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For more details on this topic, see "Appointment of Church of England bishops.

In 2002, Tutu called for a reform of the "Anglican Communion in regard to how its leader, the "Archbishop of Canterbury, is chosen. The ultimate appointment is made by Queen Elizabeth II on the advice of the British Prime Minister, who is in turn selecting from two candidates nominated by the Church of England's nominations commission.

Tutu said that the selection process will be properly democratic and representative only when "the link between church and state is broken. In February 2006 Tutu took part in the 9th Assembly of the "World Council of Churches, held in "Porto Alegre, Brazil.


Tutu says he reads the Bible every day and recommends that people read it as a collection of books, not a single constitutional document: "You have to understand is that the Bible is really a library of books and it has different categories of material," he said. "There are certain parts which you have to say no to. The Bible accepted slavery. St Paul said women should not speak in church at all and there are people who have used that to say women should not be ordained. There are many things that you shouldn't accept."[15]

Homosexuality issues[edit]

In the debate about "Anglican views of homosexuality, Tutu has opposed traditional Christian disapproval of homosexuality. Commenting days after the election on 5 August 2003 of "Gene Robinson, an openly gay man, to be a bishop in the "Episcopal Church in the United States, Tutu said, "In our Church here in South Africa, that doesn't make a difference. We just say that at the moment, we believe that they should remain celibate and we don't see what the fuss is about."[116] Tutu has remarked that it is sad the church is spending time disagreeing on sexual orientation "when we face so many devastating problems – poverty, HIV/AIDS, war and conflict".[117]

Tutu has increased his criticism of conservative attitudes to homosexuality within his own church, equating "homophobia with racism, saying at a conference in Nairobi that he is "deeply disturbed that in the face of some of the most horrendous problems facing Africa, we concentrate on 'what do I do in bed with whom'".[118] In an interview with BBC Radio 4 on 18 November 2007, Tutu accused the church of being obsessed with homosexuality and declared: "If God, as they say, is homophobic, I wouldn't worship that God."[119] Tutu has said that in future anti-gay laws would be regarded as just as wrong as apartheid laws.[120] Tutu has also supported the inclusion of same-sex marriages within the "Anglican Church of Southern Africa.[121]

Tutu has lent his name to the fight against homophobia in Africa and around the world. He stated at the launching of the book Sex, Love and Homophobia that homophobia is a "crime against humanity" and "every bit as unjust" as apartheid. He added that "we struggled against apartheid in South Africa, supported by people the world over, because black people were being blamed and made to suffer for something we could do nothing about; our very skins... It is the same with sexual orientation. It is a given."[122]

Tutu has been more supportive in recent years of non-celibate gay Christian clergy, praising Gene Robinson and even writing the foreword for his autobiography, In the Eye of the Storm (2008).[123] He said of Robinson: "For someone in the eye of the storm buffeting our beloved Anglican Communion, Gene Robinson is so serene; he is not a wild-eyed belligerent campaigner. I was so surprised at his generosity toward those who have denigrated him and worse. Gene Robinson is a wonderful human being, and I am proud to belong to the same church as he."[124] He also wrote to the Revd Grayde Parsons praising the "Presbyterian Church's decision to allow non-celibate male and female clergy.[125]

Tutu supported the creation of the "Harvey Milk Foundation after being a co-recipient of 2009 Presidential Medal of Freedom with Milk and meeting his nephew, "Stuart Milk, who accepted the medal on behalf of his uncle. Tutu remains involved as a founding member of the foundation's advisory board.[126]

In July 2013, Tutu said that he would rather go to hell than a homophobic heaven:[127]

In December 2015, Tutu's daughter, Mpho Tutu married a woman, Marceline Furth.[128] Tutu was able to give a blessing for the marriage of his daughter and her partner.[129]

Women's rights[edit]

On 8 March 2009, Tutu joined the "Africa for women's rights" campaign launched by the "International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), the African Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies (ACDHRS), Femmes Africa Solidarité (FAS), Women's Aid Collective (WACOL), Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF), Women and Law in South Africa (WLSA) and a hundred other African human rights and "women's rights organisations. In 2012, to mark the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, Desmond Tutu urges men and boys to challenge harmful traditions and protect the rights of girls and women, with this quote: "I call on men and boys everywhere to take a stand against the mistreatment of girls and women. It is by standing up for the rights of girls and women that we truly measure up as men."

