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Demographics of Russia
Population 144,498,215 (excluding "Crimea),[1][2] 146.8 million (including Crimea)[3]
Growth rate Increase 0.19% (2014 est.)[4]
Birth rate 13.3 births/1,000 population (2015)[5]
Death rate 13.0 deaths/1,000 population (2015)[5]
Life expectancy 72.5 years (2017)[6]
 • male 67.5 years
 • female 77.4 years
Fertility rate 1.78 (2015)
Infant mortality rate 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2014)[5]
Net migration rate 1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014)
Age structure
0–14 years 17.4%
15–64 years 68.2%
65 and over 14.4% (2017 1 january)
Sex ratio
Total 0.86 male(s)/female (2009)
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.06 male(s)/female (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)
15–64 years 0.925 male(s)/female (male 48,166,470/female 52,088,967)
65 and over 0.44 male(s)/female (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896)
Nationality
Nationality noun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian
Major ethnic "Russians
Language
Spoken Russian, "others
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1897 67,473,000 —    
1926 93,459,000 +38.5%
1939 108,377,000 +16.0%
1959 117,534,000 +8.4%
1970 130,079,000 +10.7%
1979 137,552,000 +5.7%
1989 147,386,000 +7.1%
2002 145,167,000 −1.5%
2010 142,900,000 −1.6%
2016 146,800,000 +2.7%
Source: [7]

The demographics of Russia is about the "demographic features of the population of the "Russian Federation including population growth, population density, "ethnic composition, education level, health, economic status and other aspects.

As of 1 January 2017, the population of Russia is 144,498,215 excluding Crimea, whose annexation is not recognized by the overwhelming majority of the international community.[1][8][9] Including "Crimea and Sevastopol, the population was 146,804,372 on January 1, 2017.[2] Around 77% of its population lives in "European Russia, while the 23% lives in its "Asian part.[10]:6[10]:10

As of 2015, Russian "TFR of 1.777 children per woman[11] was the highest in Eastern, Southern and Central Europe. In 2013, Russia experienced the first natural population growth since 1990 at 22,700.

According to the "2010 census, ethnic "Russians make up 81% of the total population. This share remained steady over the last few decades.[12][13] Six other ethnicities have a population exceeding 1 million – "Tatars (3.9%), "Ukrainians (1.4%), "Bashkir (1.1%), "Chuvash (1%), "Chechens (1%) and "Armenians (0.9%). In total, 160 different ethnic groups live within the Russian Federation's borders.

Russia's population density is 8.4 people per square kilometre (22 per square mile), making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. The population is most dense in the European part of the country, with milder climate, centering on Moscow and "Saint Petersburg. 74% of the population is urban, making Russia a "highly urbanized country.

Contents

Main trends[edit]

""
""
Natural population growth of Russia since 1950.[14][15][16]
  Birth rate
  Death rate
  Natural growth rate

The population of Russia peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the "breakup of the Soviet Union. Low birth rates and abnormally high death rates caused Russia's population to decline at a 0.5% annual rate, or about 750,000 to 800,000 people per year from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. The UN warned in 2005 that Russia's then population of about 143 million could fall by a third by 2050, if trends did not improve.[17][18]

The decline slowed considerably in the late 2000s, and in 2009 Russia recorded population growth for the first time in 15 years, adding 23,300.[14][19] Key reasons for the slow current population growth are improving health care, changing fertility patterns among younger women, falling emigration and steady influx of immigrants from ex-USSR countries. In 2012, Russia's population increased by 292,400.[20]

The number of Russians living in poverty has decreased by 50% since the economic crisis following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the improving economy had a positive impact on the country's low birth rate. The latter rose from its lowest point of 8.27 births per 1000 people in 1999 to 13.3 per 1000 in 2014. Likewise, the fertility rate rose from its lowest point of 1.157 in 1999 to 1.777 in 2015. 2007 marked the highest growth in birth rates that the country had seen in 25 years, and 2009 marked the highest total birth rate since 1991.[21]

While the Russian birth rate is comparable to that of developed countries, its death rate is much higher, especially among working-age males due to a comparatively high rate of fatalities caused by heart disease and other external causes such as accidents. The Russian death rate in 2010 was 14.3 per 1000 citizens.

Demographic crisis and recovery prospects[edit]

The causes for this sharp increase in mortality are widely debated. According to a 2009 report by "The Lancet,[22] a British medical journal, mass "privatization, an element of the economic-reform package nicknamed "shock therapy, clearly correlates with higher mortality rates. The report argues that advocates of economic reforms ignored the human cost of the policies they were promoting, such as unemployment and human suffering, leading to an early death. These conclusions were criticized by "The Economist.[23] A "WHO press-release in 2000, on the other hand, reported "widespread alcohol abuse in Russia being used as the most common explanation of higher men's mortality.[24] A 2008 study produced very similar results.[25]

A 2009 study blamed alcohol for more than half the deaths (52%) among Russians aged 15 to 54 in the '90s. For the same demographic, this compares to 4% of deaths for the rest of the world. The study claimed alcohol consumption in mid-90s in Russia averaged 10.5 litres, and was based on personal interviews conducted in three Siberian industrial cities, "Barnaul, "Biysk and "Omsk.[26] More recent studies have confirmed these findings. [27]

According to the Russian demographic publication Demoscope,[28] the rising male death rate was a long-term trend from 1960 to 2005. The only significant reversion of the trend was caused by "Mikhail Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign, but its effect was only temporary. According to the publication, the sharp rise of death rates in the early 1990s was caused by the exhaustion of the effect of the anti-alcohol campaign, while the market reforms were only of secondary importance. The authors also claimed the Lancet's study is flawed because it used the 1985 death rate as the base, while that was in fact the very maximum of the effect of the anti-alcohol campaign.[28]

Other factors contributing to the collapse, along with the economic problems, include the dying off of a relatively large cohort of people born between 1925 and 1940 (between the "Russian Civil War and "World War II), when Russian birth rates were very high, along with, ironically enough, an "echo boom" in the 1980s that may have satisfied the demand of women for children, leading to a subsequent drop in birth rates.

Government measures to halt the demographic crisis was a key subject of "Vladimir Putin's 2006 state of the nation address.[29] As a result, a national programme was developed with the goal to reverse the trend by 2020. Soon after, a study published in 2007 showed that the rate of population decrease had begun to slow: if the net decrease from January to August 2006 was 408,200 people, it was 196,600 in the same period in 2007. The death rate accounted for 357,000 of these, which is 137,000 less than in 2006.[30]

At the same time period in 2007, there were just over one million births in Russia (981,600 in 2006), whilst deaths decreased from 1,475,000 to 1,402,300. In all, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births by 1.3 times, down from 1.5 in 2006. 18 of the 83 provinces showed a natural growth of population (in 2006: 16). The Russian Ministry of Economic Development expressed hope that by 2020 the population would stabilize at 138–139 million, and by 2025, to increase again to its present-day status of 143–145, also raising the life expectancy to 75 years.[30]

The natural population decline continued to slow through 2008—2012 due to declining death rates and increasing birth rates. In 2009 the population saw yearly growth for the first time in 15 years.[14][19] In September 2009, the Ministry of Health and Social Development reported that Russia recorded natural population growth for the first time in 15 years, with 1,000 more births than deaths in August.[31] In April 2011 the Russian Prime Minister (Russian president as of 2012) Vladimir Putin pledged to spend the 1.5 trillion rubles (£32.5 billion or $54 billion) on various measures to boost Russia's declining birthrate by 30 per cent in the next four years.[32]

In 2012, the birth rate increased again. Russia recorded 1,896,263 births, the highest number since 1990, and even exceeding annual births during the period 1967–1969, with a TFR of 1.691, the highest since 1991. (Source: Vital statistics table below). In fact, Russia, despite having only slightly more people than "Japan, has recently had nearly twice as many births as that country. The number of births was expected to fall over the next few years as women born during the baby bust in the 1990s enter their prime childbearing years, but this didn't occur thanks to the continued growth of the TFR. The figures for 2013-2015 again showed around 1.9 million births, about the same as in 2012, but because the number of women of childbearing age is dropping, especially for those in their early 20s, the TFR actually rose to 1.777, which places Russia at first 9 or 10 countries out of 50 developed nations, and at 6th place in Europe.

Immigration[edit]

In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".[33] In August 2012, as the country saw its first demographic growth since the 1990s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach 146 million by 2025, mainly as a result of immigration.[34] Introduced in April 2014 new citizenship rules[35] allowing citizens of former Soviet countries to obtain Russian citizenship If they meet certain criteria (e.g. preferred language, ethnicity) have gained strong interest among Russian-speaking residents of those countries (i.e. "Russians, "Germans, "Belarusians and "Ukrainians).[36]

Contrary to the opinion of the media, Central Asia is only a tiny source of immigrants; out of 100,000 ethnic Uzbeks who arrived in Russia for work only 489 settled in Russia permanently. 50,000 Russian speakers from Uzbekistan arrived in the Russian Federation to settle. The largest amount were ethnic "Ukrainians – 700,000 people by a far majority. However they came because of the "Ukraine crisis (another thing to note is that they were legal when an overwhelming majority come undocumented). 1.4 million ethnic "Russians repatriated to their homeland in 2014, more than in previous years.["citation needed]

There are an estimated four million illegal immigrants from the "ex-Soviet states in Russia.[37] In 2012, the "Russian Federal Security Service's Border Service stated there had been an increase in illegal migration from the Middle East and Southeast Asia( Note that these were Temporary Contract Migrants) [38] Under legal changes made in 2012, illegal immigrants who are caught will be banned from reentering the country for 10 years.[39][40][41]

Since the collapse of the USSR, most immigrants have come from Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, Moldova, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.["citation needed] This has resulted in ethnic tension. Every year, 300,000 immigrants arrive in Russia, of which over 75% are Russian speakers.["citation needed] In the 1990s, immigration was the main reason Russia did not suffer substantial population decline. It reached a peak for this era at 1,200,000 in 1994 with a mass influx of mostly Russian speakers from ex-Soviet states fleeing for social, economic or political reasons such as the civil war in Tajikistan from 1992 to 1997. In 2014, immigration rose to 2.2 million, 89% of whom were fleeing the conflict in neighbouring Ukraine; in 2015, immigration exceeded 3 million with most coming from the same source.["citation needed]

With the accession of "Armenia to the "Eurasian Union immigration from Armenia increased by 20%.["citation needed]

Worker migration[edit]

Temporary "migrant workers in Russia consists of about 7 million people, most of the temporary workers come from "Central Asia the "Balkans and "East Asia. Most of them work in the construction, cleaning and in the household industries. They primary live in cities such as "Moscow, "Sochi and "Blagoveshchensk. While worker migrants are opposed by most Russians, the mayor of Moscow said that Moscow cannot do without worker migrants. New laws are in place that require worker migrants to be fluent in Russian, know Russian history and laws. The "Russian Opposition and most of the Russian population opposes worker migration, "Alexei Navalny stated that if he came to power he would introduce a "Visa regime to non-"Eurasian Union countries in the "former Soviet Union and have a Visa free regime with the "European Union and "The West to attract skilled migrants.[42] The problem of worker migration has become so severe it has caused a rise in "Russian nationalism, and spawned groups like "Movement Against Illegal Immigration.[43][44]

Population statistics[edit]

""
""
Population pyramid of Russia as of 1 January 2015. "Waves" are caused by huge losses in WWII. The sharp narrowing in the base of pyramid is caused by consequences of the economic collapse of the 1990s.
""
""
Russian population by age and sex as on 1 January 2017

Population density[edit]

8.4 people per square kilometer ("2010 Russian Census)[45]

Population distribution[edit]

74% urban, 26% rural ("2010 Russian Census)

Population growth rate[edit]

Increase 0.19% (2014 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 39.6 years
male: 36.7 years
female: 41.6 years (2009)[46]

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009)[46]

Natural increase current[edit]

""
""
Natural population growth rates (per 1,000 population) by Federal subject in 2015

Experts were puzzled with a sharp increase in deaths coincided with a sharp increase in life expectancy. While they have found out that a decrease in potential mothers led to a decrease in births and a rapid rise in fertility.[47]

""
""
Birth rate by regions in 2012
""
""
Death rate by regions in 2012
""
""
"TFR by regions in 2011
""
""
Urban "TFR by regions in 2011
""
""
Rural "TFR by regions in 2011

The number of births during July 2017 decreased by 24,026 relative to july 2016 and for the period January–July 2017 births decreased by 107,349 compared to the period January–July 2016.

The birth rate for January–July 2017 was 11.4 births per 1,000 population versus 12.8 during the same period in 2016.

The number of deaths during July 2017 decreased by 7200 but for the period January–July 2016 total deaths decreased by 20,207 compared to the previous year.

The death rate for January–July 2017 was 12.7 per 1,000 population, versus 13.0 during the same period in 2016.

Total natural increase during January–July has decreased to -1.3 per thousand in 2017 and decrease to -0.2 per thousand in 2016.

January–July Birth/2017 Birth/2016 Death/2017 Death/2016
"Russian Federation 11.4 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.7 Positive decrease 13.0 Positive decrease
"North Caucasian Federal District 14.3 Decrease 15.3 Decrease 7.7 Positive decrease 7.8 Positive decrease
"Chechnya 20.1 Steady 20.1 Decrease 4.7 Steady 4.7 Positive decrease
"Dagestan 15.7 Decrease 16.7 Increase 5.1 Positive decrease 5.2 Positive decrease
"Ingushetia 15.6 Decrease 16.5 Decrease 3.0 Positive decrease 3.1 Positive decrease
"North Ossetia-Alania 12.5 Decrease 13.7 Decrease 10.6 Negative increase 10.5 Negative increase
"Kabardino-Balkaria 12.5 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 8.8 Steady 8.8 Positive decrease
"Stavropol Krai 11.1 Decrease 12.7 Increase 11.5 Positive decrease 11.8 Positive decrease
"Karachay-Cherkessia 11.0 Decrease 11.8 Decrease 9.5 Steady 9.5 Positive decrease
"Ural Federal District 12.6 Decrease 14.2 Increase 12.1 Positive decrease 12.3 Positive decrease
"Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 13.9 Decrease 15.8 Increase 5.0 Positive decrease 5.2 Positive decrease
"Tyumen Oblast 14.0 Decrease 15.8 Decrease 8.0 Positive decrease 8.1 Negative increase
"Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 14.0 Decrease 15.8 Decrease 6.3 Negative increase 6.2 Positive decrease
"Sverdlovsk Oblast 12.4 Decrease 13.8 Increase 13.8 Positive decrease 14.0 Positive decrease
"Chelyabinsk Oblast 11.5 Decrease 13.2 Increase 13.4 Positive decrease 13.7 Positive decrease
"Kurgan Oblast 11.2 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 15.5 Positive decrease 15.8 Negative increase
"Siberian Federal District 12.2 Decrease 13.9 Increase 13.0 Positive decrease 13.2 Positive decrease
"Tuva 21.8 Decrease 22.8 Decrease 8.8 Positive decrease 9.7 Positive decrease
"Altai Republic 15.7 Decrease 18.7 Increase 9.9 Steady 9.9 Positive decrease
"Buriatia 14.4 Decrease 16.3 Increase 10.9 Positive decrease 11.3 Positive decrease
"Irkutsk Oblast 13.3 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 13.1 Positive decrease 13.5 Positive decrease
"Zabaykalsky Krai 13.0 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 11.9 Positive decrease 12.5 Positive decrease
"Khakassia 12.6 Decrease 14.3 Decrease 12.9 Positive decrease 13.3 Negative increase
"Novosibirsk Oblast 12.5 Decrease 13.9 Increase 13.2 Positive decrease 13.3 Positive decrease
"Krasnoyarsk Krai 12.4 Decrease 14.0 Decrease 12.5 Positive decrease 12.7 Positive decrease
"Omsk Oblast 11.5 Decrease 13.5 Increase 13.3 Positive decrease 13.4 Positive decrease
"Tomsk Oblast 11.5 Decrease 13.1 Increase 11.6 Steady 11.6 Positive decrease
"Altai Krai 10.8 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 14.3 Negative increase 14.2 Negative increase
"Kemerovo Oblast 10.4 Decrease 12.2 Increase 14.3 Positive decrease 14.6 Positive decrease
"Far East Federal District 11.9 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 12.3 Positive decrease 12.5 Positive decrease
"Sakha Republic 14.5 Decrease 15.6 Decrease 8.1 Positive decrease 8.3 Positive decrease
"Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 14.3 Increase 13.0 Increase 9.2 Positive decrease 10.0 Positive decrease
"Sakhalin Oblast 12.7 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 12.2 Positive decrease 13.2 Positive decrease
"Amur Oblast 11.9 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 13.8 Negative increase 13.7 Negative increase
"Khabarovsk Krai 11.8 Decrease 13.3 Increase 13.2 Negative increase 13.1 Positive decrease
"Jewish Autonomous Oblast 11.7 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 14.0 Positive decrease 15.2 Negative increase
"Kamchatka Krai 11.7 Decrease 12.8 Increase 11.0 Positive decrease 11.7 Positive decrease
"Primorsky Krai 10.7 Decrease 12.1 Increase 13.4 Positive decrease 13.6 Positive decrease
"Magadan Oblast 10.7 Decrease 11.1 Decrease 11.3 Negative increase 11.2 Positive decrease
"North-West Federal District 11.2 Decrease 12.5 Increase 13.1 Positive decrease 13.3 Positive decrease
"Nenets Autonomous Okrug 15.0 Decrease 17.4 Decrease 9.3 Steady 9.3 Positive decrease
"St-Petersburg 12.6 Decrease 13.9 Increase 11.6 Positive decrease 11.8 Positive decrease
"Vologda Oblast 11.7 Decrease 13.5 Increase 14.8 Positive decrease 15.1 Positive decrease
"Komi Republic 11.5 Decrease 13.3 Increase 11.9 Positive decrease 12.4 Positive decrease
"Kaliningrad Oblast 10.8 Decrease 12.2 Increase 12.6 Steady 12.6 Positive decrease
"Arkhangelsk Oblast 10.6 Decrease 12.2 Increase 13.4 Positive decrease 13.6 Positive decrease
"Republic of Karelia 10.5 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 14.8 Negative increase 14.7 Negative increase
"Murmansk Oblast 10.4 Decrease 11.4 Decrease 11.2 Positive decrease 11.6 Positive decrease
"Novgorod Oblast 10.3 Decrease 11.8 Increase 17.4 Positive decrease 17.5 Positive decrease
"Pskov Oblast 9.5 Decrease 11.1 Increase 18.0 Positive decrease 18.3 Negative increase
"Leningrad Oblast 8.4 Decrease 9.2 Decrease 13.8 Positive decrease 14.2 Positive decrease
"Volga Federal District 11.0 Decrease 12.9 Increase 13.5 Positive decrease 13.7 Negative increase
"Perm Krai 12.3 Decrease 14.2 Increase 13.7 Positive decrease 13.8 Negative increase
"Tatarstan 12.2 Decrease 14.4 Increase 11.7 Negative increase 11.6 Positive decrease
"Mari El 12.0 Decrease 14.2 Increase 12.8 Positive decrease 13.3 Negative increase
"Bashkortostan 12.0 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 12.6 Positive decrease 12.9 Positive decrease
"Udmurtia 11.9 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 12.3 Positive decrease 12.8 Positive decrease
"Orenburg Oblast 11.4 Decrease 13.7 Decrease 13.6 Steady 13.6 Negative increase
"Chuvashia Republic 11.2 Decrease 13.5 Increase 12.9 Positive decrease 13.2 Positive decrease
"Kirov Oblast 10.5 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 15.0 Positive decrease 15.1 Negative increase
"Samara Oblast 10.5 Decrease 12.4 Increase 13.9 Positive decrease 14.0 Positive decrease
"Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 10.5 Decrease 11.8 Decrease 15.0 Positive decrease 15.5 Negative increase
"Ulyanovsk Oblast 9.9 Decrease 11.4 Increase 14.4 Positive decrease 14.8 Positive decrease
"Saratov Oblast 9.2 Decrease 11.0 Increase 13.9 Positive decrease 14.1 Positive decrease
"Penza Oblast 8.9 Decrease 10.3 Decrease 14.6 Positive decrease 14.7 Positive decrease
"Mordovia 8.5 Decrease 9.9 Increase 14.0 Positive decrease 14.3 Negative increase
"Southern Federal District 10.6 Decrease 12.0 Increase 13.3 Positive decrease 13.6 Negative increase
"Astrakhan Oblast 11.6 Decrease 13.8 Increase 11.9 Positive decrease 12.0 Positive decrease
"Krasnodar Krai 11.4 Decrease 12.9 Increase 12.8 Positive decrease 13.0 Positive decrease
"Sevastopol 11.0 Decrease 12.7 Increase 13.5 Positive decrease 13.8 Negative increase
"Republic of Crimea 10.5 Decrease 11.6 Decrease 14.6 Positive decrease 15.4 Negative increase
"Kalmukia 10.3 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 10.4 Negative increase 9.8 Positive decrease
"Adygea 10.2 Decrease 11.7 Decrease 13.1 Positive decrease 13.3 Positive decrease
"Rostov Oblast 10.0 Decrease 11.3 Increase 13.6 Positive decrease 14.2 Positive decrease
"Volgograd Oblast 9.7 Decrease 10.9 Increase 13.6 Positive decrease 13.9 Negative increase
"Central Federal District 10.4 Decrease 11.6 Increase 13.2 Positive decrease 13.5 Positive decrease
"Moscow Oblast 11.9 Decrease 13.1 Increase 12.5 Positive decrease 13.0 Positive decrease
"Kaluga Oblast 10.8 Decrease 12.2 Increase 15.0 Positive decrease 15.1 Positive decrease
"City of Moscow 10.8 Decrease 11.7 Increase 9.7 Positive decrease 9.9 Positive decrease
"Kostroma Oblast 10.5 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 15.2 Positive decrease 15.5 Negative increase
"Yaroslavl Oblast 10.4 Decrease 11.9 Decrease 15.5 Positive decrease 15.8 Positive decrease
"Lipetsk Oblast 10.0 Decrease 11.2 Increase 15.0 Positive decrease 15.3 Positive decrease
"Tver Oblast 9.9 Decrease 11.4 Decrease 17.2 Positive decrease 17.8 Positive decrease
"Ryazan Oblast 9.9 Decrease 11.3 Decrease 15.9 Positive decrease 16.1 Positive decrease
"Vladimir Oblast 9.7 Decrease 11.3 Increase 16.0 Positive decrease 16.6 Negative increase
"Ivanovo Oblast 9.6 Decrease 11.0 Increase 16.1 Positive decrease 16.2 Negative increase
"Belgorod Oblast 9.5 Decrease 11.0 Decrease 13.7 Positive decrease 14.4 Positive decrease
"Bryansk Oblast 9.5 Decrease 11.0 Increase 15.7 Positive decrease 15.9 Positive decrease
"Kursk Oblast 9.4 Decrease 10.9 Steady 16.1 Positive decrease 16.6 Negative increase
"Voronezh Oblast 9.4 Decrease 10.6 Increase 15.1 Positive decrease 15.6 Positive decrease
"Oryol Oblast 9.3 Decrease 10.9 Increase 16.0 Positive decrease 16.3 Positive decrease
"Smolensk Oblast 9.1 Decrease 10.3 Decrease 15.9 Positive decrease 16.6 Positive decrease
"Tula Oblast 9.0 Decrease 10.3 Increase 16.8 Positive decrease 17.2 Positive decrease
"Tambov Oblast 8.6 Decrease 9.5 Decrease 15.7 Positive decrease 16.1 Positive decrease

Natural increase 2016[edit]

