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Letter a with diacritic acute
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
"acute( ´ )
"double acute( ˝ )
"grave( ` )
"double grave(  ̏ )
"breve( ˘ )
"inverted breve(  ̑ )
"caron, háček( ˇ )
"cedilla( ¸ )
"circumflex( ˆ )
"diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
"dot( · )
"hook, "hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
"horn(  ̛ )
"iota subscript(  ͅ  )
"macron( ¯ )
"ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
"perispomene(  ͂  )
"ring( ˚, ˳ )
"rough breathing( )
"smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
"apostrophe( )
"bar( ◌̸ )
"colon( : )
"comma( , )
"period( . )
"hyphen( ˗ )
"prime( )
"tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
"Arabic diacritics
"Early Cyrillic diacritics
"kamora(  ҄ )
"pokrytie(  ҇ )
"titlo(  ҃ )
"Gurmukhī diacritics
"Hebrew diacritics
"Indic diacritics
"anusvara( )
"chandrabindu( )
"nukta( )
"virama( )
"visarga( )
"IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
"dakuten( )
handakuten( )
"Khmer diacritics
"Syriac diacritics
"Thai diacritics
"Dotted circle
"Punctuation marks
"Logic symbols

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, or diacritical sign – is a "glyph added to a "letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the "Ancient Greek διακριτικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"), from διακρίνω (diakrī́nō, "to distinguish"). Diacritic is primarily an "adjective, though sometimes used as a "noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the "acute ( ´ ) and "grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters.

The main use of diacritical marks in the "Latin script is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added. Examples are the "diaereses in the borrowed French words naïve and Noël, which show that the vowel with the diaeresis mark is pronounced separately from the preceding "vowel; the acute and grave accents, which can indicate that a final vowel is to be pronounced, as in "saké and poetic breathèd; and the "cedilla under the "c" in the borrowed French word façade, which shows it is pronounced /"s/ rather than /"k/. In other "Latin-script alphabets, they may distinguish between "homonyms, such as the "French ("there") versus la ("the") that are both pronounced /la/. In "Gaelic type, a dot over a consonant indicates "lenition of the consonant in question.

In other "alphabetic systems, diacritical marks may perform other functions. "Vowel pointing systems, namely the "Arabic "harakat ( ـِ ,ـُ ,ـَ, etc.) and the "Hebrew "niqqud ( ַ◌, ֶ◌, ִ◌, ֹ◌, ֻ◌, etc.) systems, indicate vowels that are not conveyed by the basic alphabet. The "Indic "virama ( ् etc.) and the Arabic "sukūn ( ـْـ ) mark the absence of vowel. "Cantillation marks indicate "prosody. Other uses include the "Early Cyrillic "titlo stroke ( ◌҃ ) and the Hebrew "gershayim ( ״ ), which, respectively, mark "abbreviations or "acronyms, and Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used as "numerals. In the "Hanyu Pinyin official romanization system for Chinese, diacritics are used to mark the "tones of the syllables in which the marked vowels occur.

In "orthography and "collation, a letter modified by a diacritic may be treated either as a new, distinct letter or as a letter–diacritic combination. This varies from language to language, and may vary from case to case within a language.

In some cases, letters are used as "in-line diacritics", with the same function as ancillary glyphs, in that they modify the sound of the letter preceding them, as in the case of the "h" in the English pronunciation of "sh" and "th".[1]



Among the types of diacritic used in alphabets based on the "Latin script are:

The tilde, dot, comma, "titlo, apostrophe, bar, and colon are sometimes diacritical marks, but also have other uses.

Not all diacritics occur adjacent to the letter they modify. In the "Wali language of Ghana, for example, an apostrophe indicates a change of vowel quality, but occurs at the beginning of the word, as in the dialects ’Bulengee and ’Dolimi. Because of "vowel harmony, all vowels in a word are affected, so the scope of the diacritic is the entire word. In "abugida scripts, like those used to write "Hindi and "Thai, diacritics indicate vowels, and may occur above, below, before, after, or around the consonant letter they modify.

