See more Distance education articles on AOD.
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia
Main article: "Virtual education
The widespread use of computers and the "internet have made distance learning easier and faster, and today "virtual schools and "virtual universities deliver full curricula online. The capacity of Internet to support voice, video, text and immersion teaching methods made earlier distinct forms of telephone, videoconferencing, radio, television, and text based education somewhat redundant. However, many of the techniques developed and lessons learned with earlier media are used in Internet delivery.
The first new and fully online university was founded in 1994 as the "Open University of Catalonia, headquartered in Barcelona, Spain. in 1999 "Jones International University was launched as the first fully online university "accredited by a regional accrediting association in the US.
Between 2000 and 2008, enrollment in distance education courses increased rapidly in almost every country in both developed and developing countries. Many private, public, "non-profit and for-profit institutions worldwide now offer distance education courses from the most basic instruction through to the highest levels of degree and doctoral programs. "New York University, for example, offers "online degrees in engineering and management-related fields through "NYU Tandon Online. Levels of accreditation vary: widely respected universities such as Stanford University and Harvard now deliver online courses—but other online schools receive little outside oversight, and some are actually fraudulent, i.e., "diploma mills. In the US, the "Distance Education Accrediting Commission (DEAC) specializes in the accreditation of distance education institutions.
In the United States in 2011, it was found that a third of all the students enrolled in postsecondary education had taken an accredited online course in a postsecondary institution. Even though growth rates are slowing, enrollment for online courses has been seen to increase with the advance in technology. The majority of public and private colleges now offer full academic programs online. These include, but are not limited to, training programs in the "mental health, "occupational therapy, "family therapy, "art therapy, "physical therapy, and "rehabilitation counseling fields. Even engineering courses that require the manipulation and control of machines and "robots that are technically more challenging to learn remotely are subject to distance learning through the internet.
Distance education has a long history, but its popularity and use has grown exponentially as more advanced technology has become available. By 2008, online learning programs were available in the United States in 44 states at the K-12 level.
"Internet forums, online "discussion group and "online learning community can contribute to an efficacious distance education experience. Research shows that "socialization plays an important role in some forms of distance education.
E-courses are also a viable option for distance learning. There are many available that cover a broad range of topics.
Paced and self paced models
Distance education can be delivered in a paced format similar to traditional campus based models in which learners commence and complete a course at the same time. Paced delivery is currently the most common mode of distance education delivery. Alternatively, some institutions offer self-paced programs that allow for continuous enrollment and the length of time to complete the course is set by the learner's time, skill and commitment levels. Paced courses may be offered in either synchronus mode, but self-paced courses are almost always offered asynchronously. Each delivery model offers both advantages and disadvantages for students, teachers and institutions.
Kaplan and Haenlein classify distance education into four groups along the dimensions Time dependency and Number of participants: 1) "MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses): Open-access online course (i.e., without specific participation restrictions) that allows for unlimited (massive) participation; 2) "SPOCs (Small Private Online Courses): Online course that only offers a limited number of places and therefore requires some form of formal enrollment; 3) SMOCs (Synchronous Massive Online Courses): Open-access online course that allows for unlimited participation but requires students to be "present" at the same time (synchronously); 4) SSOCs (Synchronous Private Online Courses): Online course that only offers a limited number of places and requires students to be "present" at the same time (synchronously).
Paced models are a familiar mode as they are used almost exclusively in campus based schools. Institutes that offer both distance and campus programs usually use paced models as teacher workload, student semester planning, tuition deadlines, exam schedules and other administrative details can be synchronized with campus delivery. Student familiarity and the pressure of deadlines encourages students to readily adapt to and usually succeed in paced models. However, student freedom is sacrificed as a common pace is often too fast for some students and too slow for others. In addition life events, professional or family responsibilities can interfere with a students capability to complete tasks to an external schedule. Finally, paced models allows students to readily form communities of inquiry and to engage in collaborative work.