January–December Birth/2016 Birth/2015 Birth/2014 Birth/2013 Birth/2012 Death/2016 Death/2015 Death/2014 Death/2013 Death/2012
"Russian Federation 12.9 Decrease 13.3 Increase 13.3 Increase 13.2 Decrease 13.3 Increase 12.9 Decrease 13.1 Steady 13.1 Steady 13.0 Decrease 13.3 Decrease
"North Caucasian Federal District 15.9 Decrease 16.6 Decrease 17.3 Increase 17.2 Decrease 17.4 Increase 7.8 Decrease 7.9 Decrease 8.1 Increase 8.0 Decrease 8.2 Decrease
"Chechnya 21.3 Decrease 23.2 Decrease 24.2 Decrease 24.9 Decrease 25.9 Decrease 4.7 Decrease 4.9 Decrease 5.0 Steady 5.0 Decrease 5.4 Increase
"Dagestan 17.4 Decrease 18.2 Decrease 19.1 Increase 18.8 Decrease 19.0 Increase 5.2 Decrease 5.4 Decrease 5.6 Increase 5.5 Decrease 5.6 Steady
"Ingushetia 17.1 Decrease 18.6 Decrease 20.7 Decrease 21.4 Decrease 22.6 Decrease 3.3 Steady 3.3 Decrease 3.5 Steady 3.5 Decrease 3.7 Decrease
"Kabardino-Balkaria 14.1 Decrease 14.6 Decrease 15.7 Increase 15.5 Decrease 15.9 Increase 8.5 Decrease 8.8 Steady 8.8 Decrease 8.9 Steady 8.9 Decrease
"North Ossetia-Alania 14.1 Decrease 14.6 Decrease 15.4 Increase 15.3 Increase 15.0 Increase 10.3 Decrease 10.7 Steady 10.7 Increase 10.5 Decrease 10.6 Decrease
"Stavropol Krai 13.0 Steady 13.0 Decrease 13.1 Increase 12.7 Increase 12.5 Increase 11.7 Increase 11.6 Decrease 11.8 Increase 11.7 Decrease 12.0 Decrease
"Karachay-Cherkessia 11.9 Decrease 12.4 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 13.8 Increase 13.5 Increase 9.4 Decrease 9.6 Decrease 9.7 Increase 9.5 Decrease 9.7 Steady
"Ural Federal District 14.2 Decrease 14.9 Decrease 15.2 Increase 15.1 Steady 15.1 Increase 12.3 Decrease 12.5 Increase 12.4 Steady 12.4 Decrease 12.6 Decrease
"Tyumen Oblast 15.8 Decrease 16.7 Decrease 17.2 Increase 17.0 Decrease 17.2 Increase 8.2 Decrease 8.3 Steady 8.3 Increase 8.2 Decrease 8.4 Decrease
"Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 15.7 Decrease 16.6 Decrease 17.3 Decrease 17.5 Decrease 17.6 Increase 6.2 Decrease 6.4 Steady 6.4 Increase 6.3 Steady 6.3 Decrease
"Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 15.4 Decrease 16.5 Decrease 16.9 Increase 16.4 Decrease 16.7 Increase 5.2 Steady 5.2 Increase 5.1 Steady 5.1 Decrease 5.3 Decrease
"Sverdlovsk Oblast 13.8 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 14.5 Steady 14.5 Increase 14.3 Increase 14.0 Decrease 14.2 Increase 14.0 Increase 13.8 Decrease 13.9 Decrease
"Chelyabinsk Oblast 13.3 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.3 Increase 14.2 Decrease 14.3 Increase 13.6 Decrease 13.9 Increase 13.8 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.2 Steady
"Kurgan Oblast 12,4 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.6 Increase 14.0 Increase 13.8 Increase 15.8 Decrease 16.1 Increase 15.9 Decrease 16.1 Increase 15.9 Increase
"Siberian Federal District 13.8 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 14.9 Steady 14.9 Increase 13.0 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.3 Steady 13.3 Decrease 13.6 Decrease
"Tuva 23.4 Decrease 23.7 Decrease 25.3 Decrease 26.1 Decrease 26.5 Decrease 9.8 Decrease 10.3 Decrease 10.9 Decrease 11.0 Decrease 11.1 Increase
"Altai Republic 18.1 Decrease 18.7 Decrease 20.9 Steady 20.9 Decrease 22.4 Decrease 10.0 Decrease 10.9 Decrease 11.2 Decrease 11.4 Steady 11.4 Decrease
"Buriatia 16.4 Decrease 17.3 Decrease 17.5 Decrease 17.6 Increase 17.4 Increase 11.2 Decrease 11.4 Decrease 11.5 Decrease 11.8 Decrease 12.4 Decrease
"Irkutsk Oblast 14.7 Decrease 15.4 Steady 15.4 Decrease 15.6 Decrease 15.9 Increase 13.3 Decrease 13.7 Decrease 13.8 Increase 13.7 Decrease 13.8 Decrease
"Zabaykalsky Krai 14.6 Decrease 15.4 Decrease 16.0 Increase 15.9 Decrease 16.1 Increase 12.3 Decrease 12.9 Increase 12.4 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 13.0 Decrease
"Khakassia 14.1 Decrease 14.8 Decrease 15.3 Decrease 15.7 Decrease 16.0 Increase 12.8 Decrease 13.5 Increase 13.2 Increase 13.1 Decrease 13.3 Decrease
"Krasnoyarsk Krai 13.9 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 14.5 Steady 14.5 Steady 14.5 Increase 12.5 Decrease 12.7 Steady 12.7 Decrease 12.8 Decrease 12.9 Decrease
"Novosibirsk Oblast 13.9 Decrease 14.2 Increase 14.1 Decrease 14.2 Increase 13.9 Increase 13.1 Steady 13.1 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.6 Steady 13.6 Steady
"Omsk Oblast 13.3 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 15.1 Increase 14.8 Decrease 14.9 Increase 13.3 Decrease 13.4 Increase 13.3 Decrease 13.4 Decrease 13.8 Increase
"Tomsk Oblast 13.2 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 13.7 Decrease 13.8 Increase 13.6 Increase 11.4 Decrease 11.5 Decrease 11.8 Steady 11.8 Decrease 11.9 Decrease
"Altai Krai 12.2 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.5 Decrease 13.6 Increase 14.0 Decrease 14.2 Steady 14.2 Steady 14.2 Decrease 14.6 Steady
"Kemerovo Oblast 12.1 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 13.7 Increase 14.3 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 14.6 Steady 14.6 Decrease 15.1 Decrease
"Far East Federal District 13.4 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.1 Increase 13.9 Steady 13.9 Increase 12.5 Decrease 12.6 Steady 12.6 Steady 12.6 Decrease 13.0 Decrease
"Sakha Republic 16.0 Decrease 17.1 Decrease 17.8 Increase 17.5 Decrease 17.6 Increase 8.4 Decrease 8.6 Steady 8.6 Decrease 8.7 Decrease 9.3 Steady
"Sakhalin Oblast 14.3 Increase 13.6 Steady 13.6 Increase 13.0 Increase 12.8 Increase 13.1 Decrease 13.2 Increase 13.0 Decrease 13.1 Decrease 13.8 Decrease
"Khabarovsk Krai 13.4 Decrease 14.3 Increase 14.0 Steady 14.0 Increase 13.6 Increase 13.1 Decrease 13.4 Increase 13.3 Decrease 13.4 Decrease 13.5 Decrease
"Jewish Autonomous Oblast 13.3 Decrease 14.0 Increase 13.8 Increase 13.7 Decrease 14.0 Decrease 15.0 Decrease 15.4 Increase 14.9 Increase 14.5 Decrease 15.1 Decrease
"Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 13.4 Decrease 13.5 Increase 13.3 Increase 13.1 Decrease 14.1 Increase 10.0 Increase 9.6 Decrease 10.7 Increase 10.5 Decrease 11.5 Increase
"Amur Oblast 12.9 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.3 Increase 13.7 Decrease 13.9 Steady 13.9 Increase 13.8 Decrease 14.7 Steady }
"Kamchatka Krai 12.9 Decrease 13.1 Decrease 13.2 Increase 13.0 Steady 13.0 Increase 11.6 Increase 11.4 Decrease 11.5 Increase 11.4 Decrease 11.5 Decrease
"Primorsky Krai 12.2 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.6 Steady 12.6 Increase 13.6 Increase 13.5 Increase 13.4 Decrease 13.5 Decrease 13.7 Decrease
"Magadan Oblast 11.1 Decrease 11.8 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 12.5 Increase 12.4 Increase 11.3 Decrease 11.8 Decrease 11.9 Steady 11.9 Decrease 12.6 Decrease
"Volga Federal District 12.9 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.4 Increase 13.3 Increase 13.2 Increase 13.6 Decrease 13.9 Steady 13.9 Decrease 14.0 Increase 13.9 Decrease
"Tatarstan 14.4 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 14.8 Steady 14.8 Increase 14.5 Increase 11.6 Decrease 12.0 Decrease 12.2 Increase 12.1 Decrease 12.2 Decrease
"Perm Krai 14.2 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 14.8 Increase 14.7 Decrease 14.8 Increase 13.8 Decrease 14.2 Increase 14.0 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.2 Decrease
"Mari El 13.9 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 14.7 Increase 14.6 Increase 14.2 Increase 13.2 Decrease 13.7 Steady 13.7 Steady 13.7 Increase 13.6 Decrease
"Udmurtia 13.8 Decrease 14.6 Steady 14.6 Steady 14.6 Decrease 15.2 Increase 12.6 Decrease 12.9 Increase 12.8 Steady 12.8 Steady 12.8 Decrease
"Bashkortostan 13.7 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 14.9 Increase 14.6 Increase 14.5 Increase 12.8 Decrease 13.3 Increase 13.2 Steady 13.2 Increase 13.1 Decrease
"Orenburg Oblast 13.5 Decrease 14.2 Decrease 14.6 Decrease 14.8 Increase 14.7 Increase 13.5 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.2 Increase 13.9 Steady 13.9 Decrease
"Chuvashia Republic 13.3 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.0 Steady 14.0 Increase 13.1 Steady 13.1 Decrease 13.3 Increase 13.2 Decrease 13.3 Decrease
"Samara Oblast 12.6 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.6 Increase 12.3 Increase 12.1 Increase 13.9 Decrease 14.2 Decrease 14.3 Decrease 14.4 Increase 13.9 Decrease
"Kirov Oblast 12.6 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 12.8 Decrease 13.0 Increase 12.7 Increase 14.9 Decrease 15.2 Increase 15.1 Decrease 15.4 Decrease 15.5 Decrease
"Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 11.9 Decrease 12.3 Increase 11.9 Increase 11.8 Steady 11.8 Increase 15.4 Decrease 15.6 Decrease 15.9 Steady 15.9 Decrease 16.0 Decrease
"Ulyanovsk Oblast 11.6 Decrease 11.9 Steady 11.9 Increase 11.6 Increase 11.3 Increase 14.8 Decrease 14.9 Increase 14.6 Increase 14.4 Increase 14.1 Decrease
"Saratov Oblast 11.0 Decrease 11.5 Steady 11.5 Steady 11.5 Increase 11.3 Increase 14.0 Decrease 14.2 Steady 14.2 Steady 14.4 Increase 14.2 Decrease
"Penza Oblast 10.2 Decrease 10.7 Decrease 10.9 Increase 10.7 Decrease 10.8 Increase 14.5 Decrease 14.9 Increase 14.8 Steady 14.8 Decrease 14.9 Decrease
"Mordovia 9.9 Increase 9.7 Decrease 10.1 Steady 10.1 Increase 9.9 Increase 14.1 Decrease 14.2 Decrease 14.3 Decrease 14.8 Increase 14.4 Decrease
"North-West Federal District 12.5 Steady 12.5 Increase 12.3 Increase 12.2 Steady 12.2 Increase 13.2 Decrease 13.4 Increase 13.3 Decrease 13.5 Decrease 13.8 Decrease
"Nenets Autonomous Okrug 18.3 Increase 17.5 Increase 16.6 Steady 16.6 Decrease 17.4 Increase 8.8 Decrease 9.3 Increase 8.9 Decrease 10.7 Increase 10.2 Decrease
"Vologda Oblast 13.3 Decrease 13.8 Increase 13.6 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 13.9 Increase 15.0 Increase 14.8 Steady 14.8 Decrease 15.1 Increase 15.0 Decrease
"Komi Republic 13.1 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.2 Increase 13.9 Increase 12.3 Steady 12.3 Increase 12.2 Increase 11.9 Decrease 12.1 Decrease
"St-Petersburg 13.9 Increase 13.6 Increase 13.1 Increase 12.8 Increase 12.6 Increase 11.7 Decrease 11.9 Increase 11.7 Decrease 12.0 Decrease 12.5 Decrease
"Kaliningrad Oblast 12.5 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.7 Increase 12.5 Increase 12.4 Increase 12.6 Decrease 13.3 Steady 13.3 Increase 13.2 Steady 13.2 Decrease
"Arkhangelsk Oblast 12.0 Decrease 12.4 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 12.8 Increase 13.5 Increase 13.4 Increase 13.2 Decrease 13.4 Decrease 13.5 Decrease
"Republic of Karelia 11.9 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 12.4 Increase 12.0 Decrease 12.5 Increase 14.8 Decrease 15.3 Increase 14.6 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 15.3 Increase
"Novgorod Oblast 11.8 Decrease 11.9 Increase 11.8 Decrease 12.0 Increase 11.9 Increase 17.4 Decrease 17.6 Increase 17.3 Decrease 17.8 Decrease 17.9 Decrease
"Murmansk Oblast 11.2 Decrease 11.9 Increase 11.8 Steady 11.8 Increase 11.7 Increase 11.5 Steady 11.5 Increase 11.4 Increase 11.0 Decrease 11.2 Decrease
"Pskov Oblast 11.1 Steady 11.1 Increase 10.9 Decrease 11.0 Steady 11.0 Increase 17.9 Decrease 18.2 Decrease 18.5 Decrease 18.6 Decrease 19.5 Increase
"Leningrad Oblast 9.2 Increase 9.1 Steady 9.1 Increase 9.0 Steady 9.0 Increase 14.0 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.6 Steady 14.6 Decrease 14.7 Decrease
"Southern Federal District 12.4 Decrease 12.8 Decrease 12.9 Increase 12.6 Steady 12.6 Increase 13.5 Decrease 13.6 Increase 13.4 Increase 13.2 Decrease 13.4 Decrease
"Astrakhan Oblast 14.0 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 15.0 Increase 14.8 Decrease 15.1 Increase 12.0 Decrease 12.3 Decrease 12.7 Increase 12.3 Decrease 12.6 Decrease
"Krasnodar Krai 13.4 Decrease 13.6 Steady 13.6 Increase 13.2 Increase 13.1 Increase 12.9 Decrease 13.1 Increase 13.0 Increase 12.9 Decrease 13.1 Decrease
"Sevastopol 13.0 Decrease 13.7 Increase 12.7 Increase 11.7 Decrease 12.0 Increase 14.1 Decrease 15.2 Increase 14.4 Increase 14.0 Increase 13.7 Decrease
"Kalmukia 12.5 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 14.8 Increase 9.7 Decrease 9.8 Decrease 9.9 Steady 9.9 Decrease 10.0 Decrease
"Republic of Crimea 12.1 Decrease 12.7 Increase 12.4 Increase 12.3 Decrease 12.6 Increase 15.2 Decrease 15.4 Increase 14.7 Increase 13.8 Increase 13.7 Decrease
"Adygea 12.1 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.7 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.9 Decrease 13.0 Decrease 13.3 Increase 13.2 Decrease 13.4 Decrease
"Rostov Oblast 11.6 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 12.2 Increase 11.7 Steady 11.7 Increase 13.9 Steady 13.9 Decrease 14.1 Increase 13.8 Decrease 14.0 Decrease
"Volgograd Oblast 11.2 Decrease 11.5 Steady 11.5 Decrease 11.6 Decrease 11.7 Increase 13.6 Decrease 13.8 Increase 13.7 Increase 13.5 Steady 13.5 Decrease
"Central Federal District 11.7 Decrease 11.8 Increase 11.5 Increase 11.4 Steady 11.4 Increase 13.5 Steady 13.5 Decrease 13.7 Steady 13.7 Decrease 13.9 Decrease
"Moscow Oblast 13.2 Increase 13.1 Increase 12.6 Increase 12.1 Increase 12.0 Increase 13.1 Increase 13.0 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.4 Steady
"Kaluga Oblast 12.2 Decrease 12.7 Increase 11.8 Steady 11.8 Steady 11.8 Increase 15.1 Steady 15.1 Decrease 15.3 Steady 15.3 Decrease 15.7 Increase
"Yaroslavl Oblast 12.1 Decrease 12.2 Increase 12.0 Decrease 12.1 Increase 11.9 Increase 15.7 Increase 15.6 Steady 15.6 Decrease 15.9 Steady 15.9 Increase
"Kostroma Oblast 12.0 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 12.8 Increase 15.6 Decrease 16.0 Increase 15.9 Decrease 16.2 Increase 16.0 Decrease
"City of Moscow 11.8 Increase 11.7 Increase 11.4 Increase 11.3 Steady 11.3 Increase 10.0 Steady 10.0 Increase 9.7 Steady 9.7 Decrease 9.9 Increase
"Lipetsk Oblast 11.4 Decrease 11.7 Increase 11.6 Increase 11.4 Decrease 11.6 Increase 15.2 Decrease 15.4 Steady 15.4 Increase 15.3 Steady 15.3 Increase
"Ryazan Oblast 11.4 Increase 11.2 Increase 11.0 Increase 10.8 Steady 10.8 Increase 15.9 Steady 15.9 Decrease 16.1 Increase 15.8 Decrease 16.3 Decrease
"Belgorod Oblast 11.2 Decrease 11.6 Steady 11.6 Steady 11.6 Decrease 11.7 Increase 13.9 Decrease 14.0 Steady 14.0 Increase 13.9 Decrease 14.0 Steady
"Vladimir Oblast 11.2 Decrease 11.6 Increase 11.2 Increase 11.1 Decrease 11.5 Increase 16.4 Decrease 16.5 Steady 16.5 Decrease 16.7 Increase 16.6 Decrease
"Tver Oblast 11.2 Decrease 11.3 Increase 11.2 Decrease 11.4 Decrease 11.6 Increase 17.6 Decrease 17.7 Decrease 17.8 Decrease 18.1 Decrease 18.2 Decrease
"Kursk Oblast 11.1 Decrease 11.7 Decrease 11.8 Increase 11.7 Decrease 11.9 Increase 16.1 Decrease 16.3 Decrease 16.6 Increase 16.3 Decrease 16.6 Decrease
"Oryol Oblast 11.0 Decrease 11.2 Increase 11.0 Decrease 11.1 Steady 11.1 Increase 16.3 Decrease 16.4 Steady 16.4 Increase 16.3 Increase 16.2 Decrease
"Ivanovo Oblast 10.9 Decrease 11.4 Increase 11.2 Steady 11.2 Increase 11.0 Increase 16.0 Decrease 16.1 Decrease 16.4 Steady 16.4 Decrease 16.8 Decrease
"Bryansk Oblast 10.9 Decrease 11.4 Increase 11.0 Decrease 11.1 Decrease 11.4 Increase 15.6 Decrease 15.8 Decrease 16.0 Increase 15.9 Decrease 16.1 Steady
"Voronezh Oblast 10.7 Decrease 11.1 Increase 10.9 Increase 10.7 Decrease 10.9 Increase 15.2 Decrease 15.4 Decrease 15.7 Steady 15.7 Increase 15.6 Decrease
"Smolensk Oblast 10.3 Decrease 10.6 Decrease 10.8 Increase 10.6 Increase 10.5 Increase 16.1 Decrease 16.4 Increase 16.1 Decrease 16.5 Decrease 16.7 Decrease
"Tula Oblast 10.2 Decrease 10.5 Increase 10.0 Increase 9.9 Decrease 10.1 Increase 17.0 Decrease 17.1 Steady 17.1 Decrease 17.4 Decrease 17.7 Steady
"Tambov Oblast 9.6 Decrease 9.8 Steady 9.8 Increase 9.6 Steady 9.6 Increase 15.8 Decrease 16.0 Decrease 16.3 Increase 16.1 Steady 16.1 Decrease

Net migration rate[edit]

2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011)[48]

Vital statistics[edit]

Before WWII[edit]

No exact vital statistics for Russia are available for the period before WWII. Andreev[49] made the following estimates:

""
""
Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 01 January, 1927
""
""
Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 01 January, 1941
""
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Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 01 January, 1946
Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female)
1927 94,596,000 4,688,000 2,705,000 1,983,000 43.6 20.9 22.7 6.729 33.7 37.9
1928 96,654,000 4,723,000 2,589,000 2,134,000 43.3 21.2 22.1 6.556 35.9 40.4
1929 98,644,000 4,633,000 2,819,000 1,814,000 42.2 22.8 19.4 6.227 33.7 38.2
1930 100,419,000 4,413,000 2,738,000 1,675,000 39.3 22.6 16.7 5.834 34.6 38.7
1931 101,948,000 4,412,000 3,090,000 1,322,000 39.9 26.9 13.0 5.626 30.7 35.5
1932 103,136,000 4,058,000 3,077,000 981,000 39.3 29.8 9.5 5.093 30.5 35.7
1933 102,706,000 3,313,000 5,239,000 -1,926,000 32.3 51.0 -18.8 4.146 15.2 19.5
1934 102,922,000 2,923,000 2,659,000 264,000 28.7 26.1 2.6 3.566 30.5 35.7
1935 102,684,000 3,577,000 2,421,000 1,156,000 34.8 23.6 11.3 4.305 33.1 38.4
1936 103,904,000 3,899,000 2,719,000 1,180,000 37.5 26.2 11.4 4.535 30.4 35.7
1937 105,358,000 4,377,000 2,760,000 1,617,000 41.5 26.2 15.3 5.079 30.5 40.0
1938 107,044,000 4,379,000 2,739,000 1,640,000 40.9 25.6 15.3 4.989 31.7 42.5
1939 108,785,000 4,329,000 2,600,000 1,729,000 39.8 23.9 15.9 4.907 34.9 42.6
1940 110,333,000 3,814,000 2,561,000 1,253,000 34.6 23.2 11.4 4.260 35.7 41.9

After WWII[edit]

[49][50] [51] [52][53][54]

Total population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates Urban fertility Rural fertility Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female) Life Expectancy (total) Abortions reported
1946 98,028,000 2,546,000 1,210,000 1,336,000 26.0 12.3 13.6 2.806 46.6 55.3
1947 98,834,000 2,715,000 1,680,000 1,035,000 27.5 17.0 10.5 2.938 39.9 49.8
1948 99,706,000 2,516,000 1,310,000 1,206,000 25.2 13.1 12.1 2.604 47.0 56.0
1949 101,160,000 3,089,000 1,187,000 1,902,000 30.5 11.7 18.8 3.205 51.0 59.8
1950 102,833,000 2,859,000 1,180,000 1,679,000 27.8 11.5 16.7 2.889 52.3 61.0
1951 104,439,000 2,938,000 1,210,000 1,728,000 28.1 11.6 17.0 2.918 52.3 60.6
1952 106,164,000 2,928,000 1,138,000 1,790,000 27.6 10.7 17.0 2.871 54.6 62.9
1953 107,828,000 2,822,000 1,118,000 1,704,000 26.2 10.4 15.7 2.733 55.5 63.9
1954 109,643,000 3,048,000 1,133,000 1,915,000 27.8 10.3 17.6 2.970 55.9 64.1
1955 111,572,000 2,942,000 1,037,000 1,905,000 26.4 9.3 17.2 2.818 58.3 66.6
1956 113,327,000 2,827,000 956,000 1,871,000 24.9 8.4 16.8 2.731 60.1 68.8
1957 115,035,000 2,880,000 1,017,000 1,863,000 25.0 8.8 16.7 2.750 59.7 68.4 3,407,398
1958 116,749,000 2,861,000 931,000 1,930,000 24.5 8.0 17.0 2.689 61.8 70.4 3,939,362
1959 118,307,000 2,796,228 920,225 1,876,003 23.6 7.8 15.9 2.58 2.03 3.34 62.84 71.14 67.65 4,174,111
1960 119,906,000 2,782,353 886,090 1,896,263 23.2 7.4 15.8 2.56 2.06 3.26 63.67 72.31 68.67 4,373,042
1961 121,586,000 2,662,135 901,637 1,760,498 21.9 7.4 14.5 2.47 2.04 3.08 63.91 72.63 68.92 4,759,040
1962 123,128,000 2,482,539 949,648 1,532,891 20.2 7.7 12.4 2.36 1.98 2.92 63.67 72.27 68.58 4,925,124
1963 124,514,000 2,331,505 932,055 1,399,450 18.7 7.5 11.2 2.31 1.93 2.87 64.12 72.78 69.05 5,134,100
1964 125,744,000 2,121,994 901,751 1,220,243 16.9 7.2 9.7 2.19 1.88 2.66 64.89 73.58 69.85 5,376,200
1965 126,749,000 1,990,520 958,789 1,031,731 15.7 7.6 8.1 2.14 1.82 2.58 64.37 73.33 69.44 5,463,300
1966 127,608,000 1,957,763 974,299 983,464 15.3 7.6 7.7 2.13 1.85 2.58 64.29 73.55 69.51 5,322,500
1967 128,361,000 1,851,041 1,017,034 834,007 14.4 7.9 6.5 2.03 1.79 2.46 64.02 73.43 69.30 5,005,000
1968 129,037,000 1,816,509 1,040,096 776,413 14.1 8.1 6.0 1.98 1.75 2.44 63.73 73.56 69.26 4,872,900
1969 129,660,000 1,847,592 1,106,640 740,952 14.2 8.5 5.7 1.99 1.78 2.44 63.07 73.29 68.74 4,751,100
1970 130,252,000 1,903,713 1,131,183 772,530 14.6 8.7 5.9 2.00 1.77 2.52 63.07 73.44 68.86 4,837,700
1971 130,934,000 1,974,637 1,143,359 831,278 15.1 8.7 6.3 2.02 1.80 2.60 63.24 73.77 69.12 4,838,749
1972 131,687,000 2,014,638 1,181,802 832,836 15.3 9.0 6.3 2.03 1.81 2.59 63.24 73.62 69.02 4,765,900
1973 132,434,000 1,994,621 1,214,204 780,417 15.1 9.2 5.9 1.96 1.75 2.55 63.28 73.56 69.00 4,747,037
1974 133,217,000 2,079,812 1,222,495 857,317 15.6 9.2 6.4 2.00 1.78 2.63 63.12 73.77 68.99 4,674,050
1975 134,092,000 2,106,147 1,309,710 796,437 15.7 9.8 5.9 1.97 1.76 2.64 62.48 73.23 68.35 4,670,700
1976 135,026,000 2,146,711 1,352,950 793,761 15.9 10.0 5.9 1.96 1.74 2.62 62.19 73.04 68.10 4,757,055
1977 135,979,000 2,156,724 1,387,986 768,738 15.9 10.2 5.7 1.92 1.72 2.58 61.82 73.19 67.97 4,686,063
1978 136,922,000 2,179,030 1,417,377 761,653 15.9 10.4 5.6 1.90 1.70 2.55 61.83 73.23 68.01 4,656,057
1979 137,758,000 2,178,542 1,490,057 688,485 15.8 10.8 5.0 1.87 1.67 2.54 61.49 73.02 67.73 4,544,040
1980 138,483,000 2,202,779 1,525,755 677,024 15.9 11.0 4.9 1.87 1.68 2.51 61.38 72.96 67.70 4,506,249
1981 139,221,000 2,236,608 1,524,286 712,322 16.1 10.9 5.1 1.88 1.69 2.55 61.61 73.18 67.92 4,400,676
1982 140,067,000 2,328,044 1,504,200 823,844 16.6 10.7 5.9 1.96 1.76 2.63 62.24 73.64 68.38 4,462,825
1983 141,056,000 2,478,322 1,563,995 914,327 17.6 11.1 6.5 2.11 1.89 2.76 62.15 73.41 68.15 4,317,729
1984 142,061,000 2,409,614 1,650,866 758,748 17.0 11.6 5.3 2.06 1.86 2.69 61.71 72.96 67.67 4,361,959
1985 143,033,000 2,375,147 1,625,266 749,881 16.6 11.4 5.2 2.05 1.87 2.68 62.72 73.23 68.33 4,552,443
1986 144,156,000 2,485,915 1,497,975 987,940 17.2 10.4 6.9 2.18 1.98 2.83 64.77 74.22 69.95 4,579,400
1987 145,386,000 2,499,974 1,531,585 968,389 17.2 10.5 6.7 2.22 1.974 3.187 64.83 74.26 69.96 4,385,627
1988 146,505,000 2,348,494 1,569,112 779,382 16.0 10.7 5.3 2.13 1.896 3.057 64.61 74.25 69.81 4,608,953
1989 147,342,000 2,160,559 1,583,743 576,816 14.7 10.7 3.9 2.01 1.826 2.630 64.20 74.50 69.73 4,427,713
1990 147,969,000 1,988,858 1,655,993 332,865 13.4 11.2 2.3 1.89 1.698 2.600 63.76 74.32 69.36 4,103,425
1991 148,394,000 1,794,626 1,690,657 103,969 12.1 11.4 0.7 1.73 1.531 2.447 63.41 74.23 69.11 3,608,421
1992 148,538,000 1,587,644 1,807,441 -219,797 10.7 12.2 -1.5 1.55 1.351 2.219 61.96 73.71 67.98 3,436,695
1993 148,459,000 1,378,983 2,129,339 -750,356 9.3 14.3 -5.1 1.36 1.195 1.913 58.80 71.85 65.24 3,243,957
1994 148,408,000 1,408,159 2,301,366 -893,207 9.5 15.5 -6.0 1.39 1.234 1.884 57.38 71.07 63.93 3,060,237
1995 148,376,000 1,363,806 2,203,811 -840,005 9.2 14.9 -5.7 1.34 1.193 1.813 58.11 71.60 64.62 2,766,362
1996 148,160,000 1,304,638 2,082,249 -777,611 8.8 14.1 -5.2 1.27 1.140 1.705 59.61 72.41 65.89 2,652,038
1997 147,915,000 1,259,943 2,015,779 -755,836 8.5 13.6 -5.1 1.22 1.097 1.624 60.84 72.85 66.79 2,498,716
1998 147,671,000 1,283,292 1,988,744 -705,452 8.7 13.5 -4.8 1.23 1.109 1.643 61.19 73.12 67.14 2,346,138
1999 147,215,000 1,214,689 2,144,316 -929,627 8.3 14.6 -6.3 1.16 1.045 1.534 59.86 72.42 65.99 2,181,153
2000 146,597,000 1,266,800 2,225,332 -958,532 8.6 15.2 -6.5 1.20 1.089 1.554 58.99 72.25 65.38 2,138,800
2001 145,976,000 1,311,604 2,254,856 -943,252 9.0 15.4 -6.5 1.22 1.124 1.564 58.88 72.16 65.30 2,114,700
2002 145,306,496 1,396,967 2,332,272 -935,305 9.6 16.1 -6.4 1.29 1.189 1.633 58.68 71.90 64.95 1,944,481
2003 144,648,624 1,477,301 2,365,826 -888,525 10.2 16.4 -6.1 1.32 1.223 1.666 58.53 71.85 64.84 1,864,647
2004 144,067,312 1,502,477 2,295,402 -792,925 10.4 15.9 -5.5 1.34 1.253 1.654 58.91 72.36 65.31 1,797,567
2005 143,518,816 1,457,376 2,303,935 -846,559 10.2 16.1 -5.9 1.29 1.207 1.576 58.92 72.47 65.37 1,675,693
2006 143,049,632 1,479,637 2,166,703 -687,066 10.3 15.1 -4.8 1.31 1.210 1.601 60.43 73.34 66.69 1,582,398
2007 142,805,120 1,610,122 2,080,445 -470,323 11.3 14.6 -3.3 1.42 1.294 1.798 61.46 74.02 67.61 1,479,010
2008 142,742,368 1,713,947 2,075,954 -362,007 12.0 14.5 -2.6 1.50 1.372 1.912 61.92 74.28 67.99 1,385,600
2009 142,785,344 1,761,687 2,010,543 -248,856 12.3 14.1 -1.8 1.54 1.415 1.941 62.87 74.79 68.78 1,292,389
2010 142,849,472 1,788,948 2,028,516 -239,568 12.5 14.2 -1.7 1.57 1.439 1.983 63.09 74.88 68.94 1,186,108
2011 142,960,908 1,796,629 1,925,720 -129,091 12.6 13.5 -0.9 1.58 1.442 2.056 64.04 75.61 69.83 1,124,880
2012 143,201,700 1,902,084 1,906,335 -4,251 13.3 13.3 -0.0 1.691 1.541 2.215 64.56 75.86 70.24 1,063,982
2013 143,506,995 1,895,822 1,871,809 24,013 13.3 13.0 0.2 1.707 1.551 2.264 65.14 76.31 70.77 1,012,399
2014 146,090,613 1,942,683 1,912,347 30,346 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.750 1.588 2.318 65.29 76.49 70.93 929,963
2015 146,405,999 1,940,579 1,908,541 32,038 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.777 1.678 2.111 65.92 76.71 71.39 848,180
2016 146,674,541 1,888,729 1,891,015 -2,286 12.9 12.9 -0.0 1.762 1.672 2.056 66.50 77.06 71.87 836,611
Urban live births Urban deaths Urban natural change Urban crude birth rate (per 1,000) Urban crude death rate (per 1,000) Urban natural change (per 1,000) Rural live births Rural deaths Rural natural change Rural crude birth rate (per 1,000) Rural crude death rate (per 1,000) Rural natural change (per 1,000)
1950 1,171,250 436,792 734,458 26.1 9.7 16.4 1,574,747 594,218 980,529 27.5 10.4 17.1
1960 1,332,812 436,709 896,103 20.4 6.7 13.7 1,449,541 449,831 1,000,160 26.5 8.2 18.3
1970 1,205,207 646,129 559,078 14.8 7.9 6.9 698,506 485,054 213,452 14.3 10.0 4.3
1980 1,535,723 970,256 565,467 15.8 10.0 5.8 667,056 555,499 111,557 16.1 13.4 2.7
1990 1,386,247 1,140,613 245,634 12.7 10.5 2.2 602,611 515,380 87,231 15.5 13.2 2.3
1995 933,460 1,554,182 -620,722 8.7 14.4 -5.7 430,346 649,269 -219,283 10.9 16.5 -5.6
2000 886,908 1,564,034 -677,126 8.3 14.6 -6.3 379,892 661,298 -281,406 9.8 17.1 -7.3
2001 928,642 1,592,254 -663,612 8.7 14.9 -6.2 382,962 662,602 -279,640 10.0 17.3 -7.3
2002 998,056 1,638,822 -640,766 9.4 15.4 -6.0 398,911 693,450 -294,539 10.5 18.2 -7.7
2003 1,050,565 1,657,569 -607,004 9.9 15.6 -5.7 426,736 708,257 -281,521 11.1 18.4 -7.3
2004 1,074,247 1,606,894 -532,647 10.1 15.2 -5.1 428,230 688,508 -260,278 11.2 18.1 -6.9
2005 1,036,870 1,595,762 -558,892 9.8 15.1 -5.3 420,506 708,173 -287,667 11.0 18.6 -7.6
2006 1,044,540 1,501,245 -456,705 10.0 14.3 -4.3 435,097 665,458 -230,361 11.4 17.4 -6.0
2007 1,120,741 1,445,411 -324,670 10.7 13.8 -3.1 489,381 635,034 -145,653 12.9 16.7 -3.8
2008 1,194,820 1,443,529 -248,709 11.4 13.8 -2.4 519,127 632,425 -113,298 13.7 16.7 -3.0
2009 1,237,615 1,397,591 -159,976 11.8 13.3 -1.5 524,072 612,952 -88,880 13.9 16.3 -2.4
2010 1,263,893 1,421,734 -157,841 12.0 13.5 -1.5 520,055 606,782 -81,727 14.0 16.1 -2.1
2011 1,270,047 1,356,696 -88,649 12.0 12.8 -0.8 526,582 569,024 -42,442 14.1 15.2 -1.1
2012 1,355,674 1,353,635 2,039 12.8 12.8 0.0 546,410 552,700 -6,290 14.7 14.8 -0.1
2013 1,357,310 1,332,505 24,805 12.8 12.5 0.3 538,512 539,304 -792 14.5 14.5 0.0
2014 1,394,860 1,362,810 32,050 12.9 12.6 0.3 547,823 549,537 -1,714 14.4 14.5 -0.1
2015 1,455,283 1,361,891 93,392 13.4 12.6 0.8 485,296 546,650 -61,354 12.8 14.4 -1.6
2016 1,426,591 13.1 462,138 12.2

Note: Russian data includes Crimea starting in 2014.

Total fertility rates[edit]

""
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Changes in the Russian TFR since 1990.

As of 2015, Russian TFR of 1.777 children per woman[11] is highest in Eastern Europe, which means an average Russian family has more children (1.78) than an average family in any other Eastern European country. Still, this rate is "far below the replacement rate of 2.1 – 2.14.

In 1990, just prior to the "dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia's "total fertility rate (TFR) stood at 1.89. Fertility rates had already begun to decline in the late 80s due to the natural progression of Russia's demographic structure, but the rapid and widely negative changes in society following the collapse greatly influenced the rate of decline.[55] The TFR hit a historic low of 1.157 in 1999 and has since begun to rise again, reaching 1.777 in 2015 (growth of 53.6%),[56] The only "federal subject of Russia to see a decline in fertility since 1999 is "Ingushetia, where the TFR has fallen from 2.443 to 2.278 as of 2014.

In 2009, 8 of Russia's federal subjects had a TFR above 2.1 children per woman (the approximate minimum required to ensure population replacement), These federal subjects are "Chechnya (3.38), "Tuva (2.81), "Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug (2.73), "Agin-Buryat Okrug (2.63), "Komi-Permyak (2.16), "Evenk Okrug (2.58), "Altai Republic (2.36), "Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.1). Of these federal subjects, four have an ethnic Russian majority (Altai, Evenk, Ust-Orda and Nenets).[57][58] In 2011, the highest TFR were recorded in "Chechnya (3.362), "Tyva (3.249), "Ingushetia (2.94), "Altai Republic (2.836), "Sakha Republic (2.057), "Buryatia (2.027), and "Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.007).[59]

Until 2010, the Russian republic of Chechnya was the region with the highest birth rate in the former USSR (excluding Central Asia). However, in 2011, the Armenian province of "Qashatagh overtook it (28.9 vs 29.3 per 1.000).[60]

In 2010, the average number of children born to women has decreased from 1513 to 1000 women from 2002 to 1469 in 2010 in urban areas the figure was 1328 children (2002–1350), and in the village – 1876 (in 2002, – 1993 ).

""
""
A poster in "Cheboksary, "Chuvashia encouraging families to have more children. The text reads "Один ребёнок – хорошо. два лучше!" One child is good. two are better!.

In recent years the percentage of children per woman 16 years or more were:

Year : 2002–2010

1 child : 30.5%–31.2%

2 children : 33.7%–34.4%

3 children : 8.9%–8.7%

4 or more children : 5.2%–4.2%

no children : 21.7%–21.5%

Note that despite a decrease in women who have not had children, the number of three-child and large families has declined between 2002 and 2010.

In every region in Russia, rural areas reported higher TFR compared to urban areas. In most of the federal subjects in "Siberia and the "Russian Far East, the total fertility rates were high, but not high enough to ensure population replacement. For example, "Zabaykalsky Krai had a TFR of 1.82, which is higher than the national average, but less than the 2.1 needed for population replacement.[57]

Compared to the "G7 countries, in 2015, Russian TFR of 1.78 children/ woman[11] was lower than that of France (1.93), the USA (1.84), the UK (1.82). Yet its TFR is higher than in other G7 countries like Canada (1.61), Germany (1.50), Japan (1.46) and Italy (1.35).

Compared to other "most populous nations, Russia has a lower TFR than Nigeria (5.37), Pakistan (3.42), Indonesia (2.5), India (2.30), Mexico (2.19), the USA (1.84),[61] and higher TFR than Brazil (1.74), and China (1.5-1.6).

Compared to its "neighbors, in 2015 Russia has a lower TFR than Kazakhstan (2.7), Mongolia (3.2), Azerbaijan (2.1), Georgia (2.1), North Korea (2.01). While Russian TFR is higher than in Estonia (1.57), Lithuania (1.70), Belarus (1.72), Norway (1.73), Finland (1.65), Ukraine (1.33), Poland (1.29) and Latvia (1.71).["citation needed] .

Also many other European countries like Czech Republic (1.57), Spain (1.33), Greece (1.29), Hungary (1.44), Switzerland (1.54), Portugal (1.30) Albania (1.7) as well as East Asian countries and territories like South Korea (1.25), Taiwan (1.2), Singapore (1.26), Hong Kong (1.2), Macau (1.4) have a lower TFR than Russia.

Children Born Per Woman by Oblast Total Fertility Rate/1990 Urban Fertility Rate/1990 Rural Fertility Rate/1990 Total Fertility Rate/2014 Urban Fertility Rate/2014 Rural Fertility Rate/2014
"Russian Federation 1.89 1.70 2.60 1.75 1.59 2.32
"North Caucasian Federal District 2.03 1.68 2.41
"Chechnya 2.84 2.16 3.35 2.91 2.83 2.95
"Ingushetia 2.84 2.16 3.35 2.28 2.13 2.39
"Dagestan 3.07 2.57 3.52 2.08 1.50 2.68
"North Ossetia-Alania 2.23 2.20 2.30 2.01 2.02 1.98
"Kabardino-Balkaria 2.45 2.04 3.11 1.83 1.65 2.02
"Karachay-Cherkessia 2.19 1.89 2.51 1.65 1.48 1.78
"Stavropol Krai 2.10 1.73 2.64 1.62 1.43 1.96
"Ural Federal District 1.88 1.73 2.68 1.96 1.82 2.76
"Kurgan Oblast 2.15 1.82 2.72 2.10 1.78 2.87
"Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 2.19 1.94 3.19
"Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 2.09 2.07 2.41
"Tyumen Oblast 1.99 1.85 2.55 2.07 1.94 2.71
"Sverdlovsk Oblast 1.73 1.63 2.69 1.92 1.80 2.77
"Chelyabinsk Oblast 1.89 1.74 2.80 1.86 1.70 2.78
"Siberian Federal District 2.03 1.79 2.87 1.90 1.65 2.94
"Tuva Republic 3.22 2.64 3.85 3.49 2.34 6.78
"Altai Republic 2.52 1.62 3.08 2.88 1.70 5.20
"Buriatia 2.49 2.10 3.37 2.26 1.87 3.12
"Zabaykalsky Krai 2.49 2.10 3.38 2.08 1.75 3.13
"Khakassia 2.27 2.04 3.04 2.01 1.72 2.82
"Irkutsk Oblast 2.22 2.02 3.29 1.97 1.76 2.99
"Altai Krai 1.91 1.66 2.42 1.84 1.52 2.66
"Omsk Oblast 1.98 1.69 2.87 1.95 1.68 2.93
"Kemerovo Oblast 1.92 1.84 2.62 1.78 1.69 2.43
"Krasnoyarsk Krai 1.88 1.65 2.85 1.81 1.61 2.91
"Novosibirsk Oblast 1.83 1.64 2.66 1.77 1.59 2.74
"Tomsk Oblast 1.62 1.40 2.41 1.59 1.37 2.68
"Far East Federal District 2.07 1.88 2.80 1.87 1.64 2.88
"Sakha Republic 2.46 2.08 3.28 2.25 1.78 3.47
"Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 2.09 1.82 2.88 2.04 1.59 3.15
"Jewish Autonomous Oblast 2.40 2.00 3.30 1.95 1.72 2.60
"Amur Oblast 2.18 1.91 3.00 1.85 1.53 2.94
"Sakhalin Oblast 2.00 1.94 2.47 1.96 1.83 2.85
"Kamchatka Krai 1.69 1.57 2.25 1.85 1.75 2.29
"Khabarovsk Krai 1.99 1.88 2.63 1.79 1.65 2.72
"Magadan Oblast 1.89 1.83 2.56 1.66 1.63 2.88
"Primorsky Krai 1.97 1.83 2.58 1.73 1.55 2.61
"Volga Federal District 1.97 1.75 2.72 1.79 1.60 2.46
"Orenburg Oblast 2.20 1.87 3.01 2.03 1.59 3.16
"Perm Krai 1.99 1.80 2.85 1.98 1.72 3.16
"Mari El 2.16 1.87 2.79 1.98 1.74 2.65
"Udmurtia 2.05 1.81 2.80 1.96 1.58 3.13
"Bashkortostan 2.18 1.84 3.09 1.95 1.74 2.53
"Kirov Oblast 2.01 1.82 2.57 1.89 1.62 3.61
"Chuvashia Republic 2.12 1.78 2.98 1.88 1.55 2.89
"Tatarstan 2.05 1.86 2.87 1.84 1.75 2.22
"Ulyanovsk Oblast 1.94 1.78 2.61 1.67 1.58 2.00
"Samara Oblast 1.73 1.62 2.35 1.65 1.55 2.13
"Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1.69 1.59 2.20 1.59 1.52 1.96
"Saratov Oblast 1.91 1.70 2.70 1.57 1.42 2.14
"Penza Oblast 1.82 1.63 2.34 1.53 1.42 1.86
"Mordovia 1.87 1.69 2.29 1.37 1.31 1.54
"Southern Federal District 1.71 1.60 1.92
"Astrakhan Oblast 2.14 1.81 2.93 1.97 1.82 2.27
"Kalmukia 2.66 2.29 3.10 1.85 1.85 1.85
"Krasnodar Krai 2.06 1.90 2.30 1.81 1.82 1.77
"Adygea 2.06 1.88 2.37 1.73 1.55 1.93
"Volgograd Oblast 1.91 1.72 2.67 1.57 1.42 2.11
"Rostov Oblast 1.80 1.62 2.34 1.61 1.44 2.03
"North-West Federal District 1.67 1.58 2.25 1.61 1.53 2.25
"Nenets Autonomous Okrug 2.42 1.83 6.09
"Komi Republic 1.87 1.76 2.39 2.01 1.67 4.74
"Vologda Oblast 2.02 1.81 2.60 1.86 1.64 2.77
"Arkhangelsk Oblast 2.00 1.80 2.71 1.84 1.54 4.23
"Novgorod Oblast 1.87 1.71 2.39 1.75 1.62 2.20
"Pskov Oblast 1.84 1.70 2.30 1.70 1.52 2.36
"Republic of Karelia 1.87 1.80 2.34 1.74 1.52 3.71
"Kaliningrad Oblast 1.81 1.68 2.39 1.70 1.59 2.08
"Murmansk Oblast 1.60 1.61 1.54 1.65 1.63 2.03
"Saint Petersburg 1.40 1.40 1.52 1.52
"Leningrad Oblast 1.66 1.66 1.67 1.28 1.33 1.19
"Central Federal District 1.64 1.54 2.19 1.51 1.45 1.86
"Kostroma Oblast 1.93 1.70 2.63 1.87 1.64 2.67
"Kursk Oblast 1.85 1.68 2.33 1.70 1.51 2.30
"Tver Oblast 1.81 1.63 2.45 1.66 1.54 2.17
"Yaroslavl Oblast 1.69 1.60 2.27 1.64 1.55 2.20
"Kaluga Oblast 1.78 1.65 2.19 1.69 1.62 1.94
"Lipetsk Oblast 1.81 1.66 2.20 1.66 1.52 1.95
"Vladimir Oblast 1.79 1.71 2.22 1.64 1.59 1.87
"Ryazan Oblast 1.80 1.67 2.25 1.60 1.37 2.37
"Ivanovo Oblast 1.72 1.61 2.46 1.57 1.52 1.87
"Bryansk Oblast 2.02 1.82 2.75 1.56 1.42 1.91
"Oryol Oblast 1.84 1.58 2.53 1.55 1.26 2.35
"Belgorod Oblast 1.91 1.74 2.39 1.54 1.41 1.91
"Moscow Oblast 1.44 1.39 1.66 1.60 1.63 1.47
"Smolensk Oblast 1.79 1.63 2.38 1.53 1.43 1.89
"Voronezh Oblast 1.78 1.64 2.12 1.47 1.37 1.80
"Tula Oblast 1.68 1.60 2.16 1.47 1.41 1.65
"Tambov Oblast 1.83 1.61 2.29 1.49 1.40 1.64
"City of Moscow 1.42 1.42 1.34 1.34 1.69

