A digital citizen refers to a person utilizing "information technology (IT) in order to engage in society, politics, and government participation. K. Mossberger, et al. define digital citizens as "those who use the Internet regularly and effectively".
People characterizing themselves as digital citizens often use IT extensively, creating "blogs, using "social networks, and participating in "online journalism. Although digital citizenship potentially begins when any child, teen, and/or adult signs up for an email address, posts pictures online, uses "e-commerce to buy merchandise online, and/or participates in any electronic function that is "B2C or "B2B, the process of becoming a digital citizen goes beyond simple Internet activity. In the framework of T.H. Marshall's perspective on citizenship's three traditions (liberalism, republicanism, and ascriptive hierarchy), digital citizenry can occur alongside the promotion of equal economic opportunity, as well as increased political participation and civic duty. Digital technology can lower the "barriers to entry for participation as a citizen within society.
Highly developed states possess the capacity to link their respective governments with digital sites. Such sites function in ways such as illuminating recent legislation, educating current and future policy objectives, lending agency toward political candidates, and allowing citizens to voice themselves in a political way. Likewise, the generation of these sites has been linked to increased voting advocacy. Lack of access toward becoming a digital citizen can be a serious drawback, since many elementary procedures such as tax reports filing, birth registration, and use of Web sites to support candidates in political campaigns ("E-democracy) etc. have been transferred to only be available via the "Internet. Furthermore, many cultural and commercial entities only publicize information on "web pages. Non-digital citizens will not be able to retrieve this information and this may lead to social isolation or economic stagnation. The gap between digital citizens and non-digital citizens is often referred to as the "digital divide. Currently, the digital divide is a subject of academic debate as access to the Internet has increased, but the place in which the Internet is accessed (work, home, public library, etc.) has a significant effect on how such access will be utilized, if even in a manner related to citizenry. Recent scholarship has correlated the desire to be technologically proficient with greater belief in computer access equity, and thus, digital citizenship (Shelley, et al.).
In "developing countries digital citizens are sparser. They consist of the people in such countries who utilize technology to overcome their localized obstacles including development issues, corruption, and even military conflict. Examples of such citizens include users of "Ushahidi during the "2007 disputed Kenyan election, and protesters in the "Arab Spring movements who used media to document repression of protests.
The development of digital citizen participation can be divided into two main stages: information dissemination and citizen "deliberation.
A recent survey revealed that teenager and young adults spend more time on the Internet than watching TV. Digital youth can be generally viewed as the test market for the next generation's digital content and services. Sites such as "MySpace and "Facebook have come to the fore in sites where youth participate and engage with others on the Internet. Vast amounts of money are spent annually to research the demographic by hiring psychologists, sociologists and anthropologists in order to discover habits, values and fields of interest Particularly in the United States, "Social media use has become so pervasive in the lives of American teens that having a presence on a social network is almost synonymous with being online; 95% of all teens ages 12-17 are now online and 80% of those online teens are users of social media sites". However, movements such as these appear to benefit strictly those wishing to advocate for their business towards youth. The critical time when young people are developing their civic identities is between the ages 15–22. During this time they develop three attributes: civic literacy, civic skills and civic attachment that comprise "civic engagement later reflected in political actions of their adult lives.
An open Internet as delegated by a state's government is necessary to instill a sense of trust, legitimacy, and participation in the state's citizenry. "WikiLeaks represents an occurrence where particular political actors have criticized and taken citizen action toward revealing the government's unnecessary clandestine activity online. "The benefit of transparency isn't just catching red-handed bastards. It's also about collaborating and coming together with a more engaged citizenry." The Internet is a reading-intensive medium that may challenge full access and participation to youth. For youth to fully participate and realize their presence on the Internet, a quality level of reading comprehension is required. "The average government Web site, for examples, requires an eleventh-grade level of reading comprehension, even though about half of the U.S. population reads at an eighth-grade level or lower". So despite the Internet being a place irrespective of certain factors such as race, religion, and class, education plays a large part in a person's capacity to present themselves online in a formal manner conducive towards their citizenry. Concurrently, education also affects people's motivation to participate online.
Student in school should be encouraged to utilize technology with responsibility and Ethical Digital Citizenship strongly promoted. Education on harmful viruses, Trojans, and worms must be emphasized to protect resources. A student can be a successful Digital Citizen with the help of educators, parents, and school counselors.
International "OECD Guidelines state that "personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which they are to be used, and to the extent necessary for those purposes should be accurate, complete, and kept up to date". Also Article 8 prevents subjects to certain exceptions. Meaning that certain things cannot be published online revealing race, ethnicity, religion, political stance, health, and sex life. This is enforced generally by the "Federal Trade Commission (FTC)- but very generally. For example, the FTC did bring an action against Microsoft for preventing to properly protect their customers' personal information.
The FTC does play a significant role in protecting the digital citizen. However, individuals' public records are increasingly useful to the government and highly sought after. This is because this material can help the government detect a variety of crime such as fraud, drug distribution rings, terrorist cells, and so forth. This allows for an easier ability to properly profile a suspected criminal and keep an eye on them . Although there are a variety of ways to gather information on an individual through credit card history, employment history, and so on- the internet is becoming the most desirable information gatherer. The two aspects that have caused the internet to be a greater collector of information is the façade of security and amount of information that can be stored on the internet. "Anonymity is proven to be very rare online as "ISPs can keep track of an individual, account information, web surfing durations, and so forth.
According to digitalcitizenship.net, the nine elements (or themes) of digital citizenship are: