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Doughnut
""Glazed-Donut.jpg
A "glazed yeast-raised ring doughnut
Alternative names Donut
Type "Fried dough
"" Cookbook: Doughnut  "" Media: Doughnut
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A variety of doughnuts
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Doughnuts in a display case at a "coffee shop
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Doughnut

A doughnut or donut (both: "/ˈdnət/ or "/ˈdnʌt/; see "spelling differences) is a type of "fried dough "confectionery or "dessert food. The doughnut is popular in many countries and prepared in various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, supermarkets, food stalls, and "franchised specialty vendors.

Doughnuts are usually "deep fried from a "flour dough, and typically either "ring-shaped or a number of shapes without a hole, and often filled, but can also be ball-shaped (the "hole"). Other types of "batters can also be used, and various toppings and flavorings are used for different types, such as sugar, chocolate, or maple glazing. Doughnuts may also include water, "leavening, eggs, milk, sugar, oil, "shortening, and natural or artificial flavors.[1][2]

The two most common types are the ring doughnut and the filled doughnut, which is injected with "fruit preserves, "cream, "custard, or other sweet fillings. Alternatively, small pieces of dough are sometimes cooked as doughnut holes. Once fried, doughnuts may be glazed with a sugar icing, spread with icing or chocolate on top, or topped with "powdered sugar or sprinkles or fruit. "Other shapes include rings, balls, flattened spheres, twists, and other forms. Doughnut varieties are also divided into cake (including the "old-fashioned) and yeast-risen type doughnuts. Donuts are often accompanied by "coffee purchased at doughnut shops or fast food restaurants, but can also be paired with "milk.

Shapes[edit]

Rings[edit]

Ring doughnuts are formed by one of two methods: by joining the ends of a long, skinny piece of dough into a ring, or by using a doughnut cutter, which simultaneously cuts the outside and inside shape, leaving a doughnut-shaped piece of dough and a doughnut hole (from the dough removed from the center). This smaller piece of dough can be cooked and served as a "doughnut hole" or added back to the batch to make more doughnuts. A disk-shaped doughnut can also be stretched and pinched into a "torus until the center breaks to form a hole. Alternatively, a doughnut depositor can be used to place a circle of liquid dough (batter) directly into the fryer.

There are two types of ring doughnuts, those made from a yeast-based dough for raised doughnuts, or those made from a special type of cake batter. Yeast-raised doughnuts contain about 25% oil by weight, whereas cake doughnuts' oil content is around 20%, but they have extra fat included in the batter before frying. Cake doughnuts are fried for about 90 seconds at approximately 190 to 198 °C (374 to 388 °F), turning once. "Yeast-raised doughnuts absorb more oil because they take longer to fry, about 150 seconds, at 182 to 190 °C (360 to 374 °F). Cake doughnuts typically weigh between 24 and 28 g (0.85 and 0.99 oz), whereas yeast-raised doughnuts average 38 g (1.3 oz) and are generally larger, and taller (due to rising) when finished.

Topping[edit]

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The process of glazing doughnuts

After frying, ring doughnuts are often topped. Raised doughnuts are generally covered with a "glaze (icing). Cake doughnuts can also be glazed, or powdered with "confectioner's sugar, or covered with "cinnamon and granulated sugar. They are also often topped with cake frosting (top-side only) and sometimes sprinkled with coconut, chopped peanuts, or "sprinkles (also called jimmies).

Holes[edit]

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"Tim Hortons "Timbits" doughnut holes

Doughnut holes are small, bite-sized doughnuts that were traditionally made from the dough taken from the center of ring doughnuts. Before long, doughnut sellers saw the opportunity to market "holes" as a novelty and many chains offer their own variety, some with their own brand names such as "Munchkins" from "Dunkin' Donuts and ""Timbits" from "Tim Hortons.

Traditionally, doughnut holes are made by frying the dough removed from the center portion of the doughnut.["citation needed] Consequently, they are considerably smaller than a standard doughnut and tend to be spherical. Similar to standard doughnuts, doughnut holes may be topped with confections, such as glaze or powdered sugar.

Originally, most varieties of doughnut holes were derivatives of their ring doughnut (yeast-based dough or cake batter) counterparts. However, doughnut holes can also be made by dropping a small ball of dough into hot oil from a specially shaped nozzle or cutter.[3] This production method has allowed doughnut sellers to produce bite-sized versions of non-ring doughnuts, such as filled doughnuts, "fritters and "Dutchies.

Filled[edit]

The filled doughnut is a flattened sphere injected with "fruit preserves, "cream, "custard, or other sweet fillings, and often dipped into powdered sugar or topped off with frosting. Common varieties include the "Boston cream, "coconut, "key lime, and "jelly.

Other shapes[edit]

Others include the "fritter and the "Dutchie, which are usually glazed. These have been available on "Tim Hortons' doughnut menu since the chain's inception in 1964,[4] and a 1991 "Toronto Star report found out that these two were the chain's most popular "type of fried dough in Canada.[5]

There are many other specialized doughnut shapes such as "old-fashioned, bars or Long Johns (a rectangular shape), or with the dough twisted around itself before cooking. In the northeast U.S., bars and twists are usually referred to as crullers. Another is the "beignet, which is square-shaped, covered with powdered sugar.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

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Glazed doughnuts rolling on a conveyor belt at a "Krispy Kreme "doughnut shop
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Pink icing donut

While food resembling doughnuts has been found at many ancient sites, the earliest origins to the modern doughnuts are generally traced back to the olykoek ("oil(y) cake") "Dutch settlers brought with them to early New York (or "New Amsterdam). These doughnuts closely resembled later ones but did not yet have their current ring-sized shape.[6][7][8] One of the earliest mentions of "doughnut" was in "Washington Irving's 1809 book A History of New York, from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty:[9]

Sometimes the table was graced with immense apple-pies, or saucers full of preserved peaches and pears; but it was always sure to boast of an enormous dish of balls of sweetened dough, fried in hog’s fat, and called dough-nuts, or oly koeks: a delicious kind of cake, at present scarce known in this city, excepting in genuine Dutch families.

The name oly koeks was almost certainly related to the "oliekoek a Dutch delicacy of "sweetened cake fried in fat."[10]

According to anthropologist Paul R. Mullins, the first cookbook mentioning doughnuts was an 1803 English volume which included doughnuts in an appendix of American recipes. He also traces its origins to the oliekoek that arrived in America with the Dutch settlers in the early 18th century. By the mid-19th century, the doughnut looked and tasted like today's doughnut, and was viewed as a thoroughly American food.[7]

Hanson Gregory, an American, claimed to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in 1847 aboard a lime-trading ship when he was 16 years old. Gregory was dissatisfied with the greasiness of doughnuts twisted into various shapes and with the raw center of regular doughnuts. He claimed to have punched a hole in the center of dough with the ship's tin pepper box, and to have later taught the technique to his mother.[11] Smithsonian Magazine states that his mother, Elizabeth Gregory, "made a wicked deep-fried dough that cleverly used her son's spice cargo of nutmeg and cinnamon, along with lemon rind," and "put hazelnuts or walnuts in the center, where the dough might not cook through", and called the food 'doughnuts'.[6]

Another theory on their origin came to light in 2013, when a recipe for "dow nuts" was found in a book of recipes and domestic tips written in 1800 by the wife of Baron "Thomas Dimsdale,[12] the recipe being given to the dowager Baroness by an acquaintance who transcribed for her the cooking instructions of a local delicacy, the "Hertfordshire nut".[13]["verification needed]

Etymology[edit]

"Dough nut"[edit]

The earliest known recorded usage of the term dates to an 1808 short story[14] describing a spread of "fire-cakes and dough-nuts." "Washington Irving's reference to "doughnuts" in 1809 in his History of New York is more commonly cited as the first written recording of the term. Irving described "balls of sweetened dough, fried in hog's fat, and called doughnuts, or "olykoeks."[15] These "nuts" of fried dough might now be called doughnut holes. Doughnut is the more traditional spelling, and still dominates outside the US.[16][17] At present, doughnut and the shortened form donut are both pervasive in American English.[18]

"Donut"[edit]

The first known printed use of donut was in Peck's Bad Boy and his Pa by "George W. Peck, published in 1900, in which a character is quoted as saying, "Pa said he guessed he hadn't got much appetite, and he would just drink a cup of coffee and eat a donut."[19] According to John T. Edge (Donuts, an American passion 2006) the alternative spelling "donut" was invented when the New York–based Display Doughnut Machine Corporation abbreviated the word to make it more pronounceable by the foreigners they hoped would buy their automated doughnut making equipment.[20][21] The donut spelling also showed up in a Los Angeles Times article dated August 10, 1929 in which Bailey Millard jokingly complains about the decline of spelling, and that he "can't swallow the 'wel-dun donut' nor the ever so 'gud bred'."