Health[edit]

Life expectancy[edit]

""
""
Russian male and female life expectancy since 1950.[62][63]

Further information: "List of federal subjects of Russia by life expectancy

total population: 72.5 years[64]
male: 67.5 years[65]
female: 77.4 years[66]

The disparity in the average lifespan between genders in Russia is largest in the world. Women live 9–12 years longer than men, while the difference in lifespan is typically only five years in other parts of the world. While medical sources, like "The Lancet,[22] name mass "privatization, and the neo-liberalist "shock therapy policies of "Yeltsin administration as key reasons of falling life expectancy of Russian men, other sources, like "Luke Harding from "The Guardian claim alcoholism explains the large difference in gender mortality levels in Russia.[67] As of 2011, the average life expectancy in Russia was 64.3 years for males and 76.1 years for females.[68] According to the WHO 2011 report,[69] annual per capita alcohol consumption in Russia is about 15.76 litres, "fourth highest volume in Europe (compare to 13.37 in the UK, 13.66 in France, 15.6 in "Ukraine, 16.45 in the "Czech Republic, etc.). In the late 1950s, the USSR claimed a higher life expectancy than the United States,[70] but the Soviet Union has lagged behind Western countries in terms of mortality and life expectancy since the late 1960s.
When controlling for confounding variables, neither alcoholism, poverty, pollution, nor the collapse of the health system explain the high male mortality. Most former communist countries got through the same economic collapse and health system collapse. Alcohol consumption per capita is as high in other East European countries. Poverty is high in many other countries. One factor that could explain the low male lifespan in Russia is violence, tolerance for violence and tolerance for risk, "male toughness".["citation needed] Violence, tolerance for risk together with alcoholism reduce the Russian male lifespan.

The life expectancy was about 70 in 1986,[71] prior to the transition-induced disruption of the healthcare system. The turmoil in the early 1990s caused life expectancy in Russia to steadily decrease while it was steadily increasing in the rest of the world. Recently however, Russian life expectancy has again begun to rise. Between 2006—2011 the male life expectancy in Russia rose by almost four years, increasing the overall life expectancy by nearly 4 years to 70.3.[68]

Mortality[edit]

In 2012, 1,043,292, or 55% of all deaths in Russia were caused by "cardiovascular disease. The second leading cause of death was cancer which claimed 287,840 lives (15.2%). External causes of death such as suicide (1.5%), road accidents (1.5%), murders (0.8%), accidental alcohol poisoning (0.4%), and accidental drowning (0.5%), claimed 202,175 lives in total (10.6%). Other major causes of death were diseases of the digestive system (4.6%), respiratory disease (3.6%), infectious and parasitic diseases (1.6%), and tuberculosis (0.9%).[51] The "infant mortality rate in 2012 was 7.6 deaths per 1,000 (down from 8.2 in 2009 and 16.9 in 1999).[51]

Under-five mortality rate[edit]

13 deaths/1000 live births (2008)[72]

Abortions and family planning[edit]

In the 1980s only 8% to 10% of married Russian women of reproductive age used "hormonal and "intrauterine "contraception methods, compared to 20% to 40% in "developed countries.[73] This led to much higher abortion rates in Russia compared to developed countries: in the 1980s Russia had a figure of 120 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age compared with only 20 per 1,000 in "Western countries. However, after the "dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 many changes took place, such as the demonopolization of the market for contraceptive drugs and media liberalization, which led to a rapid conversion to more efficient pregnancy-control practices. Abortion rates fell in the first half of the 1990s for the first time in Russia's history, even despite declining fertility rates. From the early 1990s to 2006, the number of expected abortions per woman during her lifetime fell by nearly 2.5 times, from 3.4 to 1.2. As of 2004, the share of women of reproductive age using hormonal or intrauterine birth control methods was about 46% (29% intrauterine, 17% hormonal).[74]

Despite an increase in ""family planning", a large portion of Russian families do not achieve the target of desired children at the desired time. According to a 2004 study, current pregnancies were termed "desired and timely" by 58% of respondents, while 23% described them as "desired, but untimely", and 19% said they were "undesired". The share of "unexpected pregnancies remains much lower in countries with developed "family planning culture, such as the "Netherlands, whose percentage of unwanted pregnancies 20 years before was half of that in Russia as of 2008.[74]

Ethnic groups[edit]

""
""
Ethnic Russians as a percentage of the population by region (2010).
""
""
Ethnic groups in Russia of more than 1 million people, 2010 Census

The Russian Federation is home to as many as 160 different "ethnic groups and "indigenous peoples. As of the 2010 census, 80.90% of the population that disclosed their ethnicity (111,016,896 people) is ethnically "Russian, followed by (groups larger than one million):[12][13]

According to the 2010 Census in Russia lived 142,856,536 people. It is important to note that 5,629,429 people (3.94% of the overall population.) did not declare any ethnic origin, compared to about 1 million in the 2002 Census. This is due to the fact that those people were counted from administrative databases and not directly, and were therefore unable to state their ethnicity.[12][76] Therefore, the percentages mentioned above are taken from the total population that declared their ethnicity, given that the non-declared remainder is thought to have an ethnic composition similar to the declared segment.[77]

Most smaller groups live compactly in their respective regions and can be categorized by language group. The ethnic divisions used here are those of the official census, and may in some respects be controversial. The following lists all ethnicities resolved by the 2010 census, grouped by language:[12]

Historical perspective[79][edit]

""
""
International migration to and from Russia since 1990.
  Arrivals
  Departures
  Net migration growth

The ethno-demographic structure of Russia has gradually changed over time. During the past century the most striking change is the fast increase of the peoples from the "Caucasus. In 1926, these people composed 2% of the Russian population, compared to 6.5% in 2010. Though low in absolute numbers, the Siberian people also increased during the past century, but their growth was mainly realized after WW II (from 0.7% in 1959 to 1.2% in 2010) and not applicable to most of the small peoples (less than 10,000 people).

Peoples of European Russia[edit]

The relative proportion of the peoples of European Russia gradually decreased during the past century, but still compose 91% of the total population of Russia in 2010. The absolute numbers of most of these peoples reached its highest level in the beginning of the 1990s. Since 1992, natural growth in Russia has been negative and the numbers of all peoples of European Russia were lower in 2010 than in 2002, the only exceptions being the Roma (due to high fertility rates) and the Gagauz (due to high levels of migration from Moldova to Russia).

Several peoples saw a much larger decrease than can be explained by the low fertility rates and high mortality rates in Russia during the past two decades. Emigration and assimilation contributed to the decrease in numbers of many peoples. Emigration was the most important factor for Germans, Jews and Baltic peoples (Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians). The number of Germans halved between 1959 and 2010. Their main country of destination is "Germany.

The number of Jews decreased by more than 80% between 1959 and 2010. In 1970, the Soviet Union had the third largest population of Jews in the world, (2,183,000 of whom 808,000 with residence in Russia), following only that of the United States and "Israel. By 2010, due to Jewish emigration, their number fell as low as 158,000. A sizeable emigration of other minorities has been enduring, too. The main destinations of emigrants from Russia are the USA (Russians, Jews, Belarusians, Chechens, Meskhetian Turks, Ukrainians and others), "Israel (Jews), Germany (Germans and Jews), "Poland (Poles), Canada (Finns and Ukrainians), "Finland (Finns), "France (Jews and Armenians) and the United Kingdom (mainly rich Russians).["citation needed]

Assimilation (i.e., marrying Russians and having children of such unions counted as Russians) explains the decrease in numbers of Ukrainians, Belarusians and most of the Uralic peoples. The assimilation is reflected in the high median age of these peoples (see the table below), as assimilation is stronger among young people than among old people. The process of assimilation of the Uralic peoples of Russia is probably going on for centuries and is most prominent among the "Mordvins (1.4% of the Russian population in 1926 and 0.5% in 2010), the "Karelians, "Veps and "Izhorians.

Assimilation on the other hand slowed down the decrease of the number of ethnic Russians. Besides, the decrease of the number of Russians was also slowed down by the immigration of ethnic Russians from the former Soviet republics, especially Central Asia. Similarly, the numbers of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Germans, Jews, and other non-autochthonous ethnic groups has also been decreased by emigration to Ukraine, Belarus, Germany, Israel, and so forth, respectively.

Peoples of European Russia in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
"Russians "Indo-European 72,374,283 78.1% 89,747,795 82.9% 97,863,579 83.3% 107,747,630 82.8% 113,521,881 82.6% 119,865,469 81.5% 115,889,107 80.6% 111,016,896 80.9%
"Tatars "Turkic 2,926,053 3.2% 3,682,956 3.4% 4,074,253 3.5% 4,577,061 3.5% 5,055,757 3.6% 5,522,096 3.8% 5,554,601 3.9% 5,310,649 3.9%
"Ukrainians[75] "Indo-European 6,870,976 7.4% 3,205,061 3.0% 3,359,083 2.9% 3,345,885 2.6% 3,657,647 2.7% 4,362,872 3.0% 2,942,961 2.0% 1,927,888 1.4%
"Bashkirs "Turkic 738,861 0.80% 824,537 0.76% 953,801 0.81% 1,180,913 0.91% 1,290,994 0.94% 1,345,273 0.92% 1,673,389 1.16% 1,584,554 1.15%
"Chuvashs "Turkic 1,112,478 1.20% 1,346,232 1.24% 1,436,218 1.22% 1,637,028 1.26% 1,689,847 1.23% 1,773,645 1.21% 1,637,094 1.14% 1,435,872 1.05%
"Mordvins "Uralic 1,306,798 1.41% 1,375,558 1.27% 1,211,105 1.03% 1,177,492 0.91% 1,111,075 0.81% 1,072,939 0.73% 843,350 0.59% 744,237 0.54%
"Udmurts (incl. "Besermyan 1939–1989) "Uralic 503,970 0.54% 599,893 0.55% 615,640 0.52% 678,393 0.52% 685,718 0.50% 714,883 0.49% 636,906 0.45% 552,299 0.40%
"Besermyan "Uralic 10,035 0.01% 3,122 0.00% 2,201 0.00%
"Mari "Uralic 427,874 0.46% 476,314 0.44% 498,066 0.42% 581,082 0.45% 599,637 0.44% 643,698 0.44% 604,298 0.42% 547,605 0.40%
"Belarusians "Indo-European 607,845 0.66% 451,933 0.42% 843,985 0.72% 964,082 0.74% 1,051,900 0.77% 1,206,222 0.82% 807,970 0.56% 521,443 0.38%
"Germans "Indo-European 707,277 0.76% 811,205 0.75% 820,016 0.70% 761,888 0.59% 790,762 0.58% 842,295 0.57% 597,212 0.42% 394,138 0.29%
"Komi (incl. "Komi-Permyak 1939) "Uralic 226,012 0.24% 415,009 0.38% 281,780 0.24% 315,347 0.24% 320,078 0.23% 336,309 0.23% 293,406 0.20% 228,235 0.17%
"Komi-Permyak "Uralic 149,275 0.16% 143,030 0.12% 150,244 0.12% 145,993 0.11% 147,269 0.10% 125,235 0.09% 94,456 0.07%
"Roma "Indo-European 39,089 0.04% 59,198 0.05% 72,488 0.06% 97,955 0.08% 120,672 0.09% 152,939 0.10% 183,252 0.13% 204,958 0.15%
"Jews "Semitic 539,086 0.58% 891,147 0.82% 875,058 0.74% 807,526 0.62% 699,286 0.51% 550,709 0.37% 233,439 0.16% 156,801 0.11%
"Moldovans "Indo-European 16,870 0.02% 21,974 0.02% 62,298 0.05% 87,538 0.07% 102,137 0.07% 172,671 0.12% 172,330 0.12% 156,400 0.11%
"Karelians "Uralic 248,017 0.27% 249,778 0.23% 164,050 0.14% 141,148 0.11% 133,182 0.10% 124,921 0.08% 93,344 0.06% 60,815 0.04%
"Poles "Indo-European 189,269 0.20% 142,461 0.13% 118,422 0.10% 107,084 0.08% 99,733 0.07% 94,594 0.06% 73,001 0.05% 47,125 0.03%
"Lithuanians "Indo-European 26,128 0.03% 20,795 0.02% 108,579 0.09% 76,718 0.06% 66,783 0.05% 70,427 0.05% 45,569 0.03% 31,377 0.02%
"Bulgarians "Indo-European 4,087 0.00% 8,338 0.01% 24,899 0.02% 27,321 0.02% 24,943 0.02% 32,785 0.02% 31,965 0.02% 24,038 0.02%
"Finns "Uralic 134,089 0.14% 138,962 0.13% 72,356 0.06% 62,307 0.05% 55,687 0.04% 47,102 0.03% 34,050 0.02% 20,267 0.01%
"Latvians "Indo-European 124,312 0.13% 104,877 0.10% 74,932 0.06% 59,695 0.05% 67,267 0.05% 46,829 0.03% 28,520 0.02% 18,979 0.01%
"Estonians "Uralic 146,051 0.16% 130,494 0.12% 78,556 0.07% 62,980 0.05% 55,539 0.04% 46,390 0.03% 28,113 0.02% 17,875 0.01%
"Gagauz "Turkic 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3,012 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,176 0.00% 10,051 0.01% 12,210 0.01% 13,690 0.01%
"Veps "Uralic 32,783 0.04% 31,442 0.03% 16,170 0.01% 8,057 0.01% 7,550 0.01% 12,142 0.01% 8,240 0.01% 5,936 0.00%
"Sami "Uralic 1,715 0.00% 1,828 0.00% 1,760 0.00% 1,836 0.00% 1,775 0.00% 1,835 0.00% 1,991 0.00% 1,771 0.00%
"Izhorians "Uralic 16,136 0.02% 7,720 0.01% 564 0.00% 561 0.00% 449 0.00% 449 0.00% 327 0.00% 266 0.00%
"Karaites "Turkic 1,608 0.00% 1,608 0.00% 1,236 0.00% 939 0.00% 680 0.00% 366 0.00% 205 0.00%