Self-paced courses maximize student freedom, as not only can students commence studies on any date, but they can complete a course in as little time as a few weeks or up to a year or longer. Students often enroll in self-paced study when they are under pressure to complete programs, have not been able to complete a scheduled course, need additional courses or have pressure which precludes regular study for any length of time. The self-paced nature of the programming, though is an unfamiliar model for many students and can lead to excessive procrastination resulting in course incompletion. Assessment of learning can also be challenging as exams can be written on any day, making it possible for students to share examination questions with resulting loss of academic integrity. Finally, it is extremely challenging to organize collaborative work activities, though some schools are developing cooperative models based upon networked and connectivist pedagogies, for use in self-paced programs.
Distance learning can expand access to education and training for both general populace and businesses since its flexible scheduling structure lessens the effects of the many time-constraints imposed by personal responsibilities and commitments. Devolving some activities off-site alleviates institutional capacity constraints arising from the traditional demand on institutional buildings and infrastructure. Furthermore, there is the potential for increased access to more experts in the field and to other students from diverse geographical, social, cultural, economic, and experiential backgrounds. As the population at large becomes more involved in "lifelong learning beyond the normal schooling age, institutions can benefit financially, and adult learning business courses may be particularly lucrative. Distance education programs can act as a catalyst for institutional innovation and are at least as effective as face-to-face learning programs, especially if the instructor is knowledgeable and skilled.
Distance education can also provide a broader method of communication within the realm of education. With the many tools and programs that technological advancements have to offer, communication appears to increase in distance education amongst students and their professors, as well as students and their classmates. The distance educational increase in communication, particularly communication amongst students and their classmates, is an improvement that has been made to provide distance education students with as many of the opportunities as possible as they would receive in in-person education. The improvement being made in distance education is growing in tandem with the constant technological advancements. Present-day online communication allows students to associate with accredited schools and programs throughout the world that are out of reach for in-person learning. By having the opportunity to be involved in global institutions via distance education, a diverse array of thought is presented to students through communication with their classmates. This is beneficial because students have the opportunity to "combine new opinions with their own, and develop a solid foundation for learning". It has been shown through research that "as learners become aware of the variations in interpretation and construction of meaning among a range of people [they] construct an individual meaning", which can help students become knowledgeable of a wide array of viewpoints in education. To increase the likelihood that students will build effective ties with one another during the course, instructors should use similar assignments for students across different locations to overcome the influence of co-location on relationship building.
The high cost of education affects students in higher education, to which distance education may be an alternative in order to provide some relief. Distance education has been a more cost-effective form of learning, and can sometimes save students a significant amount of money as opposed to traditional education. Distance education may be able to help to save students a considerable amount financially by removing the cost of transportation. In addition, distance education may be able to save students from the economic burden of high-priced course textbooks. Many textbooks are now available as electronic textbooks, known as e-textbooks, which can offer digital textbooks for a reduced price in comparison to traditional textbooks. Also, the increasing improvements in technology have resulted in many school libraries having a partnership with digital publishers that offer course materials for free, which can help students significantly with educational costs.
Within the class, students are able to learn in ways that traditional classrooms would not be able to provide. It is able to promote good learning experiences and therefore, allow students to obtain higher satisfaction with their online learning. For example, students can review their lessons more than once according to their need. Students can then manipulate the coursework to fit their learning by focusing more on their weaker topics while breezing through concepts that they already have or can easily grasp. When course design and the "learning environment are at their optimal conditions, distance education can lead students to higher satisfaction with their learning experiences. Studies have shown that high satisfaction correlates to increased learning. For those in a healthcare or mental health distance learning program, online-based interactions have the potential to foster deeper reflections and discussions of client issues as well as a quicker response to client issues, since supervision happens on a regular basis and is not limited to a weekly supervision meeting. This also may contribute to the students feeling a greater sense of support, since they have ongoing and regular access to their instructors and other students.
