reaction reportedly stemmed from public anger over "corruption scandals that have tainted Zuma and his government. The current "ANC leadership is viewed as not living up to Mandela's celebrated legacy.[19]

Obama–Castro handshake[edit]

United States President "Barack Obama shook hands with Cuban leader "Raul Castro, the first such encounter between sitting U.S. and Cuban heads of government since "Bill Clinton and "Fidel Castro shook hands at the U.N. in 2000.[20] The gesture prompted criticism from "Republican politicians in Washington. Congresswoman "Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, a Cuban-American opponent of the Castro government, said: "Sometimes a handshake is just a handshake, but when the leader of the free world shakes the bloody hand of a ruthless dictator like Raul Castro, it becomes a propaganda coup for the tyrant." Senator "John McCain compared the Obama–Castro handshake to British Prime Minister "Neville Chamberlain's handshake with "Adolf Hitler when the two were in the process of negotiating the "Munich Agreement in 1938 saying, "Neville Chamberlain shook hands with Hitler. It gives Raul some propaganda to continue to prop up his dictatorial, brutal regime, that's all".[21] The Cuban government welcomed the gesture, although the White House said it had been unplanned.[22]

Obama–Thorning-Schmidt–Cameron selfie[edit]

Along with Obama, "Helle Thorning-Schmidt and "David Cameron—the respective leaders of "USA, "Denmark and the "UK faced criticism on social media that they had behaved inappropriately after posing for a ""selfie" which was taken using Thorning-Schmidt's mobile phone.[23][24] Defending her actions, Thorning-Schmidt said, "There were lots of pictures taken that day, and I just thought it was a bit fun. Maybe it also shows that when we meet heads of state and government, we too are just people who have fun."[23] Cameron said he was being polite when Thorning-Schmidt asked him to take part in the picture.[25]

Lying in state[edit]

Mandela's body "lay in state at the "Union Buildings in "Pretoria from 11 to 13 December 2013.[8] Approximately 100,000 mourners viewed Mandela's body over the three days. The crowds grew larger each day and thousands who queued on the final day could not be accommodated and were turned away.[26][27] Nelson Mandela's grandson, "Mandla Mandela, remained with his grandfather's body for all three days, in accordance with "AbaThembu tradition, which requires an adult male family member to remain with the body until burial.[28]

State funeral, Qunu[edit]

The state funeral was held on 15 December 2013 in "Qunu in the "Eastern Cape.[8] The ceremony was held in a very large tent in Qunu erected for the event and attended by 4,500 people, including various heads of state and foreign dignitaries.[29] The ceremony was televised on South African television up until the burial, when the filming and broadcast was stopped at the advance request of the Mandela family.[30] The ceremony was shown on big screens set up in public viewing spaces around the area.[31] The burial part of the funeral programme was attended by 450 selected people, including relatives and chosen dignitaries.[32] Shortly before the burial, Nelson Mandela was given a "21 gun salute and a "missing man formation flyover by fighter jets.[32][33][34]

Other memorial activities[edit]

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A crowd gathers at the "Grand Parade in front of the "Cape Town City Hall the day after Mandela's death. Mandela made his first public speech here after being released from prison in 1990 and following his death the area was designated as the city's primary public mourning space.

South Africa[edit]

The "Mayor of Cape Town, "Patricia de Lille, announced that the city would host an interfaith service on the "Grand Parade, which has been designated as Cape Town's primary public mourning space, on Sunday, 8 December 2013. A public night vigil was held there on the evening before Mandela's funeral. Cape Town also hosted a free tribute concert at the "Cape Town Stadium on Wednesday, 11 December 2013.[35]

Foreign states[edit]

A memorial service in honour of Mandela was held on 11 December 2013 in "Abu Dhabi.[36]

Queen "Elizabeth II honoured Mandela with a thanksgiving service at "Westminster Abbey in early 2014.[37][38][39]["citation needed]

A memorial service in honour of Mandela was held on 11 December 2013 at "Washington National Cathedral in "Washington, D.C.[40]

Reactions[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Political parties[edit]

Other commentators[edit]

Institutional reactions[edit]

Supranational organisations[edit]

Governments[edit]

UN Member States and Observers[edit]

Africa[edit]

Asia[edit]

  •  "Hong Kong: Chief Executive "CY Leung expressed his sadness at the death of Mandela. "We will remember Mr Mandela as a great man for his sacrifices, accomplishments and relentless quest for peace. On behalf of the Government and people of the Hong Kong, I express our profound sadness at the news of Nelson Mandela's death and our condolences to his family. Our thoughts and prayers are with the people of South Africa, including our South African community in Hong Kong, during this period of national mourning and reflection."[100]

Europe and European overseas territories[edit]

  •  "Gibraltar: Chief Minister "Fabian Picardo said "Gibraltar adds its small reflection on a man who inspired his nation to reconcile after the horrors of apartheid and who inspired generations of people around the world to understand the importance of magnanimity and of treating everyone as you would wish to be treated yourself."[150]
  •  "Guernsey: Chief Minister "Peter Harwood said Mandela served as an inspiration to all generations across all nations, and was an exemplar of the true meaning of reconciliation.[151]
  •  "Jersey: Chief Minister "Ian Gorst said "Nelson Mandela is one of the heroes of my generation – a man whose life and actions have changed a nation and inspired people around the world to believe in the value of equality and reconciliation. He was truly a man who let his life speak."[152]
  • "Northern Ireland: First Minister "Peter Robinson said, "We have known for some time that he was ill, nonetheless, it still comes as a great shock to lose such an inspirational man and a massive figure in terms of world politics."[153]
  •  "Scotland: First Minister "Alex Salmond said Mandela was "an inspiration to countless millions".[154]
  •  "British Virgin Islands: Premier "Dr. D. Orlando Smith said the "Government and people of the Virgin Islands join the world community in mourning the loss and remembering the life and legacy of the late Nelson Madiba Mandela."[155]
  •  "Wales: First Minister "Carwyn Jones paid tribute to Mandela's "strength of character that allowed him to put aside his difficulties, his trials, his sufferings, for the good of all people."[156]

North America[edit]

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President "Obama with former President "Bill Clinton and his daughter Chelsea.

Oceania[edit]

South America[edit]

Partially Recognized States[edit]

Individuals[edit]

Last will and testament[edit]

The last will and testament of Mandela was read on 3 February 2014.[195] At the time of the reading, his estate was worth an estimated 46 million "Rand.[196] The will was written in 2004 and was last amended in 2008.[197]

In the will, Mandela left his estate to Machel, family members, staff, schools and the ANC.[197]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

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