Peoples of the Caucasus[edit]

Peoples of the Caucasus in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
"Chechens "Northeast Caucasian 318,361 0.34% 400,325 0.37% 261,311 0.22% 572,220 0.44% 712,161 0.52% 898,999 0.61% 1,360,253 0.95% 1,431,360 1.04%
"Armenians "Indo-European 183,785 0.20% 205,233 0.19% 255,978 0.22% 298,718 0.23% 364,570 0.27% 532,390 0.36% 1,132,033 0.79% 1,182,388 0.86%
"Avars "Northeast Caucasian 178,263 0.19% 235,715 0.22% 249,529 0.21% 361,613 0.28% 438,306 0.32% 544,016 0.37% 814,473 0.57% 912,090 0.66%
"Azerbaijanis "Turkic 24,335 0.03% 43,014 0.04% 70,947 0.06% 95,689 0.07% 152,421 0.11% 335,889 0.23% 621,840 0.43% 603,070 0.44%
"Dargins "Northeast Caucasian 125,759 0.14% 152,007 0.14% 152,563 0.13% 224,172 0.17% 280,444 0.20% 353,348 0.24% 510,156 0.35% 589,386 0.43%
"Ossetians "Indo-European 157,280 0.17% 195,624 0.18% 247,834 0.21% 313,458 0.24% 352,080 0.26% 402,275 0.27% 514,875 0.36% 528,515 0.38%
"Kabardins "Northwest Caucasian 139,864 0.15% 161,216 0.15% 200,634 0.17% 277,435 0.21% 318,822 0.23% 386,055 0.26% 519,958 0.36% 516,826 0.38%
"Kumyks "Turkic 94,509 0.10% 110,299 0.10% 132,896 0.11% 186,690 0.14% 225,800 0.16% 277,163 0.19% 422,409 0.29% 503,060 0.37%
"Lezgians "Northeast Caucasian 92,937 0.10% 100,328 0.09% 114,210 0.10% 170,494 0.13% 202,854 0.15% 257,270 0.17% 411,535 0.29% 473,722 0.34%
"Ingush "Northeast Caucasian 72,137 0.08% 90,980 0.08% 55,799 0.05% 137,380 0.11% 165,997 0.12% 215,068 0.15% 413,016 0.29% 444,833 0.32%
"Karachays "Turkic 55,116 0.06% 74,488 0.07% 70,537 0.06% 106,831 0.08% 125,792 0.09% 150,332 0.10% 192,182 0.13% 218,403 0.16%
"Kalmyks "Mongolic 128,809 0.14% 129,786 0.12% 100,603 0.09% 131,318 0.10% 140,103 0.10% 165,103 0.11% 174,000 0.12% 183,372 0.13%
"Laks "Northeast Caucasian 40,243 0.04% 54,348 0.05% 58,397 0.05% 78,625 0.06% 91,412 0.07% 106,245 0.07% 156,545 0.11% 178,630 0.13%
"Georgians "Kartvelian 20,551 0.02% 43,585 0.04% 57,594 0.05% 68,971 0.05% 89,407 0.07% 130,688 0.09% 197,934 0.14% 157,803 0.11%
"Tabasarans "Northeast Caucasian 31,983 0.03% 33,471 0.03% 34,288 0.03% 54,047 0.04% 73,433 0.05% 93,587 0.06% 131,785 0.09% 146,360 0.11%
"Adyghe (incl. "Shapsugs 1926–1989 and "Circassians 1926–1939) "Northwest Caucasian 64,959 0.07% 85,588 0.08% 78,561 0.07% 98,461 0.08% 107,239 0.08% 122,908 0.08% 128,528 0.09% 124,835 0.09%
"Shapsugs "Northwest Caucasian 3,231 0.00% 3,882 0.00%
"Circassians "Northwest Caucasian 28,986 0.02% 38,356 0.03% 44,572 0.03% 50,572 0.03% 60,517 0.04% 73,184 0.05%
"Balkars "Turkic 33,298 0.04% 41,949 0.04% 35,249 0.03% 52,969 0.04% 61,828 0.04% 78,341 0.05% 108,426 0.08% 112,924 0.08%
"Turks (incl. "Meskhetian Turks 1926–1989) "Turkic 1,846 0.00% 2,668 0.00% 1,377 0.00% 1,568 0.00% 3,561 0.00% 9,890 0.01% 92,415 0.06% 105,058 0.08%
"Meskhetian Turks "Turkic 3,527 0.00% 4,825 0.00%
"Nogais "Turkic 36,089 0.04% 36,088 0.03% 37,656 0.03% 51,159 0.04% 58,639 0.04% 73,703 0.05% 90,666 0.06% 103,660 0.08%
"Greeks "Indo-European 34,439 0.04% 65,705 0.06% 47,024 0.04% 57,847 0.04% 69,816 0.05% 91,699 0.06% 97,827 0.07% 85,640 0.06%
"Kurds (incl. "Yazidis 1939–1989) "Indo-European 164 0.00% 387 0.00% 855 0.00% 1,015 0.00% 1,634 0.00% 4,724 0.00% 19,607 0.01% 23,232 0.01%
"Yazidis "Indo-European 1 0.00% 31,273 0.02% 40,586 0.03%
"Abazas "Northwest Caucasian 13,825 0.01% 14,739 0.01% 19,059 0.02% 24,892 0.02% 28,800 0.02% 32,983 0.02% 37,942 0.03% 43,341 0.03%
Small Dagestan Peoples (SDP) 20,962 0.02%
"Rutuls "Northeast Caucasian 10,333 0.01% SDP SDP 6,703 0.01% 11,904 0.01% 14,835 0.01% 19,503 0.01% 29,929 0.02% 35,240 0.03%
"Aghuls "Northeast Caucasian 7,653 0.01% SDP SDP 6,460 0.01% 8,751 0.01% 11,752 0.01% 17,728 0.01% 28,297 0.02% 34,160 0.02%
"Tsakhurs "Northeast Caucasian 3,533 0.00% SDP SDP 4,437 0.00% 4,730 0.00% 4,774 0.00% 6,492 0.00% 10,366 0.01% 12,769 0.01%
"Udis "Northeast Caucasian 2 0.00% SDP SDP 35 0.00% 94 0.00% 216 0.00% 1,102 0.00% 3,721 0.00% 4,267 0.00%
"Abkhaz "Northwest Caucasian 97 0.00% 647 0.00% 1,400 0.00% 2,427 0.00% 4,058 0.00% 7,239 0.00% 11,366 0.01% 11,249 0.01%
"Assyrians "Semitic 2,791 0.00% 7,446 0.01% 7,612 0.01% 8,098 0.01% 8,708 0.01% 9,622 0.01% 13,649 0.01% 11,084 0.01%
"Persians "Indo-European 8,626 0.01% 6,041 0.01% 2,490 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 1,747 0.00% 2,572 0.00% 3,821 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
"Talysh "Indo-European 0 0.00% 47 0.00% 33 0.00% 2 0.00% 202 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 2,529 0.00%
"Tats "Indo-European 223 0.00% 5,136 0.00% 8,753 0.01% 12,748 0.01% 19,420 0.01% 2,303 0.00% 1,585 0.00%

Peoples of Siberia[edit]

Peoples of Siberia in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
"Sakha (icl. "Dolgans 1939–1959) "Turkic 240,682 0.26% 241,870 0.22% 236,125 0.20% 295,223 0.23% 326,531 0.24% 380,242 0.26% 443,852 0.31% 478,085 0.35%
"Dolgans "Turkic 656 0.00% 4,718 0.00% 4,911 0.00% 6,584 0.00% 7,261 0.01% 7,885 0.01%
"Buryats (incl. "Soyots 1939–1989) "Mongolic 237,490 0.26% 220,618 0.20% 251,504 0.21% 312,847 0.24% 349,760 0.25% 417,425 0.28% 445,175 0.31% 461,389 0.34%
"Soyots "Mongolic 229 0.00% 2,769 0.00% 3,608 0.00%
"Tuvans "Turkic 200 0.00% 794 0.00% 99,864 0.08% 139,013 0.11% 165,426 0.12% 206,160 0.14% 243,442 0.17% 263,934 0.19%
"Altay "Turkic 52,248 0.06% 46,489 0.04% 44,654 0.04% 54,614 0.04% 58,879 0.04% 69,409 0.05% 77,822 0.05% 89,773 0.06%
"Khakas "Turkic 45,607 0.05% 52,033 0.05% 56,032 0.05% 65,368 0.05% 69,247 0.05% 78,500 0.05% 76,278 0.05% 72,959 0.05%
"Nenets (incl. "Enets 1926–1979 and "Nganasans 1926–1939) "Uralic 17,560 0.02% 24,716 0.02% 22,845 0.02% 28,487 0.02% 29,487 0.02% 34,190 0.02% 41,302 0.03% 44,640 0.03%
"Enets "Uralic 198 0.00% 237 0.00% 227 0.00%
"Nganasans "Uralic 721 0.00% 823 0.00% 842 0.00% 1,262 0.00% 834 0.00% 862 0.00%
"Evenks "Tungusic 38,804 0.03% 29,599 0.02% 24,583 0.02% 25,051 0.02% 27,278 0.02% 29,901 0.02% 35,527 0.02% 37,843 0.03%
"Khanty "Uralic 22,301 0.02% 18,447 0.02% 19,246 0.02% 21,007 0.02% 20,743 0.02% 22,283 0.02% 28,678 0.02% 30,943 0.02%
"Evens "Tungusic 2,044 0.00% 9,674 0.01% 9,023 0.01% 11,819 0.01% 12,215 0.01% 17,055 0.01% 19,071 0.01% 22,383 0.02%
"Chukchi (incl. "Kereks 1926–1989 and "Chuvans 1939–1979) "Chukotko-Kamchatkan 12,331 0.01% 13,830 0.01% 11,680 0.01% 13,500 0.01% 13,937 0.01% 15,107 0.01% 15,767 0.01% 15,908 0.01%
"Kereks "Chukotko-Kamchatkan 8 0.00% 4 0.00%
"Chuvans "Chukotko-Kamchatkan 704 0.00% 1,384 0.00% 1,087 0.00% 1,002 0.00%
"Shors "Turkic 13,000 0.01% 16,042 0.01% 14,938 0.01% 15,950 0.01% 15,182 0.01% 15,745 0.01% 13,975 0.01% 12,888 0.01%
"Mansi "Uralic 5,754 0.01% 6,295 0.01% 6,318 0.01% 7,609 0.01% 7,434 0.01% 8,279 0.01% 11,432 0.01% 12,269 0.01%
"Nanais "Tungusic 5,860 0.01% 8,411 0.01% 7,919 0.01% 9,911 0.01% 10,357 0.01% 11,883 0.01% 12,160 0.01% 12,003 0.01%
"Koryaks "Chukotko-Kamchatkan 7,437 0.01% 7,337 0.01% 6,168 0.01% 7,367 0.01% 7,637 0.01% 8,942 0.01% 8,743 0.01% 7,953 0.01%
"Nivkh "Nivkh 4,076 0.00% 3,857 0.00% 3,690 0.00% 4,356 0.00% 4,366 0.00% 4,631 0.00% 5,162 0.00% 4,652 0.00%
"Selkups "Uralic 1,630 0.00% 2,604 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,518 0.00% 3,564 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,649 0.00%
"Udege (incl. "Taz 1926–1989) "Tungusic 1,357 0.00% 1,701 0.00% 1,395 0.00% 1,396 0.00% 1,431 0.00% 1,902 0.00% 1,657 0.00% 1,496 0.00%
"Taz "Sino-Tibetan 276 0.00% 274 0.00%
Small Siberian Peoples (SSP) 11,824 0.01%
"Itelmeni "Chukotko-Kamchatkan 803 0.00% SSP SSP 1,096 0.00% 1,255 0.00% 1,335 0.00% 2,429 0.00% 3,180 0.00% 3,193 0.00%
"Ulchs "Tungusic 723 0.00% SSP SSP 2,049 0.00% 2,410 0.00% 2,494 0.00% 3,173 0.00% 2,913 0.00% 2,765 0.00%
"Eskimo "Eskimo-Aleut 1,292 0.00% SSP SSP 1,111 0.00% 1,265 0.00% 1,460 0.00% 1,704 0.00% 1,750 0.00% 1,738 0.00%
"Yukaghir "Yukaghir 443 0.00% SSP SSP 440 0.00% 593 0.00% 801 0.00% 1,112 0.00% 1,509 0.00% 1,603 0.00%
"Ket "Yeniseian 1,428 0.00% SSP SSP 1,017 0.00% 1,161 0.00% 1,072 0.00% 1,084 0.00% 1,494 0.00% 1,219 0.00%
"Tofalars "Turkic 2,828 0.00% SSP SSP 476 0.00% 570 0.00% 576 0.00% 722 0.00% 837 0.00% 762 0.00%
"Orochs (incl. "Oroks 1970–1979) "Tungusic 646 0.00% SSP SSP 779 0.00% 1,037 0.00% 1,040 0.00% 883 0.00% 686 0.00% 596 0.00%
"Oroks "Tungusic 162 0.00% SSP SSP 2 0.00% 179 0.00% 346 0.00% 295 0.00%
"Negidals "Tungusic 683 0.00% SSP SSP 495 0.00% 477 0.00% 587 0.00% 567 0.00% 513 0.00%
"Aleut "Eskimo-Aleut 353 0.00% SSP SSP 399 0.00% 410 0.00% 489 0.00% 644 0.00% 540 0.00% 482 0.00%

Foreign-born population[edit]

""COB data Russia.PNG
""

Russia experiences a constant flow of immigration. On average, close to 300,000 legal immigrants enter the country every year; about half["citation needed] are ethnic Russians from the other republics of the former Soviet Union. There is a significant inflow of ethnic "Armenians, "Uzbeks, "Kyrgyz and "Tajiks into big Russian cities, something that is viewed unfavorably by some citizens.[80] According to a 2013 opinion poll, 74% of Russians view the large number of labor migrants as a negative phenomenon.[81] According to the "United Nations, Russia's legal immigrant population is the third biggest in the world, numbering 11.6 million.[82] In addition, there are an "estimated 4 million illegal immigrants from the "ex-Soviet states in Russia.[83] In 2015, Ukraine-Russia was the world's largest migration corridor after Mexico-USA.[84] According to the Armenian government, between 80,000 and 120,000 Armenians travel to Russia every year to do seasonal work, returning home for the winter.[85] According to the Tajik government, at least 870,000 Tajiks are working in Russia.[86] In 2014, "remittances from Russia accounted for around one-third of Kyrgyzstan's and over 40% of Tajikistan's GDP.[87]

The "Kazakhs in Russia are mostly not recent immigrants.["citation needed] The majority inhabit regions bordering "Kazakhstan such as the "Astrakhan (16% of the population are "Kazakhs), "Orenburg (6% of the population are "Kazakhs), "Omsk (4% of the population are "Kazakhs) and "Saratov (3% of the population are "Kazakhs) oblasts. Together these oblasts host 60% of the Kazakh population in Russia. The number of "Kazakhs slightly decreased between 2002 and 2010 due to emigration to "Kazakhstan, which has by far the strongest economy in Central Asia (Russia does receive immigration from Kazakhstan, but they are mainly ethnic Russians); other Central Asian populations, especially Uzbeks, Tajiks, and Kyrgyz, have continued to rise rapidly. (Turkmen are an exception; citizens of Turkmenistan do not have "visa-free access to Russia.)