Distance learning may enable students who are unable to attend a traditional school setting, due to "disability or illness such as decreased mobility and immune system suppression, to get a good education. Children who are sick or are unable to attend classes are able to attend them in "person" through the use of "robot proxies. This helps the students have experiences of the classroom and social interaction that they are unable to receive at home or the hospital, while still keeping them in a safe learning environment. Over the last few years more students are entering safely back into the classroom thanks to the help of robots. An article from the New York Times, "A Swiveling Proxy Will Even Wear a Tutu", explains the positive impact of virtual learning in the classroom, and another that explains how even a simple, stationary telepresence robot can help. Distance education may provide equal access regardless of socioeconomic status or income, area of residence, gender, race, age, or cost per student. Applying "universal design strategies to distance learning courses as they are being developed (rather than instituting accommodations for specific students on an as-needed basis) can increase the "accessibility of such courses to students with a range of abilities, disabilities, learning styles, and native languages. Distance education graduates, who would never have been associated with the school under a traditional system, may donate money to the school.
Distance learning may also offer a final opportunity for adolescents that are no longer permitted in the general education population due to behavior disorders. Instead of these students having no other academic opportunities, they may continue their education from their homes and earn their diplomas, offering them another chance to be an integral part of society.
Barriers to effective distance education include obstacles such as domestic distractions and unreliable technology, as well as students' program costs, adequate contact with teachers and support services, and a need for more experience.
Some students attempt to participate in distance education without proper training with the tools needed to be successful in the program. Students must be provided with training opportunities (if needed) on each tool that is used throughout the program. The lack of advanced technology skills can lead to an unsuccessful experience. Schools have a responsibility to adopt a proactive policy for managing technology barriers.
The results of a study of Washington state community college students showed that distance learning students tended to drop out more often than their traditional counterparts due to difficulties in language, time management, and study skills.
Distance learning benefits may outweigh the disadvantages for students in such a technology-driven society; however before indulging into use of "educational technology a few more disadvantages should be considered. However, through the years, all of the obstacles have been overcome and the world environment for distance education continues to improve.
say a negative to distance education is the lack of direct face-to-face social interaction, however as more people become used to personal and social interaction online (for example dating, chat rooms, shopping, or blogging). it is becoming easier for learners to both project themselves and socialize with others. This is an obstacle that has dissipated.
Not all courses required to complete a degree may be offered online. Health care profession programs in particular, require some sort of patient interaction through field work before a student may graduate. Studies have also shown that students pursuing a medical professional graduate degree who are participating in distance education courses, favor face to face communication over professor-mediated chat rooms and/or independent studies. However, this is little correlation between student performance when comparing the previous different distance learning strategies.
There is a theoretical problem about the application of traditional teaching methods to online courses because online courses may have no upper size limit. "Daniel Barwick noted that there is no evidence that large class size is always worse or that small class size is always better, although a negative link has been established between certain types of instruction in large classes and learning outcomes; he argued that higher education has not made a sufficient effort to experiment with a variety of instructional methods to determine whether large class size is always negatively correlated with a reduction in learning outcomes. Early proponents of Massive Open Online Courses ("MOOC)s saw them as just the type of experiment that Barwick had pointed out was lacking in higher education, although Barwick himself has never advocated for MOOCs.
There may also be institutional challenges. Distance learning is new enough that it may be a challenge to gain support for these programs in a traditional brick-and-mortar academic learning environment. Furthermore, it may be more difficult for the instructor to organize and plan a distance learning program, especially since many are new programs and their organizational needs are different from a traditional learning program.
Another benefit of distance education is one for developing countries. Judith Adler Hellman states, "In the face of the pressure on these countries to join the global "information economy, distance education appears to provide the opportunity to train more people better and at lower cost."
Even though there are advantages in advancing industrial countries, there are still negative sides to distance education. Hellman states, "These include its cost and capital intensiveness, time constraints and other pressures on instructors, the isolation of students from instructors and their peers, instructors’ enormous difficulty in adequately evaluating students they never meet face-to-face, and drop-out rates far higher than in classroom-based courses."
A more complex challenge of distance education relates to cultural differences between student and teachers and among students. Distance programmes tend to be more diverse as they could go beyond the geographical borders of regions, countries, and continents, and cross the cultural borders that may exist with respect to race, gender, and religion. That requires a proper understanding and awareness of the norms, differences, preconceptions and potential conflicting issues.