The interchangeability of the two spellings can be found in a series of "National Donut Week" articles in "The New York Times that covered the 1939 World's Fair. In four articles beginning October 9, two mention the donut spelling. "Dunkin' Donuts, which was so-named in 1950, following its 1948 founding under the name Open Kettle (Quincy, Massachusetts), is the oldest surviving company to use the donut variation; other chains, such as the defunct Mayflower Doughnut Corporation (1931), did not use that spelling.[22] According to the "Oxford Dictionary while "doughnut" is used internationally, the spelling "donut" is American.[23] The spelling "donut" remained rare until the 1950s, and has since grown significantly in popularity;[24] this growth in use has possibly been influenced by the spread of Dunkin' Donuts.[25]

National Doughnut Day[edit]

"National Doughnut Day, also known as National Donut Day, celebrated in the United States of America, is on the first Friday of June each year, succeeding the Doughnut Day event created by "The Salvation Army in 1938 to honor those of their members who served doughnuts to soldiers during "World War I.[26] About 250 Salvation Army volunteers went to France. Because of the difficulties of providing freshly baked goods from huts established in abandoned buildings near the front lines, the two Salvation Army volunteers (Ensign Margaret Sheldon and Adjutant Helen Purviance) came up with the idea of providing doughnuts. These are reported to have been an "instant hit", and "soon many soldiers were visiting The Salvation Army huts". Margaret Sheldon wrote of one busy day: "Today I made 22 pies, 300 doughnuts, 700 cups of coffee." Soon, the women who did this work became known by the servicemen as "Doughnut Dollies".

Pink boxes[edit]

In the US, especially in "Southern California, fresh donuts sold by the dozen at local donut shops are typically packaged in generic pink boxes. This phenomenon can be attributed to "Ted Ngoy and Ning Yen, refugees of the "Cambodian genocide who transformed the local donut shop industry. They proved so adept at the business and in training fellow "Chinese Cambodian refugees to follow suit that these local donut shops soon dominated native franchises such as "Winchell's Donuts. Initially desiring boxes of a "lucky red color rather than the standard white, Ngoy and Yen settled on a cheaper, leftover pink stock. Owing to the success of their business, the color soon became a recognizable standard. Due to the locality of "Hollywood, the pink boxes frequently appeared as film and television props and were thus transmitted into popular culture.[27]

Science[edit]

Cake vs yeast style[edit]

Yeast doughnuts and cake doughnuts contain most of the same ingredients, however, their structural differences arise from the type of flour and leavening agent used. In cake doughnuts, cake flour is used, and the resulting doughnut is denser because cake flour has a relatively low gluten content of about 7 to 8 percent.[28] In yeast doughnuts, a flour with a higher protein content of about 9 to 12 percent is used, resulting in a doughnut that is lighter and more airy.[28] In addition, yeast doughnuts utilize yeast as a leavening agent. Specifically, “Yeast cells are thoroughly distributed throughout the dough and begin to feed on the sugar that is present… carbon dioxide gas is generated, which raises the dough, making it light and porous.”[29] Whereas this process is biological, the leavening process in cake doughnuts is chemical. In cake doughnuts, the most common leavening agent is baking powder. Baking powder is essentially “baking soda with acid added. This neutralizes the base and produces more CO2 according to the following equation: NaHCO3 + H+ → Na+ + H2O + CO2.[30]

Physical structure[edit]

The physical structure of the doughnut is created by the combination of flour, leavening agent, sugar, eggs, salt, water, shortening, milk solids, and additional components. The most important ingredients for creating the dough network are the flour and eggs. The main protein in flour is gluten, which is overall responsible for creating elastic dough because this protein acts as “coiled springs.”[31] The "gluten network is composed of two separate molecules named glutenin and gliadin. Specifically, "the backbone of the gluten network likely consists of the largest glutenin molecules, or subunits, aligned and tightly linked to one another. These tightly linked glutenin subunits associate more loosely, along with gliadin, into larger gluten aggregates."[32] The gluten strands than tangle and interact with other strands and other molecules, resulting in networks that provide the elasticity of the dough. In mixing, the gluten is developed when the force of the mixer draws the gluten from the wheat endosperm, allowing the gluten matrix to trap the gas cells.[31]

Molecular composition[edit]

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A diagram of a phospholipid molecule, which is responsible for the emulsifying properties of lecithin in egg yolk.