The tittle (dot) on the letter i of the Latin alphabet originated as a diacritic to clearly distinguish i from the "minims (downstrokes) of adjacent letters. It first appeared in the 11th century in the sequence ii (as in ingeníí), then spread to i adjacent to m, n, u, and finally to all lowercase i's. The j, originally a variant of i, inherited the tittle. The shape of the diacritic developed from initially resembling today's acute accent to a long flourish by the 15th century. With the advent of "Roman type it was reduced to the round dot we have today.[2]

Diacritics specific to non-Latin alphabets[edit]



These diacritics are used in addition to the acute, grave, and circumflex accents and the diaeresis:


Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected".
Letters in black, "niqqud in red, "cantillation in blue


"Hangul, the Korean alphabet

These diacritics, known as Bangjeom (방점;傍點), were used to mark pitch accents in "Hangul for Middle Korean. They were written to the left of a syllable in vertical writing and above a syllable in horizontal writing:  〮, 〯  

The South Korean government officially revised the "romanization of the Korean language in July 2000 to eliminate diacritics.

Sanskrit and Indic[edit]

Devanagari script's (from Brahmic family) compound letters, which are vowels combined with consonants, have diacritics. Here क is shown with vowel diacritics.


In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes ə, or superscript e (or often nothing at all) to represent an original Aramaic "schwa that became lost later on at some point in the development of Syriac.[3] Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons.[4][5]

Non-alphabetic scripts[edit]

Some non-alphabetic scripts also employ symbols that function essentially as diacritics.

Alphabetization or collation[edit]

Different languages use different rules to put diacritic characters in "alphabetical order. French treats letters with diacritical marks the same as the underlying letter for purposes of ordering and dictionaries.

The "Scandinavian languages, by contrast, treat the characters with diacritics ä, ö and å as new and separate letters of the alphabet, and sort them after z. Usually ä is sorted as equal to æ (ash) and ö is sorted as equal to ø (o-slash). Also, aa, when used as an alternative spelling to å, is sorted as such. Other letters modified by diacritics are treated as variants of the underlying letter, with the exception that ü is frequently sorted as y.

Languages that treat accented letters as variants of the underlying letter usually alphabetize words with such symbols immediately after similar unmarked words. For instance, in German where two words differ only by an umlaut, the word without it is sorted first in German dictionaries (e.g. schon and then schön, or fallen and then fällen). However, when names are concerned (e.g. in phone books or in author catalogues in libraries), umlauts are often treated as combinations of the vowel with a suffixed e; Austrian phone books now treat characters with umlauts as separate letters (immediately following the underlying vowel).

In Spanish, the grapheme ñ is considered a new letter different from n and collated between n and o, as it denotes a different sound from that of a plain n. But the accented vowels á, é, í, ó, ú are not separated from the unaccented vowels a, e, i, o, u, as the acute accent in Spanish only modifies "stress within the word or denotes a distinction between "homonyms, and does not modify the sound of a letter.

For a comprehensive list of the collating orders in various languages, see "Collating sequence.

Generation with computers[edit]

Modern computer technology was developed mostly in English-speaking countries, so data formats, keyboard layouts, etc. were developed with a bias favoring English, a language with an alphabet without diacritical marks. This has led to fears internationally that the marks and accents may be made obsolete to facilitate the worldwide exchange of data.["citation needed] Efforts have been made to create "internationalized domain names that further extend the English alphabet (e.g., "poké").

Depending on the "keyboard layout, which differs amongst countries, it is more or less easy to enter letters with diacritics on computers and typewriters. Some have their own keys; some are created by first pressing the key with the diacritic mark followed by the letter to place it on. Such a key is sometimes referred to as a "dead key, as it produces no output of its own but modifies the output of the key pressed after it.

In modern Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems, the keyboard layouts US International and UK International feature "dead keys that allow one to type Latin letters with the acute, grave, circumflex, diæresis, tilde, and cedilla found in Western European languages (specifically, those combinations found in the "ISO Latin-1 character set) directly: ¨+e gives ë, ~+o gives õ, etc. On "Apple Macintosh computers, there are keyboard shortcuts for the most common diacritics; Option-e followed by a vowel places an acute accent, Option-u followed by a vowel gives an umlaut, option-c gives a cedilla, etc. Diacritics can be "composed in most "X Window System keyboard layouts, as well as other operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, using additional software.