The modern use of electronic "educational technology (also called e-learning) facilitates distance learning and independent learning by the extensive use of "information and communications technology (ICT), replacing traditional content delivery by postal correspondence. Instruction can be synchronous and asynchronous online communication in an interactive learning environment or virtual communities, in lieu of a physical classroom. "The focus is shifted to the education transaction in the form of virtual community of learners sustainable across time."
One of the most significant issues encountered in the mainstream correspondence model of distance education is transactional distance, which results from the lack of appropriate communication between learner and teacher. This gap has been observed to become wider if there is no communication between the learner and teacher and has direct implications over the learning process and future endeavors in distance education. Distance education providers began to introduce various strategies, techniques, and procedures to increase the amount of interaction between learner and teacher. These measures e.g. more frequent face-to-face tutorials, increased use of information and communication technologies including teleconferencing and the Internet, were designed to close the gap in transactional distance.
Online credentials for learning
Online credentials for learning are digital credentials that are offered in place of traditional paper credentials for a skill or educational achievement. Directly linked to the accelerated development of internet communication technologies, the development of "digital badges, "electronic passports and "massive open online courses (MOOCs) have a very direct bearing on our understanding of learning, recognition and levels as they pose a direct challenge to the status quo. It is useful to distinguish between three forms of online credentials: Test-based credentials, online badges, and online certificates.
- ^ a b c Kaplan, Andreas M.; Haenlein, Michael (2016). "Higher education and the digital revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, social media, and the Cookie Monster". Business Horizons. 59 (4): 441–50. "doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2016.03.008.
- ^ Honeyman, M; Miller, G (December 1993). "Agriculture distance education: A valid alternative for higher education?" (PDF). Proceedings of the 20th Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting: 67–73.
- ^ Distance Education Accrediting Commission. "CHEA-Recognized Scope of Accreditation." . April 2013.
- ^ Tabor, Sharon W (Spring 2007). "Narrowing the Distance: Implementing a Hybrid Learning Model". Quarterly Review of Distance Education. IAP. 8 (1): 48–49. "ISBN "9787774570793. "ISSN 1528-3518. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ Vaughan, Dr Norman D. (2010). "Blended Learning". In Cleveland-Innes, MF; Garrison, DR. An Introduction to Distance Education: Understanding Teaching and Learning in a New Era. Taylor & Francis. p. 165. "ISBN "0-415-99598-1. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ Holmberg, Börje (2005). The evolution, principles and practices of distance education. Studien und Berichte der Arbeitsstelle Fernstudienforschung der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg [ASF] (in German). 11. Bibliotheks-und Informationssystem der Universitat Oldenburg. p. 13. "ISBN "3-8142-0933-8. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ Alan Tait. "Reflections on Student Support in Open and Distance Learning". The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.
- ^ IAP. distance learning... a magazine for leaders volume 2 number 6. p. 18. "ISBN "9787774554229.
- ^ Moore, Michael G.; Greg Kearsley (2005). Distance Education: A Systems View (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. "ISBN "0-534-50688-7.
- ^ a b Rothblatt, Sheldon; Muller, Detlef K.; Ringer, Fritz; Simon, Brian; Bryant, Margaret; Roach, John; Harte, Negley; Smith, Barbara; Symonds, Richard (1988). "Supply and Demand: The "Two Histories" of English Education". History of Education Quarterly. 28 (4): 627–44. "doi:10.2307/368852. "JSTOR 368852.
- ^ ""History", University of London External Programme Website". Londonexternal.ac.uk. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- ^ a b ""Key Facts", University of London External Programme Website". Londonexternal.ac.uk. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- ^ Tatum Anderson (16 May 2007). "History lessons at the people's university". Guardianabroad.co.uk. Archived from the original on 24 May 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- ^ Levinson, David L (2005). Community colleges: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 69. "ISBN "1-57607-766-7. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ Von V. Pittman, Correspondence Study in the American University: A Second Historiographical Perspective, in Michael Grahame Moore, William G. Anderson, eds. Handbook of Distance Education pp 21-36
- ^ Joseph F. Kett, Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties: From Self-Improvement to Adult Education in America (1996) pp 236-8
- ^ J.J. Clark, "The Correspondence School—Its Relation to Technical Education and Some of Its Results," Science (1906) 24#611 pp 327-8, 332, 333. Clark was manager of the school's text-book department.
