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Diopside
""Diopside Aoste.jpg
Diopside - Bellecombe, Châtillon, Aosta Valley, Italy
General
Category "Inosilicate "mineral
"Formula
(repeating unit)
MgCaSi2O6
"Strunz classification 9.DA.15
"Crystal system "Monoclinic
"Crystal class Prismatic (2/m)
(same "H-M symbol)
"Space group C2/c
"Unit cell a = 9.746 "Å, b = 8.899 Å
c = 5.251 Å; β = 105.79°; Z = 4
Identification
Color Commonly light to dark green; may be blue, brown, colorless, white, grey
"Crystal habit Short prismatic crystals common, may be granular, columnar, massive
"Twinning Simple and multiple twins common on {100} and {001}
"Cleavage Distinct/good on {110}
"Fracture Irregular/uneven, conchoidal
"Tenacity Brittle
"Mohs scale hardness 5.5 - 6.5
"Luster Vitreous to dull
"Streak white
"Specific gravity 3.278
Optical properties Biaxial (+)
"Refractive index nα= 1.663 - 1.699, nβ= 1.671 - 1.705, nγ= 1.693 - 1.728
"Birefringence δ = 0.030
"2V angle Measured: 58° to 63°
"Dispersion Weak to distinct, r>v
"Melting point 1391 °C
References [1][2][3]

Diopside is a "monoclinic "pyroxene "mineral with composition MgCaSi2O6. It forms complete solid solution series with "hedenbergite (FeCaSi2O6) and "augite, and partial solid solutions with "orthopyroxene and "pigeonite. It forms variably colored, but typically dull green crystals in the "monoclinic prismatic class. It has two distinct prismatic cleavages at 87 and 93° typical of the pyroxene series. It has a "Mohs hardness of six, a "Vickers hardness of 7.7 GPa at a load of 0.98 N,[4] and a "specific gravity of 3.25 to 3.55. It is transparent to translucent with "indices of refraction of nα=1.663–1.699, nβ=1.671–1.705, and nγ=1.693–1.728. The optic angle is 58° to 63°.

Contents

Formation[edit]

""
""
Diopside crystal from "De Kalb, New York (size: 4.3 x 3.3 x 1.9 cm)

Diopside is found in "ultramafic ("kimberlite and "peridotite) "igneous "rocks, and diopside-rich augite is common in "mafic rocks, such as olivine "basalt and "andesite. Diopside is also found in a variety of "metamorphic rocks, such as in contact metamorphosed "skarns developed from high silica "dolomites. It is an important mineral in the "Earth's "mantle and is common in peridotite "xenoliths erupted in kimberlite and alkali basalt.

Mineralogy and occurrence[edit]

Diopside is a precursor of "chrysotile (white "asbestos) by "hydrothermal alteration and "magmatic differentiation;[5] it can react with hydrous solutions of "magnesium and "chlorine to yield chrysotile by heating at 600 °C for three days.[6] Some "vermiculite deposits, most notably those in "Libby, Montana, are contaminated with chrysotile (as well as other forms of asbestos) that formed from diopside.[7]

At relatively high temperatures, there is a "miscibility gap between diopside and "pigeonite, and at lower temperatures, between diopside and "orthopyroxene. The "calcium/(calcium+"magnesium+"iron) ratio in diopside that formed with one of these other two pyroxenes is particularly sensitive to temperature above 900 °C, and compositions of diopside in peridotite xenoliths have been important in reconstructions of temperatures in the "Earth's mantle.

Chrome diopside ((Ca,Na,Mg,Fe,Cr)2(Si,Al)2O6) is a common constituent of "peridotite xenoliths, and dispersed grains are found near "kimberlite pipes, and as such are a prospecting indicator for "diamonds. Occurrences are reported in "Canada, "South Africa, "Russia, "Brazil, and a wide variety of other locations. In the US, chromian diopside localities are described in the "serpentinite belt in northern California, in kimberlite in the Colorado-Wyoming State Line district, in kimberlite in the Iron Mountain district, Wyoming, in "lamprophyre at Cedar Mountain in Wyoming, and in numerous anthills and outcrops of the Tertiary Bishop Conglomerate in the "Green River Basin of Wyoming. Much chromian diopside from the Green River Basin localities and several of the State Line Kimberlites have been gem in character.[8]["citation needed]

As a gem[edit]

"Gemstone quality diopside is found in two forms: the black star diopside and the chrome diopside (which includes "chromium, giving it a rich green color). At 5.5–6.5 on the "Mohs scale, chrome diopside is relatively soft to scratch. Due to the deep green color of the gem, they are sometimes referred to as Siberian emeralds, though they are on a mineralogical level completely unrelated, "emerald being a "precious stone and diopside being a "semi-precious stone.[9]

Violane is a "manganese-rich variety of diopside, violet to light blue in color.[10]

Etymology and history[edit]

Diopside derives its name from the "Greek dis, "twice", and òpsè, "face" in reference to the two ways of orienting the vertical "prism.

Diopside was discovered and first described about 1800, by Brazilian naturalist "Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva.

Potential uses[edit]

Diopside based ceramics and glass-ceramics have potential applications in various technological areas. A diopside based glass-ceramic named 'silceram' was produced by scientists from Imperial College, UK during the 1980s from blast furnace slag and other waste products. The as produced glass-ceramic is a potential structural material. Similarly, diopside based ceramics and glass-ceramics have potential applications in the field of biomaterials, nuclear waste immobilization and sealing materials in solid oxide fuel cells.

References[edit]

  1. ^ C. D. Gribble, ed. (1988). "The Silicate Minerals". Rutley's Elements of Mineralogy (27th ed.). London: Unwin Hyman Ltd. p. 378. "ISBN "0-04-549011-2. 
  2. ^ Mindat page for Diopside
  3. ^ Handbook of Mineralogy
  4. ^ M M Smedskjaer; M Jensen; Y-Z Yue (2008). "Theoretical calculation and measurement of the hardness of diopside". Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 91 (2): 514–518. "doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2007.02166.x. 
  5. ^ A L Boettcher (1967). "The Rainy Creek alkaline-ultramafic igneous complex near Libby, Montana. I: Ultramafic rocks and fenite". Journal of Geology. 75: 536–553. "doi:10.1086/627280. 
  6. ^ Eugenio Barrese; Elena Belluso; Francesco Abbona (1 February 1997). "On the transformation of synthetic diopside into chrysotile". European Journal of Mineralogy. 9 (1): 83–87. "doi:10.1127/ejm/9/1/0083. 
  7. ^ "Asbestos in Your Home". "United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2003. Archived from the original on October 8, 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  8. ^ Hausel, W. Dan (2006). Geology and Geochemistry of the Leucite Hills Lamproitic field, Rocks Springs Uplift, Wyoming. laramie, Wyoming: Wyoming geological survey. 
  9. ^ Kalotay, Daphne (2010). Russian Winter (First ed.). New York, NY: Harper. pp. 184–185. "ISBN "978-0-06-196216-5. 
  10. ^ Mindat page for Violane
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