Eggs function as "emulsifiers, foaming agents, and tenderizers in the dough. The egg white proteins, mainly Ovulblumins, “function as structure formers. Egg solids, chiefly the egg white solids combined with the moisture in the egg, are considered structure-forming materials that help significantly to produce proper volume, grain, and texture.”[29] The egg yolk contributes proteins, fats, and emulsifiers to the dough. Emulsifying agents are essential to doughnut formation because they prevent the fat molecules from separating from the water molecules in the dough. The main emulsifier in egg yolk is called lecithin, which is a "phospholipid. “The fatty acids are attracted to fats and oils (lipids) in food, while the phosphate group is attracted to water. It is this ability to attract both lipids and water that allow phospholipids such as lecithin to act as emulsifiers.”[32] The proteins from both the egg yolk and the egg whites contribute to the structure of the dough through a process called coagulation. When heat is applied to the dough, the egg proteins will begin to unfold, or denature, and then form new bonds with one another, thus creating a gel-like network that can hold water and gas.[32]

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An animated sucrose molecule, which is a disaccharide, responsible for the sweetness of a doughnut.

"Shortening is responsible for providing tenderness and aerating the dough. In terms of its molecular structure, “a typical shortening that appears solid [at room temperature] contains 15-20% solids and, hence, 80-85% liquid oil…this small amount of solids can be made to hold all of the liquid in a matrix of very small, stable, needlelike crystals (beta-prime crystals).”[29] This crystalline structure is considered highly stable due to how tightly its molecules are packed. The sugar used in baking is essentially sucrose, and besides imparting sweetness in the doughnut, sugar also functions in the color and tenderness of the final product. Sucrose is a simple carbohydrate whose structure is made up of a glucose molecule bound to a fructose molecule.[32] Milk is utilized in the making of doughnuts, but in large scale bakeries, one form of milk used is nonfat dry milk solids. These solids are obtained by removing most of the water from skim milk with heat, and this heat additionally denatures the whey proteins and increases the absorption properties of the remaining proteins.[32] The ability of the "casein and whey proteins to absorb excess water is essential to prolonging the doughnut's freshness. The major "whey protein in the nonfat milk solids is known as beta-lactoglobulin, and a crucial feature of its structure is that there exists a single sulfhydryl group that is protected by the alpha helix, and when heating of the milk solids occurs, these groups participate in disulfide exchanges with other molecules. This interchange prevents the renaturation of the whey proteins.[33] If the crosslinking of the sulfide groups does not occur, the whey proteins can rebond and weaken the gluten network.

Water is a necessary ingredient in the production of doughnuts because it activates the other ingredients, allowing them to perform their functions in building the doughnut's structure. For example, sugar and salt crystals must be dissolved in order for them to act in the dough, whereas larger molecules, such as the starches or proteins, must be hydrated in order for them to absorb moisture.[32] Another important consideration of water is its degree of hardness, which measures the amount of impurities in the water source. Pure water consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen, but water used in baking often is not pure. Baker’s "salt (NaCl) is usually used as an ingredient due to its high purity, whereas the salts in water are derived from varying minerals. As an ingredient, “salt is added to enhance the flavour of cakes and breads and to ‘toughen up’ the soft mixture of fat and sugar.”[34] If relatively soft water is being used, more salt should be added in order to strengthen the gluten network of the dough, but if not enough salt is added during the baking process, the flavor of the bread will not be appealing to consumers.

Health effects[edit]

Doughnuts are unhealthy,[35] some less so than others.[36] According to "Prevention Magazine, doughnuts provide essential nutrients such as "thiamine, "riboflavin, and "niacin, along with beneficial fiber; but, they are high in sugar and calories.[37] Steps to improve the healthiness of doughnuts include removing "trans fats.[36]

Dough rheology[edit]

An important property of the dough that affects the final product is the dough's rheology. This property measures the ability of the dough to flow. It can be represented by the power law equation: τ=k.D^n where τ is the tangentic stress, k is the "viscosity coefficient, D is the shear rate, and n is the flow index.[38] Many factors affect dough rheology including the type of ingredients, the amount of the ingredients, or the force applied during mixing. Dough is usually described as a viscoelastic material, meaning that its rheology depends on both the viscosity and the elasticity. The viscosity coefficient and the flow index are unique to the type of dough being analyzed, while the tangentic stress and the shear rate are measurements obtained depending on the type force being applied to the dough.