On computers, the availability of "code pages determines whether one can use certain diacritics. "Unicode solves this problem by assigning every known character its own code; if this code is known, most modern computer systems provide a "method to input it. With Unicode, it is also possible to "combine diacritical marks with most characters.

Languages with letters containing diacritics[edit]

The following languages have letters that contain diacritics that are considered independent letters distinct from those without diacritics.

  • "Latvian has the following letters: "ā, "ē, "ī, "ū, "č, "ģ "ķ, "ļ, "ņ, "š, "ž
  • "Lithuanian. In general usage, where letters appear with the caron (č, š and ž), they are considered as separate letters from c, s or z and collated separately; letters with the "ogonek ("ą, "ę, "į and "ų), the "macron ("ū) and the "superdot ("ė) are considered as separate letters as well, but not given a unique collation order.
  • "Welsh uses the "circumflex, "diaeresis, acute, and "grave on its seven vowels a, e, i, o, u, w, y (â, ê, î, ô, û, ŵ, ŷ, ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ẅ, ÿ, à, è, ì, ò, ù, ẁ, ỳ, á, é, í, ó, ú, ẃ, ý)
  • Following spelling reforms since the 1970s, "Scottish Gaelic uses graves only, which can be used on any vowel ("à, "è, "ì, "ò, "ù). Formerly acute accents could be used on á, ó and é, which were used to indicate a specific vowel quality. With the elimination of these accents, the new orthography relies on the reader having prior knowledge of pronunciation of a given word.
  • "Manx uses the single diacritic "ç combined with h to give the digraph ⟨çh⟩ (pronounced /tʃ/) to mark the distinction between it and the digraph ⟨ch⟩ (pronounced /h/ or /x/). Other diacritics used in Manx included â, ê, ï, etc. to mark the distinction between two similarly spelled words but with slightly differing pronunciation.
  • "Irish uses only acute accents to mark long vowels, following the 1948 spelling reform.
  • "Breton does not have a single orthography (spelling system), but uses diacritics for a number of purposes. The diaresis is used to mark that two vowels are pronounced separately and not as a diphthong/digraph. The circumflex is used to mark long vowels, but usually only when the vowel length is not predictable by phonology. Nasalization of vowels may be marked with a tilde, or following the vowel with the letter <ñ>. The plural suffix -où is used as a unified spelling to represent a suffix with a number of pronunciations in different dialects, and to distinguish this suffix from the digraph <ou> which is pronounced as /u:/. An apostrophe is used in the to distinguish c'h, pronounced /x/ as the digraph <ch> is used in other Celtic languages, from the French-influenced digraph ch, pronounced /ʃ/.
"Cyrillic alphabets
  • "Belarusian has a letter "ў.
  • Belarusian, "Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian have the letter "й.
  • Belarusian and "Russian have the letter "ё. In Russian, this letter is usually replaced by "е, although it has a different pronunciation. The use of е instead of ё does not affect the pronunciation. Ё is always used in children's books and in dictionaries. A "minimal pair is все (vs'e, "everybody" pl.) and всё (vs'o, "everything" n. sg.). In Belarusian the replacement by е is a mistake, in Russian, it is permissible to use either е or ё for ё but the former is more common in everyday writing (as opposed to instructional or juvenile writing).
  • The "Cyrillic "Ukrainian alphabet has the letters "ґ, "й and "ї. Ukrainian "Latynka has many more.
  • "Macedonian has the letters "ќ and "ѓ.
  • In Bulgarian and "Macedonian the possessive pronoun ѝ (ì, "her") is spelled with a grave accent in order to distinguish it from the conjunction и (i, "and").
  • The acute accent " ́" above any vowel in Cyrillic alphabets is used in dictionaries, books for children and foreign learners to indicate the word stress, it also can be used for disambiguation of similarly spelled words with different lexical stresses.
  • "Estonian has a distinct letter "õ, which contains a tilde. Estonian "dotted vowels" ä, ö, ü are similar to German, but these are also distinct letters, not like German umlauted letters. All four have their own place in the alphabet, between w and x. Carons in š or ž appear only in foreign proper names and "loanwords. Also these are distinct letters, placed in the alphabet between s and t.
  • "Finnish uses dotted vowels (ä and ö). As in Swedish and Estonian, these are regarded as individual letters, rather than vowel + umlaut combinations (as happens in German). It also uses the characters å, š and ž in foreign names and loanwords. In the Finnish and Swedish alphabets, å, ä and ö collate as separate letters after z, the others as variants of their base letter.
  • "Hungarian uses the umlaut, the acute and double acute accent (unique to Hungarian): ö ü, á é í ó ú and ő ű. The acute accent indicates the long form of a vowel (in case of i/í, o/ó, u/ú) while the double acute performs the same function for ö and ü. The acute accent can also indicate a different sound (more open, like in case of a/á, e/é). Both long and short forms of the vowels are listed separately in the "Hungarian alphabet, but members of the pairs a/á, e/é, i/í, o/ó, ö/"ő, u/ú and ü/"ű are collated in dictionaries as the same letter.
  • "Livonian has the following letters: ā, ä, "ǟ, ", ē, ī, ļ, ņ, ō, "ȯ, "ȱ, "õ, "ȭ, ŗ, š, ț, ū, ž.
  • "Faroese uses "acutes and other special letters. All are considered separate letters and have their own place in the alphabet: "á, "í, "ó, "ú, "ý and "ø.
  • "Icelandic uses acutes and other special letters. All are considered separate letters, and have their own place in the alphabet: "á, "é, "í, "ó, "ú, "ý, and "ö.
  • "Danish and "Norwegian uses additional characters like the o-slash "ø and the a-overring "å. These letters come after z and "æ in the order ø, å. Historically, the å has developed from a ligature by writing a small superscript a over a lowercase a; if an å character is unavailable, some Scandinavian languages allow the substitution of a doubled a. The Scandinavian languages collate these letters after z, but have different "collation standards.
  • "Swedish uses a-diaeresis ("ä) and o-diaeresis ("ö) in the place of ash (æ) and slashed o ("ø) in addition to the a-overring (å). Historically, the diaeresis for the Swedish letters ä and ö, like the "German umlaut, developed from a small Gothic e written above the letters. These letters are collated after z, in the order å, ä, ö.
  • In "Asturian, "Galician and "Spanish, the character "ñ is a letter and collated between n and o.
  • "Asturian uses " ("lower case "), and " ("lower case ")[6]
  • "Leonese: could use "ñ or "nn.
  • "Romanian uses a "breve on the letter a ("ă) to indicate the sound "schwa /ə/, as well as a circumflex over the letters a ("â) and i ("î) for the sound /ɨ/. Romanian also writes a "comma below the letters s ("ș) and t ("ț) to represent the sounds /ʃ/ and /t͡s/, respectively. These characters are collated after their non-diacritic equivalent.
  • "Portuguese uses the circumflex and the acute accent to indicate stress and vowel height whenever it is in an unpredictable location within the word. They can also function as a way to distinguish a few homographs. The former is used over the stressed high vowels â /ɐ/, ê /e/, and ô /o/ in contrast with the latter, which is used over stressed low vowels á /a/, é /ɛ/, and ó /ɔ/ and in í /i/ and ú /u/. The tilde is used to indicate nasalization, such as in ã /ɐ̃/ and õ /õ/. The grave accent is used to indicate "crasis, when two identical vowels are merged into one, thus not affecting neither vowel quality nor stress, it is only used over a (à). The "cedilha is used under c (ç) when it is pronounced as /s/ instead of /k/ before a, o and u. In total, "á, "â, "ã, "à, "ç, "é, "ê, "í, "ó, "ô, "õ and "ú can be found in Portuguese orthography. None of these are considered separate letters.
  • "Bosnian, "Croatian, and "Serbian Latin alphabet have the symbols "č, "ć, "đ, "š and "ž, which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. They also have one "digraph including a diacritic, ", which is also alphabetized independently, and follows "d and precedes "đ in the alphabetical order. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet has no diacritics, instead it has a grapheme ("glyph) for every letter of its Latin counterpart (including Latin letters with diacritics and the digraphs dž, "lj and "nj).
  • The "Czech alphabet uses the acute (á é í ó ú ý), caron ("č "ď "ě "ň "ř "š "ť "ž), and for one letter ("ů) the ring. (Note that in ď and ť the caron is modified to look lither like an apostrophe.)
  • "Polish has the following letters: "ą "ć "ę "ł "ń "ó "ś "ź "ż. These are considered to be separate letters: each of them is placed in the alphabet immediately after its Latin counterpart (e.g. ą between a and b), ź and ż are placed after z in that order.
  • The "Slovak alphabet uses the acute (á é í ó ú ý "ĺ "ŕ), caron (č ď ľ ň š ť ž), umlaut (ä) and circumflex accent (ô).[7]
  • The basic "Slovenian alphabet has the symbols "č, "š, and "ž, which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. Letters with a "caron are placed right after the letters as written without the diacritic. The letter đ may be used in non-transliterated foreign words, particularly names, and is placed after č and before d.
  • "Azerbaijani includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters "Ç, "Ğ, "I, İ, "Ö, "Ş and "Ü.
  • "Crimean Tatar includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters "Ç, "Ğ, I, İ, "Ö, "Ş and "Ü. Unlike Standard Turkish (but like "Cypriot Turkish), Crimean Tatar also has the letter "Ñ.
  • "Gagauz includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters "Ç, "Ğ, "I, İ, "Ö and "Ü. Unlike Turkish, Gagauz also has the letters "Ä, "Ê "Ș and "Ț. "Ș and "Ț are derived from the "Romanian alphabet for the same sounds. Sometime the Turkish "Ş may be used instead of "Ș.
  • "Turkish uses a G with a breve ("Ğ), two letters with an umlaut ("Ö and "Ü, representing two rounded front vowels), two letters with a cedilla ("Ç and "Ş, representing the affricate /tʃ/ and the fricative /ʃ/), and also possesses a dotted capital İ (and a dotless lowercase ı representing a high unrounded back vowel). In Turkish each of these are separate letters, rather than versions of other letters, where dotted capital İ and lower case i are the same letter, as are dotless capital I and lowercase ı. "Typographically, Ç and Ş are often rendered with a subdot, as in ; when a hook is used, it tends to have more a comma shape than the usual cedilla. The new Azerbaijani, Crimean Tatar, and Gagauz alphabets are based on the Turkish alphabet and its same diacriticized letters, with some additions.
  • "Turkmen includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters "Ç, "Ö, "Ş and "Ü. In addition, Turkmen uses A with diaeresis ("Ä) to represent /æ/, N with caron ("Ň) to represent the "velar nasal /ŋ/, Y with acute ("Ý) to represent the "palatal approximant /j/, and Z with caron ("Ž) to represent /ʒ/.
  • "Albanian has two special letters "Ç and "Ё upper and lowercase. They are placed next to the most similar letters in the alphabet, c and e correspondingly.
  • "Esperanto has the symbols "ŭ, "ĉ, "ĝ, "ĥ, "ĵ and "ŝ, which are included in the alphabet, and considered separate letters.
  • Hawaiian uses the kahakô ("macron) over vowels, although there is some disagreement over considering them as individual letters. The kahakô over a vowel can completely change the meaning of a word that is spelled the same but without the kahakô.
  • "Kurdish uses the symbols "Ç, "Ê, "Î, "Ş and "Û with other 26 standard Latin alphabet symbols.
  • "Lakota alphabet uses the "caron for the letters č, ȟ, ǧ, š, and ž. It also uses the "acute accent for stressed vowels á, é, í, ó, ú, áŋ, íŋ, úŋ.
  • "Maltese uses a C, G, and Z with a dot over them (Ċ, Ġ, Ż), and also has an H with an extra horizontal bar. For uppercase H, the extra bar is written slightly above the usual bar. For lowercase H, the extra bar is written crossing the vertical, like a t, and not touching the lower part ("Ħ, ħ). The above characters are considered separate letters. The letter 'c' without a dot has fallen out of use due to redundancy. 'Ċ' is pronounced like the English 'ch' and 'k' is used as a hard c as in 'cat'. 'Ż' is pronounced just like the English 'Z' as in 'Zebra', while 'Z' is used to make the sound of 'ts' in English (like 'tsunami' or 'maths'). 'Ġ' is used as a soft 'G' like in 'geometry', while the 'G' sounds like a hard 'G' like in 'log'. The digraph 'għ' (called għajn after the "Arabic letter name ʻayn for غ) is considered separate, and sometimes ordered after 'g', whilst in other volumes it is placed between 'n' and 'o' (the Latin letter 'o' originally evolved from the shape of "Phoenician ʻayin, which was traditionally collated after Phoenician nūn).
  • The "Syriac Latin alphabet uses the altered letters of "Ā, "Č, ", "Ē, "Ë, "Ġ, ", "Ō, "Š, ", ", "Ū, "Ž alongside the 26 standard Latin alphabet symbols.[8]
  • "Vietnamese uses the "horn diacritic for the letters ơ and ư; the "circumflex for the letters â, ê, and ô; the "breve for the letter ă; and a bar through the letter đ.

Diacritics that do not produce new letters[edit]

Blackboard used in class at "Harvard shows students' efforts at placing the "ü and "acute accent diacritic used in "Spanish orthography.


"English is one of the few European languages that does not have many words that contain diacritical marks. Exceptions are unassimilated foreign loanwords, including borrowings from "French and, increasingly, "Spanish; however, the diacritic is also sometimes omitted from such words. Loanwords that frequently appear with the diacritic in English include café, résumé or resumé (a usage that helps distinguish it from the verb resume), "soufflé, and naïveté (see "English terms with diacritical marks). In older practice (and even among some orthographically conservative modern writers) one may see examples such as élite, mêlée and rôle.

English speakers and writers once used the diaeresis more often than now in words such as coöperation (from Fr. coopération), zoölogy (from Grk. zoologia), and seeër (now more commonly see-er or simply seer), but this practice has become far less common. "The New Yorker magazine is a major publication that continues to use the diaresis in place of a dash for clarity and economy of space.[9]

A few English words, out of context, can only be distinguished from others by a diacritic or modified letter, including exposé, "lamé, "maté, "öre, "øre, "pâté, and "rosé'. The same is true of "résumé, alternately resumé, but nevertheless it is regularly spelled resume. In a few words, diacritics that did not exist in the original have been added for disambiguation, as in "maté (from Sp. and Port. mate), "saké (the standard Romanization of the Japanese has no accent mark), and "Malé (from Dhivehi މާލެ), to clearly distinguish them from the English words "mate", "sake", and "male".

The acute and grave accents are occasionally used in poetry and lyrics: the acute to indicate stress overtly where it might be ambiguous (rébel vs. rebél) or nonstandard for metrical reasons (caléndar), the grave to indicate that an ordinarily silent or elided syllable is pronounced (warnèd, parlìament).

In certain personal names such as "Renée and "Zoë, often two spellings exist, and the preference will be known only to those close to the person themselves. Even when the name of a person is spelled with a diacritic, like Charlotte Brontë, this may be dropped in less careful sources such as webpages. They also appear in some worldwide company names and/or trademarks such as for instance "Nestlé or "Citroën.

Other languages[edit]

The following languages have letter-diacritic combinations that are not considered independent letters.


Several languages that are not written with the Roman alphabet are "transliterated, or romanized, using diacritics. Examples:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Henry Sweet (1877) A Handbook of Phonetics, p 174–175: "Even letters with accents and diacritics [...] being only cast for a few founts, act practically as new letters. [...] We may consider the h in sh and th simply as a diacritic written for convenience on a line with the letter it modifies."
  2. ^ "OED
  3. ^ "Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889].
  4. ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-926129-1.
  5. ^ Michaelis, Ioannis Davidis (1784). Grammatica Syriaca.
  6. ^ Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, Gramática de la Llingua Asturiana, tercera edición, Oviedo: Academia de la Llingua Asturiana (2001), "ISBN "84-8168-310-8, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-06-07.  (page 16, section 1.2)
  7. ^ page 12, section I.2
  8. ^ S.P. Brock, "An Introduction to Syriac Studies", in J.H. Eaton (Ed.,), Horizons in Semitic Studies (1980)
  9. ^ Norris, Mary. "The Curse of the Diaeresis". The New Yorker. Retrieved 18 April 2014. 
  10. ^ van Geloven, Sander (2012). Diakritische tekens in het Nederlands (in Dutch). Utrecht: Hellebaard. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. 

External links[edit]

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