Russian statistical organizations classify the immigrants based on their ethnicity, although there is an information gap between 2007 and 2013, In 2007, the net immigration was 190,397 (plus another 49,546 for which ethnicity was unknown). Of this, 97,813 was Slavic / Germanic / Finnic (51.4%, of which Russian – 72,769, Ukrainian – 17,802), Turkic and other Muslim – 52,536 (27.6%, of which Azeri – 14,084, Tatar – 10,391, Uzbek – 10,517, Tajik – 9,032, Kyrgyz – 7,533 & Kazakh – (-) 1,424) and Others – 40,048 (21.0%, of which Armenian – 25,719).[88]

Many immigrants are actually migrant workers, who come to Russia and work for around five years then return to their countries. Major sources of migrant workers but where permanent migrants of majority ethnicity of those countries are virtually nonexistent are in 2013. "China 200,000 migrant workers, 1000 settled permanently. "Uzbekistan 100,000 migrant workers, 489 permanent settlers. "Tajikistan 80,000 migrant workers, 220 settled permanently. "Kyrgyzstan 50,000 miagrant workers, 219 settled permanently. "Macedonia- 20,000 worker arrivals, 612 settled permanently .

Peoples of Central Asia in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
"Kazakhs "Turkic 136,501 0.15% 356,500 0.33% 382,431 0.33% 477,820 0.37% 518,060 0.38% 635,865 0.43% 653,962 0.46% 647,732 0.47%
"Uzbeks "Turkic 942 0.00% 16,166 0.01% 29,512 0.03% 61,588 0.05% 72,385 0.05% 126,899 0.09% 122,916 0.09% 289,862 0.21%
"Tajiks "Indo-European 52 0.00% 3,315 0.00% 7,027 0.01% 14,108 0.01% 17,863 0.01% 38,208 0.03% 120,136 0.08% 200,666 0.15%
"Kyrgyz "Turkic 285 0.00% 6,311 0.01% 4,701 0.00% 9,107 0.01% 15,011 0.01% 41,734 0.03% 31,808 0.02% 103,422 0.08%
"Turkmens "Turkic 7,849 0.01% 12,869 0.01% 11,631 0.01% 20,040 0.02% 22,979 0.02% 39,739 0.03% 33,053 0.02% 36,885 0.03%
"Uygurs "Turkic 26 0.00% 642 0.00% 720 0.00% 1,513 0.00% 1,707 0.00% 2,577 0.00% 2,867 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
"Karakalpaks "Turkic 14 0.00% 306 0.00% 988 0.00% 2,267 0.00% 1,743 0.00% 6,155 0.00% 1,609 0.00% 1,466 0.00%

The 2010 census[12] found the following figures for foreign citizens resident in Russia:
 Uzbekistan: 131,100  Ukraine: 93,400  Tajikistan: 87,100  Azerbaijan: 67,900  Armenia: 59,400  Kyrgyzstan: 44,600  Moldova: 33,900  China: 28,400  Kazakhstan: 28,100  Belarus: 27,700  Georgia: 12,100  Vietnam: 11,100  Turkmenistan: 5,600  Turkey: 5,400  Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania: 5,300  India: 4,500 All others: 41,400

Median age and fertility[edit]

Median ages of ethnic groups vary considerably between groups. Ethnic Russians and other Slavic and Finnic groups have higher median age compared to the Caucasian groups.

Median ages are strongly correlated with "fertility rates, ethnic groups with higher fertility rates have lower median ages, and vice versa. For example, in 2002, in the ethnic group with the lowest median age – "Ingush – women 35 or older had, on average, 4.05 children; in the ethnic group with the highest median age – Jews – women 35 or older averaged only 1.37 children.[89] Ethnic Jews have both the highest median age and the lowest fertility rate; this is a consequence of "Jewish emigration.["citation needed]

Ethnic Russians represent a significant deviation from the pattern, with second lowest fertility rate of all major groups, but relatively low median age (37.6 years). This phenomenon is at least partly due to the fact that children from mixed marriages are often registered as ethnic Russians in the census.["citation needed] The most noticeable trend in the past couple of decades is the convergence of birth rates between minorities (including Muslim minorities) and the Russian majority.["citation needed]

The following table shows the variation in median age and fertility rates according to 2002 census.[90]

Ethnic
Group
Median
Age
Male
Female
Urban
Urban
M
Urban
F
Rural
Rural
M
Rural
F
Children
/ woman
(15+)
Children
/ woman
(35+)
Predominant
religion
Russian 37.6 34.0 40.5 37.1 33.5 40.1 39.0 35.7 41.7 1.446 1.828 Christianity
Tatar 37.7 35.3 39.6 37.2 34.7 39.1 38.8 36.5 41.1 1.711 2.204 Islam
Ukrainian 45.9 44.7 47.3 45.6 44.5 46.8 47.0 45.2 49.0 1.726 1.946 Christianity
Bashkir 34.2 32.1 36.2 32.9 30.6 34.7 35.4 33.3 37.6 1.969 2.658 Islam
Chuvash 38.6 36.4 40.4 37.9 36.3 39.1 39.4 36.5 42.5 1.884 2.379 Christianity
Chechen 22.8 22.1 23.5 22.9 22.5 23.4 22.7 21.9 23.5 2.163 3.456 Islam
Armenian 32.8 33.4 32.0 33.0 33.7 32.2 32.1 32.6 31.5 1.68 2.225 Christianity
Mordvin 44.4 42.1 46.9 44.2 42.3 45.9 44.7 41.7 48.5 1.986 2.303 Christianity
Avar 24.6 23.8 25.4 23.8 23.4 24.1 25.1 24.0 26.2 2.09 3.319 Islam
Belarusian 48.0 45.9 50.2 47.7 45.8 49.6 49.1 46.1 52.4 1.765 1.941 Christianity
Kazakh/Kyrgyz 30.2 29.4 31 29.5 29 30.1 30.6 29.7 31.4 2.015 2.964 Islam
Udmurt 40.0 37.4 42.0 41.2 39.0 42.6 38.9 36.1 41.3 1.93 2.378 Christianity
Azerbaijani 29.5 31.9 24.6 30.0 32.3 24.7 26.5 28.7 24.1 1.83 2.619 Islam
Mari 36.7 34.5 38.5 36.4 34.6 37.7 36.9 34.5 39.3 1.917 2.493 Christianity
German 39.7 38.2 41.2 39.6 38.0 41.0 40.0 38.4 41.4 1.864 2.443 Christianity
Kabardin 28.2 27.1 29.3 28.8 27.4 30.2 27.7 26.9 28.4 1.799 2.654 Islam
Ossetian 34.1 32.5 35.7 34.0 32.2 35.7 34.4 33.2 35.6 1.665 2.267 Christianity
Dargwa 24.6 23.9 25.3 24.3 23.8 24.8 24.8 24.0 25.6 2.162 3.476 Islam
Buryat 28.6 26.6 30.5 27.6 25.7 29.5 29.5 27.4 31.5 1.949 2.861 Buddhism
Yakut 26.9 25.1 28.7 26.9 25.2 28.5 27.0 25.1 28.8 1.972 2.843 Christianity
Kumyk 24.6 23.7 25.4 24.8 23.9 25.6 24.4 23.5 25.2 1.977 3.123 Islam
Ingush 22.7 22.4 23.0 22.9 22.5 23.4 22.5 22.3 22.7 2.325 4.05 Islam
Lezgian 25.4 25.2 25.7 25.0 25.2 24.8 25.9 25.2 26.6 2.045 3.275 Islam
Komi 38.8 35.8 41.0 39.4 35.5 41.6 38.3 36.0 40.4 1.869 2.363 Christianity
Tuvan 23.0 21.7 24.2 22.3 21.4 23.3 23.6 22.0 25.1 1.996 3.407 Buddhism
Jewish 57.5 55.7 61.1 57.6 55.7 61.2 53.5 52.0 55.3 1.264 1.371 Judaism
Karachay 29.5 28.3 30.5 27.6 26.4 28.9 30.5 29.5 31.5 1.86 2.836 Islam
Kalmyk 31.3 29.2 33.3 28.6 26.3 31.3 33.9 32.6 35.1 1.853 2.625 Buddhism
Adyghe 34.2 32.4 36.0 32.0 30.3 33.7 36.2 34.2 38.2 1.757 2.363 Islam
Permyak 40.8 38.6 42.7 41.3 39.5 42.5 40.5 38.1 42.8 2.145 2.604 Christianity
Balkar 30.1 29.5 30.7 29.3 28.8 29.8 30.9 30.1 31.9 1.689 2.624 Islam
Karelian 45.7 42.4 48.6 44.7 41.3 47.2 47.0 43.5 51.2 1.823 2.108 Christianity
Kazakh 30.7 28.4 32.9 30.1 27.9 32.4 31.2 28.8 33.5 1.872 2.609 Islam
Altay 27.5 25.5 29.4 22.7 21.5 24.2 28.9 26.9 30.8 2.021 2.933 Buddhism
Cherkess 31.2 30.1 32.3 29.7 28.3 30.9 32.1 31.1 33.3 1.807 2.607 Islam

Languages[edit]

Russian is the common official language throughout Russia understood by 99% of its current inhabitants and widespread in many adjacent areas of Asia and Eastern Europe. National subdivisions of Russia have additional official languages (see their respective articles). There are more than 100 languages spoken in Russia, many of which are "in danger of extinction.

Religion[edit]

Over 50% of ethnic Russians identify themselves as Orthodox["dubious ]. Of these, approximately 2–4%[91] of the general population are integrated into church life (воцерковленные), while others attend on a less regular basis or not at all. Many non-religious ethnic Russians identify with the Orthodox faith for cultural reasons.[92] The majority of Muslims live in the Volga–Ural region and the "North Caucasus, although Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and parts of Siberia also have sizable Muslim populations.[93][94]

Other branches of Christianity present in Russia include Roman Catholicism (approx. 1%), "Baptists, "Pentecostals, "Lutherans and other Protestant churches (together totalling about 0.5% of the population) and "Old Believers. There is some presence of Judaism, "Buddhism, and "Krishnaism, as well. "Shamanism and other pagan beliefs are present to some extent in remote areas, sometimes "syncretized with one of the mainstream religions.

According to the data of the 2010 Census, presented above, 88.26% of the people who stated their ethnicity belong to traditional Christian ethnic groups, 10.90% belong to traditional Muslim ethnic groups and 0.84% belong to traditional Buddhist, Jewish and other ethnic groups.

Education[edit]

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total literacy: 99.4% (2002)
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2%[94]

Russia's free, widespread and in-depth educational system, inherited with almost no changes from the Soviet Union, has produced nearly 100% literacy. 97% of children receive their compulsory 9-year basic or complete 11-year education in Russian. Other languages are also used in their respective republics, for instance "Tatar (1%), "Yakut (0.4%) etc.["citation needed]

About 3 million students attend Russia's 519 institutions of higher education and 48 universities. As a result of great emphasis on "science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is generally of a high order.[95]

Labour force[edit]

The Russian "labour force is undergoing tremendous changes. Although well-educated and skilled, it is largely mismatched to the rapidly changing needs of the "Russian economy. The unemployment rate in Russia was 5.3% as of 2013.[96] Unemployment is highest among women and young people. Following the "breakup of the Soviet Union and the economic dislocation it engendered, the standard of living fell dramatically. However, since recovering from the "1998 economic crisis, the standard of living has been on the rise. As of 2010 about 13.1% of the population was living below the "poverty line, compared to 40% in 1999.[97] The average yearly salary in Russia was $14,302 (about $23,501 "PPP) as of October 2013, up from $455 per year in August 1999.[98][99][100]

According to the FMS, as of 2011, there were 7,000,000 immigrants working in Russia. Half of these were from Ukraine, while the remainder was mostly from Central Asia. Only 3 million or less than half of all the immigrants are legal. Illegal immigrants number 4 million, mostly from Ukraine and the Caucasus.[37] The Census usually covers only a part of this population and the last one 2002 Census) counted one million non-citizens.

Population of main cities[edit]

Rural life[edit]

Rural life in Russia is distinct from many other nations. Russia is one of few nations that have small towns hundreds of kilometres from major population centres. Relatively few Russian people live in "villages—rural population accounted for 26% of the total population according to the "2010 Russian Census. Some people own or rent village houses and use them as "dachas (summer houses).

See also[edit]

Census information:

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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