Family planning[edit]

In 1994, Tutu said that he approved of artificial contraception and that abortion was acceptable in a number of situations, such as incest and rape. He specifically welcomed the aims of the "International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo.[130] He accepted the full legalisation of "abortion in South Africa, in 1996, despite some personal reservations[131]

Assisted dying[edit]

Tutu came out in support of assisted dying on July 2014, stating that life shouldn't be preserved "at any cost". He also said that laws that deny the right to assisted dying deprive those who are dying of their "human right to dignity". He gave the example of "Nelson Mandela, whose long and painful illness was in his opinion "an affront to Madiba's dignity". Tutu stated that in a similar situation he would not want to have his own life "prolonged artificially".[132]

Climate change[edit]

Archbishop Tutu at the COP17 We Have Faith: Act Now for Climate Justice Rally, 27 November 2011 in Durban, South Africa

Tutu was at the "2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. He made a speech in front of many at the event. Tutu is also a "Climate Ally" in the "tck tck tck Time for Climate Justice" campaign of the "Global Humanitarian Forum and a " messenger.[133] He also helped to lead a rally in 2011 in Durban, South Africa (We Have Faith:Act Now for Climate Justice Rally) in the run up to the "COP17 negotiations; where he advocated for all governments to sign a binding document to ensure that climate justice is realised for all people. He has voiced support for "fossil fuel divestment and compared it to "divestment from South Africa in protest of "apartheid.

We must stop climate change. And we can, if we use the tactics that worked in South Africa against the worst carbon emitters... Throughout my life I have believed that the only just response to injustice is what Mahatma Gandhi termed "passive resistance". During the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa, using boycotts, divestment and sanctions, and supported by our friends overseas, we were not only able to apply economic pressure on the unjust state, but also serious moral pressure.

— Desmond Tutu[134]

US immigration laws[edit]

On 28 April 2011, Tutu published a strongly worded article about Arizona Senate Bill 1070, which criminalises illegal immigration into the US State of Arizona, and requires Arizona police to request immigration documentation of any person suspected of committing a crime, a clause which would require immigrants and citizens to carry documentation on their person at all times. He stated that he was "saddened today at the prospect of a young Hispanic immigrant in Arizona going to the grocery store and forgetting to bring her passport and immigration documents with her. I cannot be dispassionate about the fact that the very act of her being in the grocery store will soon be a crime in the state she lives in. Or that should a policeman hear her accent and form a 'reasonable suspicion' that she is an illegal immigrant, she can – and will – be taken into custody until someone sorts it out, while her children are at home waiting for their dinner." He urged the State of Arizona to create a new model to deal with the pitfalls of illegal immigration, one that "is based on a deep respect for the essential human rights Americans themselves have grown up enjoying."["citation needed]

Iraq War[edit]

Tutu has been a staunch opponent since the start of the "Iraq War, saying that it has "destabilised and polarised the world to a greater extent than any other conflict in history". In September 2012, Tutu called for "George Bush and "Tony Blair to be tried for their role in the conflict by the "International Criminal Court and that they should be made to "answer for their actions".[135]

Imprisonment of Chelsea Manning[edit]

Together with "Mairead Maguire and "Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Tutu published a letter in support of "Chelsea Manning, saying (in November 2012, nine months prior to Manning "coming out as a "trans woman in August 2013)

The words attributed to Manning reveal that he went through a profound moral struggle between the time he enlisted and when he became a "whistleblower. Through his experience in "Iraq, he became disturbed by top-level policy that undervalued human life and caused the suffering of innocent civilians and soldiers. Like other whistleblowers, he was driven foremost by a desire to reveal the truth


The military prosecution has not presented evidence that Private Manning injured anyone by releasing secret documents... Nor has the prosecution denied that his motivations were conscientious[136]