Regional variations[edit]

Africa[edit]

South Africa[edit]

In "South Africa, an Afrikaans variation known as the "koeksister is popular. Another variation, similar in name, is the Cape Malay "koesister being soaked in a spiced syrup and coated in coconut. It has a texture similar to more traditional doughnuts as opposed to the Afrikaans variety.[39] A further variation is the "vetkoek, which is also dough deep fried in oil. It is served with mince, syrup, honey or jam.[40]

Tunisia[edit]

In "Tunisia, traditional pastries similar to doughnuts are yo-yos. They come in different versions both as balls and in shape of doughnuts. They are deep-fried and covered in a honey syrup or a kind of frosting. "Sesame seeds are also used for flavor and decoration along with orange juice and "vanilla.

Morocco[edit]

In "Morocco, "Sfenj is a similar pastry eaten sprinkled with sugar or soaked in honey.[41]

Asia[edit]

China[edit]

A few sweet, doughnut-style pastries are regional in nature. "Cantonese cuisine features an oval-shaped pastry called ngàuhleisōu (牛脷酥, lit. ""ox-tongue pastry" due to its tongue-like shape).

A spherical food called saa1 jung (沙翁) which is also similar to "cream puff, but denser in texture (doughnut-like texture) with sugar sprinkled on top, is normally available in "Cantonese restaurants in the "dim sum style. An oilier "Beijing variant of this called 高力豆沙, gaoli dousha, is filled with "red bean paste; originally, it was made with egg white instead of dough. Many Chinese cultures make a chewy doughnut known as "shuangbaotai (雙包胎), which consists of two conjoined balls of dough.

"Chinese restaurants in the US sometimes serve small fried pastries similar to doughnut holes, served with condensed milk as a sauce.

"Chinese cuisine features long, deep-fried doughnut sticks that are often quite oily, hence their name in "Mandarin, "yóutiáo (油條, lit. oil strips.); in "Cantonese, this doughnut-style pastry is called yàuhjagwái (油炸鬼, ghosts fried in oil). These pastries are not sweet and are often served with "congee, a traditional rice "porridge.

India[edit]

In "India, an old fashioned sweet called gulgula is made of sweetened flour balls deep fried. It may or may not use a leavening agent.

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"Balushahi from India.

In "India, there are a couple of unrelated donut shaped food items. A savory, fried, ring-shaped snack called a "vada is often referred to as the Indian doughnut. The vada is made from "dal, "lentil or "potato flours rather than wheat flour.[42] In North India, it is in the form of a bulging disc called dahi-vada, and is soaked in "curd, sprinkled with spices and sliced vegetables, and topped with a sweet and sour "chutney. In South India, a vada is eaten with "sambar and a coconut "chutney.

Sweet pastries similar to old-fashioned doughnuts called badushahi and jalebi are also popular. "Balushahi, also called badushah, is made from flour, deep fried in clarified butter, and dipped in sugar syrup. Unlike a donut, Balushahi is dense. A Balushahi is ring-shaped, but the hole in the center does not go all the way through. "Jalebi, which is typically pretzel-shaped, is made by deep frying batter in oil and soaking it in sugar syrup.[43] A variant of jalebi, called "imarti, is shaped with a small ring in the center around which a geometric pattern is arranged.

Along with these Indian variants, American variants of doughnuts are also available with American brands such as "Krispy Kreme and "Dunkin' Donuts setting up retail outlets in India, as well as local brands such as Mad Over Donuts and the Donut Baker.[44]

Indonesia[edit]

The "Indonesian, donat kentang is a "potato doughnut, a ring-shaped fritter made from flour and mashed potatoes, coated in powder sugar or icing sugar.[45]

Iran[edit]

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Zoolbia and "bamiyeh

The Persian zoolbia and "bamiyeh are fritters of various shapes and sizes coated in a sugar syrup.[46] Doughnuts are also made in the home in Iran, referred to as doughnuts, even in the singular.["citation needed]

Israel[edit]

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Israeli "sufganiyot in a wide variety of toppings at a bakery in "Tel Aviv, Israel

Jelly doughnuts, known as "sufganiyah (סופגניה, pl. sufganiyot סופגניות) in "Israel, have become a traditional "Hanukkah food[47] in the recent era, as they are cooked in oil, associated with the holiday account of the miracle of the oil. Traditional sufganiyot are filled with red jelly and topped with "icing sugar. However, many other varieties exist, with some being filled with "dulce de leche (particularly common after the "South American aliyah early in the 21st century).