- ^ Clark, "The Correspondence School" (1906) p 329
- ^ Kett, Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties, p 240
- ^ William Millikan (2003). A Union Against Unions: The Minneapolis Citizens Alliance and Its Fight Against Organized Labor, 1903–1947. Minnesota Historical Society Press. pp. 60–61. "ISBN "978-0-87351-499-6.
- ^ White, Michael (2009). "Distance education in Australian higher education — a history". Distance Education. 3 (2): 255–78. "doi:10.1080/0158791820030207.
- ^ Francis Lee (2009). Letters and bytes: Sociotechnical studies of distance education. Francis Lee. p. 48. "ISBN "9789173935180.
- ^ Lee, Francis (2008). "Technopedagogies of mass‐individualization: Correspondence education in the mid twentieth century". History and Technology. 24 (3): 239–53. "doi:10.1080/07341510801900318.
- ^ Ellen L. Bunker, "The History of Distance Education through the Eyes of the International Council for Distance Education," in Michael Grahame Moore, William G. Anderson, eds. Handbook of Distance Education pp 49-66
- ^ Bizhan Nasseh. "A Brief History of Distance Education".
- ^ admin (12 March 2014). "The OU story".
- ^ "Byrne, T. C. (1989). Athabasca University The Evolution of Distance Education. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary Press. p. 135. "ISBN "0-919813-51-8.
- ^ "History of UNED (in Spanish)". ES. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- ^ "Three Decades". UK: FernUniversität in Hage. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ Daniel, Sir John S (1998). Mega-Universities and Knowledge Media: Technology Strategies for Higher Education. Routledge. "ISBN "0-7494-2634-9. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ a b Lever-Duffy, Judy; McDonald, Jean B (March 2007). Teaching and Learning with Technology. Ana A. Ciereszko, Al P. Mizell (3rd ed.). Allyn & Bacon. p. 377. "ISBN "0-205-51191-0. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ Brown, Robbie. (2013). A Swiveling Proxy That Will Even Wear a Tutu. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/08/education/for-homebound-students-a-robot-proxy-in-the-classroom.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
- ^ Elizabeth Regan. (2015). "Robot brings classroom to sick students Retrieved from http://www.norwichbulletin.com/article/20141109/NEWS/141109566?pagewanted=all&_r=0
- ^ "From a Spot on the Wall to a Seat at the Table – CEPSE/COE Design Studio".
- ^ Leila Meyer. (2015). "Michigan State Tests Telepresence Robots for Online Students" Retrieved from https://campustechnology.com/articles/2015/02/24/michigan-state-tests-telepresence-robots-for-online-students.aspx
- ^ a b Burns, Mary. Distance Education for Teacher Training: Modes, Models and Methods. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- ^ "Air college talk.". "WNYC. December 2, 1931. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
- ^ Larry Cuban. (1986). Teachers and Machines: The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920, pp 11–18 online
- ^ Tyson, Levering (1936). "Ten Years of Educational Broadcasting". School and Society. 44: 225–31.
- ^ Lloyd Allen Cook. (1938). Community Backgrounds of Education: A Textbook and Educational Sociology, pp 249–250
- ^ Dwayne D. Cox and William J. Morison. (1999). The University of Louisville, pp 115–117
- ^ Cuban. (1986). Teachers and Machines: The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920, pp 19–26
- ^ Christopher H. Sterling; Cary O'Dell (2011). The Concise Encyclopedia of American Radio. Routledge. p. 609. "ISBN "978-1-135-17684-6.
- ^ Robert J. Taggart. (2007). "The Promise and Failure of Educational Television in a Statewide System: Delaware, 1964–1971." American Educational History Journal, 24 (1), 111–122. online
- ^ Cuban. (1986).Teachers and Machines: The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920, pp 27–50
- ^ Gold, Larry; Maitland, Christine (1999). Phipps, Ronald A.; Merisotis, Jamie P., eds. What's the difference? A review of contemporary research on the effectiveness of distance learning in higher education. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ "Accreditation". US: Jones International University. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ Walton Radford, MPR Associates, Alexandria. "Learning at a Distance: Undergraduate Enrollment in Distance Education Courses and Degree Programs" (PDF). National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
- ^ "Accreditation". DEAC. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- ^ a b Lederman, Doug (8 January 2013). "Growth for Online Learning". InsideHigherEd. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- ^ a b Blackmore, C., van Deurzen, E., & Tantam, D. (2007). Therapy training online: Using the internet to widen access to training in mental health issues. In T. Stickley & T. Basset (Eds.) Teaching Mental Health (pgs. 337-352). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- ^ a b c Jedlicka, J. S., Brown, S. W., Bunch, A. E., & Jaffe, L. E. (2002). A comparison of distance education instructional methods in occupational therapy. Journal of Allied Health, 31(4), 247-251.
- ^ a b c d e Stanton, S. (2001). Going the distance; Developing shared web-based learning programmes. Occupational Therapy International, 8(2), 96-106.
- ^ a b Maggio, L. M., Chenail, R., & Todd, T. (2001). Teaching family therapy in an electronic age. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 20(1), 13-23.
- ^ a b Orr, P. (2010). Distance supervision: Research, findings, and considerations for art therapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 37, 106-111.
- ^ a b c d Stebnicki, M. A. & Glover, N. M. (2001). E-supervision as a complementary approach to traditional face-to-face clinical supervision in rehabilitation counseling: Problems and solutions. Rehabilitation Education, 15(3), 283-293.
- ^ O. Goldstain,, I. Ben-Gal, Y. Bukchin (2007. "Remote learning for the manipulation and control of robotic cells" (PDF). European Journal of Engineering Education 32 (4), 481-494, 2007.
- ^ Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Corwith, Susan. "Distance Education: Where It Started and Where It Stands for Gifted Children and Their Educators." Gifted Child Today, v. 34 issue 3, 2011, p. 16-24,.
- ^ Sazmandasfaranjan, Yasha; Shirzad, Farzad; Baradari, Fatemeh; Salimi, Meysam; Salehi, Mehrdad (2013). "Alleviating the Senses of Isolation and Alienation in the Virtual World: Socialization in Distance Education". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 93: 332–7. "doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.09.199.
- ^ "Community of Inquiry site". Athabasca University.
- ^ Dron, Jon; Anderson, Terry (2014). Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media. AU Press.
- ^ Anderson, Terry; Dron, Jon (2011). "Three generations of distance education pedagogy". The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 12 (3): 80–97. "doi:10.19173/irrodl.v12i3.890.
- ^ a b c d Oblinger, Diana G. (2000). "The Nature and Purpose of Distance Education". The Technology Source. Michigan: Michigan Virtual University (March/April). Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- ^ a b c Nguyen, Tuan (June 2015). "The Effectiveness of Online Learning: Beyond No Significant Difference and Future Horizons" (PDF). MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 11 (2): 309–319.
- ^ a b "Educational Benefits of Online Learning" (PDF). CalPoly.edu. 1998: 1–6. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- ^ Yuan, Y. Connie; Gay, Geri (2006). "Homophily of Network Ties and Bonding and Bridging Social Capital in Computer-Mediated Distributed Teams". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 11 (4): 1062–84. "doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00308.x.
- ^ a b "Benefits of Online Education". Worldwidelearn.com. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- ^ a b Kirtman, Lisa (Fall 2009). "Online Versus In-Class Courses: An Examination of Differences in Learning Outcomes" (PDF). Issues in Teacher Education. 18 (2): 103–115. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- ^ "An Exploration of the Representation of Students with Disabilities in Distance Education". Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- ^ Brown, Robbie. (2013). The New York Times. A Swiveling Proxy That Will Even Wear a Tutu
- ^ Robot brings classroom to sick students
- ^ Elizabeth Regan. (2014). Robot brings classroom to sick students. Norwich Bulletin.http://www.norwichbulletin.com/article/20141109/NEWS/141109566
- ^ "Cyber-charter Schools: The end of Public Education or a New Beginning".
- ^ Burgstahler, S.,"Equal Access: Universal Design of Distance Learning". Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- ^ Casey, Anne Marie; Lorenzen, Michael (2010). "Untapped Potential: Seeking Library Donors among Alumni of Distance Learning Programs". Journal of Library Administration. 50 (5–6): 515–29. "doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488597.
- ^ Östlund, Berit. "Stress, disruption and community — Adult learners' experiences of obstacles and opportunities in distance education". Department of Child and Youth Education, Special Education and Counselling, Umeå University. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- ^ Galusha, Jill M. "Barriers to Learning in Distance Education". Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- ^ Stephens, D. (July 2007). "Quality issues in distance learning" (PDF).
- ^ Gabriel. "Online and Hybrid Course Enrollment and Performance in Washington State Community and Technical Colleges".
- ^ http://www.distancelearningnet.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-distance-learning/
- ^ Barwick, Daniel W. "Views: Does Class Size Matter?". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- ^ a b Hellman, Judith Adler. "The Riddle of Distance Education." Geneva. 1 June 2003.
- ^ Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh (2014). "Postgraduate research supervision at a distance: A review of challenges and strategies". Studies in Higher Education. 40 (10): 1962–9. "doi:10.1080/03075079.2014.914906.
- ^ Garrison, D.R. (2011, 20 May). E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Framework for Research and Practice. New York: Taylor & Francis. "ISBN 0-203-83876-9
- ^ Soekartawi, Haryono, A. & Librero, F. 2002. Greater Learning Opportunities Through Distance Education: Experiences in Indonesia and the Philippines. Journal of Southeast Asian Education, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 283–320. Retrieved from http://www.seameo-journal.com/journal/index.php/education/article/viewFile/39/38
- ^ Keevy, James; Chakroun, Borhene (2015). Level-setting and recognition of learning outcomes: The use of level descriptors in the twenty-first century (PDF). Paris, UNESCO. pp. 129–131. "ISBN "978-92-3-100138-3.
- Anderson, Terry. Theory and Practice of Online Education (2nd ed 2008) online from Athabasca University Press
- Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2010). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(3), 80-97.
- Bates, T. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education: RoutledgeFalmer.
- Clark, J. J. (1906). "The Correspondence School--Its Relation to Technical Education and Some of Its Results". Science. 24 (611): 327–34. "Bibcode:1906Sci....24..327C. "doi:10.1126/science.24.611.327. "PMID 17772791.
- Hampel, Robert L (2010). "The Business of Education: Home Study at Columbia University and the University of Wisconsin in the 1920s and 1930s". Teachers College Record. 112 (9): 2496–2571.
- Holmberg, Börje. Theory and Practice of Distance Education (2nd ed 1995) online
- Kett, Joseph F. Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties: From Self-Improvement to Adult Education in America (1996) excerpt and text search
- Moore, Michael Grahame and William Anderson (2012). Handbook of Distance Education (2nd ed.). Psychology Press. "ISBN "978-1-4106-0729-4. online edition
- Major, C.H. Teaching online: A guide to theory, research, and practice. (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015).
- Moore, M.G., ed. Contemporary issues in American distance education (1990)
- Peters, O. (1994). Distance education and industrial production: A comparative interpretation in outline(1973). Otto Peters on distance education: The industrialization of teaching and learning, 107-127.
- Saba, F. (2011). Distance Education in the United States: Past, Present, Future. Educational Technology, 51(6), 11.
- Stubblefield, Harold W. and Patrick Keane. Adult Education in the American Experience: From the Colonial Period to the Present (1994) excerpt and text search
- Taylor, J. C. (2001). Fifth generation distance education. e-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology (e-JIST), 4(1), 1-14.
- Terry Evans, M. H., David Murphy (Ed.). (2008). International Handbook of Distance Education. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
- Walsh, Taylor. Unlocking the Gates: How and Why Leading Universities Are Opening Up Access to Their Courses (Princeton University Press, 2011) online