Other humanitarian initiatives[edit]

In 2009 Tutu joined the project "Soldiers of Peace", a movie against all wars and for a global peace.[137][138]

Also in 2009, along with prominent chefs and celebrities like "Daniel Boulud and "Jean Rochefort, Desmond Tutu endorsed "Action Against Hunger's No Hunger Campaign calling on the former Vice-President "Al Gore to make a documentary film about world hunger.[139]

In 2013, Archbishop Tutu was a mentor for Unreasonable at Sea, a technology business accelerator for social entrepreneurs seeking to scale their ventures in international markets. Founded by Unreasonable Group, "Semester at Sea, and "Stanford's "Hasso Plattner Institute of Design.[140]

Academic role[edit]

Tutu delivering the keynote address at the University of the Western Cape's "Golden Key International Honour Society New Member Recognition Event, 2009

In 1998, he was appointed as the "Robert R Woodruff Visiting Professor at "Emory University, Atlanta. He returned to Emory University the following year as the William R. Cannon Visiting Distinguished Professor. In 2000, he founded the Desmond Tutu Peace Foundation to raise funds for the Desmond Tutu Peace Centre in Cape Town. The following year he launched the Desmond Tutu Peace Foundation USA, which is designed to work with universities nationwide to create leadership academies emphasising peace, social justice and reconciliation.

In 2001, the Desmond Tutu Educational Trust, with funding from the "W.K. Kellogg Foundation, launched the Desmond Tutu Footprints of the Legends Awards to recognise leadership in combating prejudice, human rights, research and poverty eradication. In 2003, he taught a course entitled Truth and Reconciliation at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville, Florida, after being asked by adjunct professor Oupa Seane, a friend and activist from South Africa. Since 2004, he has been a visiting professor at "King's College London. In 2007, 2010 and 2013, he joined 600 college students and sailed around the world with the "Semester at Sea program.[141] Tutu addressed Gonzaga University's Class of 2012 on 13 May 2012 in Spokane, Washington.[142]

Tutu co-chairs "1GOAL Education for All "campaign which was launched by "Queen Rania of Jordan in August 2009 which aims to secure schooling for some 72 million children worldwide who cannot afford it, in accordance with the "Millennium Goal Promise of "Education For All by 2015 giving them an opportunity to get education through the "FIFA 1Goal campaign.[143][144]


In the ongoing effort to research the diversity of the "human genome, Tutu donated some of his own cells to the project. They were sequenced as an example for a "Bantu individual representing "Sotho-Tswana and "Nguni speakers (publication: February 2010).[145]

Association of European Parliamentarians with Africa[edit]

Tutu currently serves as the honorary chair of the Association of European Parliamentarians with Africa's ("AWEPA) Eminent Advisory Board.[146]


List of honours for Desmond Tutu
Dr. Desmond Tutu at The Faculty of Protestant Theology in Vienna

On 16 October 1984, the then Bishop Tutu was awarded the "Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Committee cited his "role as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa".[147] This was seen as a gesture of support for him and The South African Council of Churches which he led at that time. In 1987 Tutu was awarded the "Pacem in Terris Award.[148] It was named after a 1963 "encyclical letter by "Pope John XXIII that calls upon all people of good will to secure peace among all nations.[149] In 1992, he was awarded the "Bishop John T. Walker Distinguished Humanitarian Service Award. His 2010 book, Made for Goodness was awarded a "Nautilus Book Award.

In June 1999, Tutu was invited to give the annual Wilberforce Lecture in "Kingston upon Hull, commemorating the life and achievements of the anti-slavery campaigner "William Wilberforce. Tutu used the occasion to praise the people of the city for their traditional support of freedom and for standing with the people of South Africa in their fight against apartheid. He was also presented with the "freedom of the city.[150]

In 1978 Tutu was awarded a fellowship of "King's College London, of which he is an alumnus. He returned to King's in 2004 as Visiting Professor in Post-Conflict Studies. The Students' Union nightclub, Tutu's, is named in his honour.[151]

In 1996 Tutu was the first recipient of the "Archbishop of Canterbury's Award for Outstanding Service to the Anglican Communion, a new award created specially for him, and designated the highest possible award within the Anglican Communion, standing in precedence ahead of the previous highest award, the "Cross of St Augustine, gold division.

In November 1999 Tutu was awarded an honorary doctorate by the "University of Fribourg.

In June 1999 Tutu was elected an Honorary Fellow of "Sidney Sussex College in the "University of Cambridge, from which he has been awarded the Honorary Degree of "Doctor of Divinity.

On 22 January 2000 Tutu received an "honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Theology at "Uppsala University, "Sweden[152]

At the Opening Ceremony of the XIX Olympic Winter Games in "Salt Lake City, Tutu was offered, and accepted, the honour of being one of the eight flagbearers to carry the Olympic flag, representing Africa.

In 2006 Tutu was named an honorary patron of the "University Philosophical Society, "Trinity College, Dublin, for his tremendous contributions to peace and discourse.

"Freedom of the City awards have been conferred on Tutu in cities in Italy, Wales, England and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He has received numerous doctorates and fellowships at distinguished universities. He has been named a Grand Officer of the "Légion d'honneur by France; Germany has awarded him the Grand Cross of the "Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, and he received the "Sydney Peace Prize in 1999. He is also the recipient of the "Gandhi Peace Prize, the King Hussein Prize and the Marion Doenhoff Prize for International Reconciliation and Understanding. In 2008, Governor "Rod Blagojevich of "Illinois proclaimed 13 May 'Desmond Tutu Day'. On his visit to Illinois, Tutu was awarded the Lincoln Leadership Prize and unveiled his portrait which will be displayed at the "Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library in "Springfield.[153]

In October 2008, Tutu received the "Wallenberg Medal from the "University of Michigan in recognition of his lifelong work in defence of human rights and dignity.

In November 2008, Tutu was awarded the "J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding.

On 8 May 2009, Tutu was the featured speaker during "Michigan State University's spring undergraduate convocation. During the commencement, an honorary doctor of humane letters degree was bestowed on Tutu. Two days later, he received an honorary doctor of divinity degree from the "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.[154] The two schools had coincidentally met in the previous month's "NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, a detail not missed by Tutu.[155]

In May 2009 Tutu was awarded an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree from the "University of Edinburgh.[156] In commemoration of this event the University established the Desmond Tutu Masters' Scholarship for students from Africa to do postgraduate Master's study within the School of Divinity.[157]

Tutu was awarded an honorary degree from "Bangor University, Bangor, "Wales, on 10 June 2009. During the ceremony, Tutu thanked the people of Wales for their role in helping end "apartheid.

On 12 June 2009 the University of Vienna conferred the degree "Doctor Theologiae honoris causa" on Desmond Tutu. The Faculty of Protestant Theology and Senate based the decision on Tutu's outstanding achievement in developing and establishing what can be called ubuntu theology, his manifestation of what became known as "public theology". By integrating the principles of the South African "ubuntu philosophy with his theological thinking, he made a major contribution beyond classical "liberation theology.

Southwark Cathedral named two new varieties of rose in honour of Desmond and Leah Tutu at the 2009 RHS Flower Show at Hampton Court Palace. To celebrate the event, the "Southwark Cathedral Merbecke Choir gave a concert in the presence of Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu and his wife Leah at Southwark Cathedral on 11 July 2009.[158][159] The Archbishop joined the choir on stage for its encore – an arrangement of George Gershwin's 'Summertime'.

In 2009 he also received the Spiritual Leadership Award from the international Humanity's Team movement[160][161] and the "Presidential Medal of Freedom from US President Barack Obama.[162] In 2013 he received the £1.1m ($1.6m) "Templeton Prize for "his life-long work in advancing spiritual principles such as love and forgiveness".[163]

Tutu was inducted into the "Golden Key International Honour Society as an Honorary Member in 2001, by the University of Stellenbosch.[164]

The Archbishop was named an Honorary Chairman of "Building Tomorrow's board of directors. Building Tomorrow engages young people in their mission to build schools for underserved children and communities in Uganda. Tutu has said, "I believe that education is the key to unlocking the door that will eradicate poverty and that young people have the power to make it happen."

In 2015, the British Sovereign made him an honorary "Companion of Honour.

World Justice Project[edit]

Desmond Tutu serves as an Honorary Co-Chairman for the "World Justice Project which works to lead a global, multidisciplinary effort to strengthen the "Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity.

The Forgiveness Project[edit]

Tutu is one of the patrons of "The Forgiveness Project,[165] a UK-based charity that uses real stories of victims and perpetrators of crime to facilitate conflict resolution, break the cycle of vengeance and encourage behavioural change. As a supporter of their work,[166] Tutu joined "Anita Roddick at the launch of The Forgiveness Project's exhibition, the F Word, at the Oxo Tower Gallery in January 2004 and on 12 May 2010 delivered the charity's inaugural annual lecture.[167]

Speaking to 800 people at St John's Smith Square in London on lecture's topic of "Is violence ever justified?" he talked about the process of truth and reconciliation, the transformative nature of forgiveness and the uniquely African concept of Ubuntu – 'I am me, because you are you', saying that when wars come to an end, only forgiveness enables people to fully move away from conflict.[168]

Archbishop Tutu was joined on stage by Mary Blewitt who lost 50 members of her family in the Rwandan genocide; "Jo Berry whose father was killed in the 1984 "Brighton hotel bombing; and "Patrick Magee, the former IRA activist who planted the bomb. The event was chaired by BBC broadcaster "Edward Stourton


In 1991, Tutu's son Trevor was convicted of contravening the Civil Aviation Act for falsely claiming there was a bomb on board a "South African Airways plane at "East London Airport. He was granted bail pending appeal but failed to appear and was finally apprehended in "Johannesburg in August 1997. He applied for and, in 1997, was granted amnesty from the "Truth and Reconciliation Commission of which Desmond was co-founder and chairman, attracting harsh criticism on suspicion of preferential treatment.[169][170][171][172]


Tutu with his daughter Mpho Andrea in the Netherlands, 2012

Naomi Tutu founded the Tutu Foundation for Development and Relief in Southern Africa, based in "Hartford, Connecticut. She attended the "Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce at the "University of Kentucky and has followed in her father's footsteps as a human rights activist. She is currently["when?] a "graduate student at "Vanderbilt University Divinity School, in "Nashville, Tennessee.[173] Desmond Tutu's other daughter, Mpho Tutu, has also followed in her father's footsteps and in 2004 was ordained an "Episcopal priest by her father.[174] She is also the founder and executive director of the Tutu Institute for Prayer and Pilgrimage and the chairperson of the board of the Global AIDS Alliance.[175]

Media and film appearances[edit]

Tutu at the "German Evangelical Church Assembly, 2007
Tutu at the "World Economic Forum 2009


Tutu is the author of seven collections of "sermons and other writings:

Tutu has also co-authored or made other contributions to numerous books:

Tutu has also written articles for Greater Good, a magazine published by the "Greater Good Science Center of the "University of California, Berkeley. His contributions include the interpretation of "scientific research into the roots of compassion, altruism and peaceful human relationships.

A British children's author, "Nick Butterworth, dedicated his book The Whisperer to Tutu.

See also[edit]


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  4. ^ a b "Desmond Tutu Peace Centre | 1955–1975". Retrieved 14 March 2016. 
  5. ^ Gish, Steven (2004). Desmond Tutu. A Biography. Greenwood Press. "doi:10.1336/0313328609. "ISBN "978-0-313-32860-2. 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

"Anglican Church of Southern Africa titles
Preceded by
"John Maund
"Bishop of Lesotho
Succeeded by
Philip Stanley Mokuku
Preceded by
"Timothy Bavin
"Bishop of Johanneburg
Succeeded by
"George Buchanan
Preceded by
"Philip Russell
"Archbishop of Cape Town
Succeeded by
"Njongonkulu Ndungane

) )