Japan[edit]

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"An-doughnut filled with "red bean paste from Japan

In "Japan, "an-doughnut (あんドーナッツ, ""bean paste doughnut") is widely available at bakeries. An-doughnut is similar to Germany's Berliner, except it contains red "azuki bean paste. "Mister Donut is one of the most popular doughnut chains in "Japan. Native to "Okinawa is a spheroid pastry similar to doughnuts called "sata andagi.["citation needed]

Malaysia[edit]

Kuih keria is a hole doughnut made from boiled sweet potato that is mashed. The sweet potato mash is shaped into rings and fried. The hot doughnut is then rolled in granulated sugar. The result is a doughnut with a sugar-crusted skin.[48]

Nepal[edit]

"Sel roti is a "Nepali homemade, ring-shaped, rice doughnut prepared during "Tihar, the widely celebrated Hindu festival in Nepal. A semiliquid dough is usually prepared by adding milk, water, sugar, butter, cardamom, and mashed banana to rice flour, which is often left to ferment for up to 24 hours. A sel roti is traditionally fried in "ghee.[49]

Pakistan[edit]

Doughnuts are available at most bakeries across Pakistan. The "Navaz Sharif variety, available mainly in the city of "Karachi, is covered in chocolate and filled with cream, similar to a "Boston cream. Doughnuts can readily be found at the many "Dunkin' Donuts branches spread across Pakistan.[50]

Philippines[edit]

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The distinctively-shaped shakoy (also known as lubid-lubid), a doughnut variant from the "Visayas, "Philippines

Local varieties of doughnuts sold by peddlers and street vendors throughout the Philippines are usually made of plain well-kneaded dough, deep-fried in refined coconut oil and sprinkled with refined (not powdered or confectioner's) sugar.

Native doughnut recipes include the shakoy, kumukunsi, and "binangkal. Shakoy or siyakoy from the "Visayas islands (also known as lubid-lubid in the northern Philippines) uses a length of dough twisted into a distinctive rope-like shape before being fried. The preparation is almost exactly the same as doughnuts, though there are variants made from "glutinous rice flour. The texture can range from soft and fluffy, to sticky and chewy, to hard and crunchy. They are sprinkled with white sugar, but can also be topped with sesame seeds or caramelized sugar.[51][52] Kumukunsi is a similar native doughnut from the "Maguindanao people. It is made with "rice flour, duck eggs, and sugar that is molded rope-like strands and then fried in a loose spiral. They have the taste and consistency of creamy pancakes.[53][54] "Binangkal are simple fried dough balls covered in "sesame seeds.[55]

Taiwan[edit]

In "Taiwan, "shuāngbāotāi (雙胞胎, lit. twins) is two pieces of dough wrapped together before frying.["citation needed]

Thailand[edit]

In Thailand, a popular breakfast food is Pa Thong Ko, also known as Thai Donuts, a version of the Chinese Yiu Ja Guoy/"Youtiao. Often sold from food stalls in markets or by the side of the road, these doughnuts are small sometimes X-shaped and sold by the bag full.[56] They are often eaten in the morning with hot "Thai tea.

Vietnam[edit]

Vietnamese varieties of doughnuts include bánh tiêu, bánh cam, and "bánh rán. Bánh tiêu is a sesame-topped, deep-fried pastry that is hallow. It can be eaten alone or cut in half and served with "bánh bò, a gelatinous cake, placed inside the pastry. Bánh cam is from Southern Vietnam and is a ball-shaped, deep-fried pastry coated entirely in sesame seeds and inside of which contains a "mung bean paste filling. Bánh rán is from Northern Vietnam and is similar to bánh cam; however, the difference is that bánh rán is covered with a sugar glaze after being deep-fried and its mung bean paste filling includes a "jasmine essence.["citation needed]

Europe[edit]

Austria[edit]

