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""Docker (container engine) logo.svg
"Original author(s) "Solomon Hykes
"Developer(s) "Docker, Inc.
Initial release 13 March 2013; 5 years ago (2013-03-13)
"Stable release
18.05.0-ce[1] / 9 May 2018; 41 days ago (2018-05-09)
"Repository github.com/docker/docker-ce
Written in "Go[2]
"Operating system "Linux,[a] "Windows, "macOS
"Platform "x86-64, "ARM (experimental)
"Type "Operating-system-level virtualization
Website docker.com

Docker is a "computer program that performs "operating-system-level virtualization also known as "containerization.[6] It is developed by "Docker, Inc.[7] Docker is primarily developed for "Linux, where it uses the resource isolation features of the "Linux kernel such as "cgroups and kernel "namespaces, and a "union-capable file system such as "OverlayFS and others[8] to allow independent "containers" to run within a single Linux instance, avoiding the overhead of starting and maintaining "virtual machines (VMs).[9] The Linux kernel's support for namespaces mostly[10] isolates an application's view of the operating environment, including process trees, network, user IDs and mounted file systems, while the kernel's cgroups provide resource limiting for memory and CPU.[11] Since version 0.9, Docker includes the libcontainer "library as its own way to directly use virtualization facilities provided by the Linux kernel, in addition to using abstracted virtualization interfaces via "libvirt, "LXC and "systemd-nspawn.[12][13][14]



"Solomon Hykes started Docker in France as an internal project within "dotCloud, a "platform-as-a-service company,[15] with initial contributions by other dotCloud engineers including Andrea Luzzardi and Francois-Xavier Bourlet.[16] Jeff Lindsay also became involved as an independent collaborator.["citation needed] Docker represents an evolution of dotCloud's proprietary technology, which is itself built on earlier open-source projects such as Cloudlets.["clarification needed]["citation needed]

The software debuted to the public in Santa Clara at "PyCon in 2013.[17]

Docker was released as open source in March 2013.[18] On March 13, 2014, with the release of version 0.9, Docker dropped LXC as the default execution environment and replaced it with its own libcontainer library written in the "Go programming language.[12][19]



Docker can use different interfaces to access virtualization features of the Linux kernel.[14]

As actions are done to a Docker base image, union file-system layers are created and documented, such that each layer fully describes how to recreate an action. This strategy enables Docker's lightweight images, as only layer updates need to be propagated (compared to full VMs, for example).

According to a "Linux.com article,

Docker is a tool that can package an application and its dependencies in a virtual container that can run on any Linux server. This helps enable flexibility and portability on where the application can run, whether "on premises, "public cloud, "private cloud, "bare metal, etc.[31]

Docker implements a high-level "API to provide lightweight containers that run processes in isolation.[18]

Building on top of facilities provided by the "Linux kernel (primarily cgroups and namespaces), a Docker container, unlike a virtual machine, does not require or include a separate operating system.[31] Instead, it relies on the kernel's functionality and uses resource isolation for CPU and memory,[11] and "separate namespaces to isolate the application's view of the operating system. Docker accesses the Linux kernel's virtualization features either directly using the libcontainer library, which is available as of Docker 0.9, or indirectly via "libvirt, "LXC (Linux Containers) or "systemd-nspawn.[14][19]

Because Docker containers are lightweight, a single server or virtual machine can run several containers simultaneously. A 2016 analysis found that a typical Docker use case involves running five containers per host, but that many organizations run 10 or more.[32]

Using containers may simplify the creation of highly "distributed systems by allowing multiple applications, worker tasks and other processes to run autonomously on a single physical machine or across multiple virtual machines. This allows the deployment of nodes to be performed as the resources become available or when more nodes are needed, allowing a "platform as a service (PaaS)-style of deployment and scaling for systems such as "Apache Cassandra, "MongoDB and "Riak.[33][34]


Docker can be integrated into various infrastructure tools, including "Amazon Web Services,[35] "Ansible,[36] "CFEngine,[37] "Chef,[38] "Google Cloud Platform,[39] IBM "Bluemix,[40] HPE Helion Stackato, "Jelastic,[41] "Jenkins,[42] "Kubernetes,[43] "Microsoft Azure,[44] "OpenStack Nova,[45] OpenSVC,[46] "Oracle Container Cloud Service,[47] "Puppet,[48] "ProGet,[49]"Salt,[50] "Vagrant,[51] and "VMware vSphere Integrated Containers.[52][53]

The Cloud Foundry Diego project integrates Docker into the "Cloud Foundry "PaaS.[54]

Nanobox uses Docker (natively and with "VirtualBox) containers as a core part of its software development platform.[55]

Red Hat's "OpenShift PaaS integrates Docker with related projects (Kubernetes, Geard, Project Atomic and others) since v3 (June 2015).[56]

The "Apprenda PaaS integrates Docker containers in version 6.0 of its product.[57]

"Jelastic PaaS provides managed multi-tenant Docker containers with full compatibility to the native ecosystem.[58]

The Tsuru PaaS integrates Docker containers in its product in 2013, the first PaaS to use Docker in a production environment.[59]

For Windows[edit]

On October 15, 2014, "Microsoft announced integration of the Docker engine into the next "Windows Server release, and native support for the Docker client role in Windows.[60][61] On June 8, 2016, Microsoft announced that Docker now could be used natively on Windows 10 with Hyper-V Containers, to build, ship and run containers utilizing the Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview 5 Nano Server container OS image.[62]

Since then, a feature known as Windows Containers was made available for "Windows 10 and "Windows Server 2016. There are two types of Windows Containers: "Windows Server Containers" and "Hyper-V Isolation". The former has nothing to do with Docker. The latter, however, is a form of "hardware virtualization (as opposed to OS-level virtualization) and uses Docker to deliver the guest OS image.[63] The guest OS image is a Windows Nano Server image, which is 652 MB in size and has the same limitations of Nano Server,[64] as well as a separate "end-user license agreement.[65]


The Docker software as a service offering consists of three components:


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Docker on "macOS uses a Linux "virtual machine to run the containers. It is also possible to run those on Windows using "Hyper-V or docker-machine.[3][4]


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