In "Austria, doughnut equivalents are called "Krapfen. They are especially popular during Carneval season ("Fasching), and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid and usually filled with apricot jam (traditional) or vanilla cream (Vanillekrapfen).[57] A second variant, called "Bauernkrapfen, probably more similar to doughnuts, are made of yeast dough, and have a thick outside ring, but are very thin in the middle.[58]

Belgium[edit]

In "Belgium, the "smoutebollen in Dutch, or ""croustillons" in French, are similar to the Dutch kind of oliebollen, but they usually do not contain any fruit, except for apple chunks sometimes. They are typical carnival and fair snacks and are coated with powdered sugar.[59][60]

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Serbia[edit]

Doughnuts similar to the Berliner are prepared in the northern Balkans, particularly in "Bosnia and Herzegovina, "Croatia, "Macedonia and "Serbia (pokladnice or "krofne). They are also called krofna, krafna or krafne, a name derived from the Austrian Krapfen for this pastry. In Croatia, they are especially popular during "Carneval season and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid. Traditionally, they are filled with jam (apricot or plum). However, they can be filled with vanilla or chocolate cream. Another types of doughnuts are "uštipci and "fritule.["citation needed]

Czech Republic[edit]

There are "Czech Republic "American" style doughnuts, but before they were solid shape and filled with jelly (strawberry or peach). The shape is similar to doughnuts in Germany or Poland. They are called Kobliha (Koblihy in plural). They may be filed with "nougat or with vanilla custard. There are now many fillings; cut in half or non-filled knots with sugar and cinnamon on top.[61]

Denmark[edit]

In "Denmark, doughnuts exist in their "American" shape, and these can be obtained from various stores, e.g. "McDonald's and most "gas stations. The "Berliner, however, is also available in bakeries.["citation needed]

Finland[edit]

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A Finnish "meat doughnut

in "Finland, a sweet doughnut is called a munkki (the word also means monk) and are commonly eaten in cafés and cafeteria restaurants. They are sold cold and are sometimes filled with jam (U.S. jelly) or a vanilla sauce. A ring doughnut is also known as donitsi.[62]

A savory form of doughnut is the "meat doughnut (in Finnish "lihapiirakka, or literally meat pie). Being made of doughnut mixture and deep fried the end product is more akin to a savory doughnut than any pie known in the English speaking world.[63]

France[edit]

The French "beignet, literally "bump",[64] is the French and New Orleans equivalent of a doughnut: A pastry made from "deep-fried "choux pastry.[65]

Germany[edit]

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German "Berliner

In parts of "Germany, the doughnut equivalents are called "Berliner (sg. and pl.), but not in the capital city of "Berlin itself and neighboring areas, where they are called Pfannkuchen (which is often found misleading by people in the rest of Germany, who use the word Pfannkuchen to describe a "pancake, which is also the literal translation of it).

In middle Germany, they are called Kreppel or Pfannkuchen. In southern Germany, they are also called Krapfen and are especially popular during Carnival season ("Karneval/"Fasching) in southern and middle Germany and on New Year's Eve in northern Germany. Berliner do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid and usually filled with jam, while a ring-shaped variant called Kameruner is common in Berlin and eastern Germany. Bismarcks and Berlin doughnuts are also found in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Switzerland and the US. Today, American style doughnuts are also available in Germany, but are less popular than their native counterparts.

Greece[edit]

In "Greece, there is a doughnut-like snack, called "loukoumas (λουκουμάς), which is spherical and soaked in honey syrup. It is often served with sprinkled cinnamon and grated walnuts or sesame seeds.[66]

Hungary[edit]

Fánk is a sweet traditional "Hungarian cake. The most commonly used ingredients are: "flour, "yeast, "butter, "egg yolk, a little bit of "rum, a sniff of "salt, "milk and "oil to deep fry with. After the pastry has risen for approximately 30 minutes the result is an extreme light doughnut-like pastry. Fánk is mostly served with "powdered sugar and "lekvar.

It is supposed that Fánk pastry is of the same origin as German "Berliner, Dutch "oliebol, and Polish "pączki.

Iceland[edit]

In "Iceland kleinuhringur ("pl. kleinuhringir and kleinuhringar) are a type of old "Icelandic cuisine which resembles doughnuts. The Berliner and many other kinds of doughnuts can only be found on one day of the year and that is on a holiday called "Bolludagur" or in other words Doughnut Day.

Italy[edit]

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An Italian "Zeppole

"Italian doughnuts include "ciambelle, "krapfen, "zippuli and "zeppole from "Calabria, maritozzi and "bomboloni from "Tuscany.

Lithuania[edit]

In "Lithuania, a kind of doughnut called spurgos is widely known. Some spurgos are similar to Polish "pączki, but some specific recipes, such as "cottage cheese doughnuts (varškės spurgos), were invented independently.["citation needed]

Netherlands[edit]

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"Oliebollen: Dutch doughnuts

In the "Netherlands, "oliebollen, referred to in cookbooks as "Dutch doughnuts", are a type of fritter, with or without raisins or "currants, and usually sprinkled with powdered sugar. Variations of the recipe contain slices of apple or other fruits. They are traditionally eaten as part of New Year celebrations.[67][68]

Norway[edit]

In Norway, "smultring is the prevailing type of doughnut traditionally sold in bakeries, shops, and stalls, however the American-style doughnuts are widely available in larger supermarkets, "McDonald's restaurants, "7-elevens and bakeries. The "Berliner is more common than the US doughnut, and sold in most supermarkets and bakeries alongside smultring doughnuts.

Poland[edit]

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Polish "pączki

In "Poland and parts of the U.S. with a large "Polish community, like "Chicago and "Detroit, the round, jam-filled doughnuts eaten especially—though not exclusively—during the "Carnival are called "pączki (pronounced "[ˈpɔntʂkʲi]). Pączki have been known in Poland at least since the Middle Ages. "Jędrzej Kitowicz has described that during the reign of the "Augustus III under influence of French cooks who came to Poland at that time, pączki dough fried in Poland has been improved, so that pączki became lighter, spongier, and more resilient.

Portugal[edit]

Romania[edit]

The Romanian dessert "gogoși are fried dough balls similar to filled doughnuts. They are stuffed with chocolate, jam, cheese and other combinations and may be dusted with icing sugar.

Russia[edit]

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Ukrainian "pampushky filled with sour cherries

In "Russia and the other "Post-Soviet countries, ponchiki ("Russian: пончики, plural form of пончик, ponchik) or pyshki ("Russian: пышки, especially in "St. Petersburg) are a very popular sweet doughnut, with many fast and simple recipes available in Russian cookbooks for making them at home as a breakfast or coffee pastry.[69]

Slovenia[edit]

In "Slovenia, a jam-filled doughnut known as "krofi, is very popular. It is the typical sweet during "Carnival time, but is to be found in most bakeries during the whole year. The most famous krofi come from the village of "Trojane in central Slovenia, and are originally filled with "apricot "jam filling.[70]

Spain[edit]

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Fried "Rosquillas" from "Asturias, "Spain

In "Spain, there are two different types of doughnuts. The first one, simply called "donuts" (in reference to the most famous commercial brand name for this type of food) or "berlinesas" (a more traditional name), refer to the American-style doughnut, that is, a deep fried, sweet, soft, ring of flour dough.

The second type of doughnut is a traditional pastry called "rosquilla", made of fermented dough and which is fried or baked in an oven. They were purportedly introduced in Spain by the "Romans.["citation needed] In Spain, there are several variants of them depending on the region where they are prepared and on the time of the year they are sold, as they are regarded in some parts as a pastry especially prepared only for Easter. Although overall they result in pastries of a tighter texture and less sugared than American doughnuts, they differ greatly in shape, size and taste from one region to another.

The '"churro' is a sweet pastry of deep-fried dough similar to a doughnut but shaped as a long, thin, ribbed cylinder rather than a ring or sphere. Churros are commonly served dusted in sugar as a snack or with a cup of hot chocolate.

Switzerland[edit]

In "Switzerland, there are Zigerkrapfen and Berliner.

Sweden[edit]

Similar to the munkki in Finland, a sweet doughnut in "Sweden is called a munk (the word also means monk) and are commonly eaten as "fika along with coffee. They are sold cold and are sometimes filled with jam (U.S. jelly) or a vanilla sauce. A ring doughnut is also known as just munk, unlike Finland, glazed doughnuts as very popular in Sweden.

Ukraine[edit]

In "Ukraine they are called "pampushky ("Ukrainian: пампушки). Pampusky are made of yeast dough from wheat, rye or bukwheat flour. Traditionally they are baked but may also be fried. According to "William Pokhlyobkin, the technology of making pampushky points to German cuisine, and these buns were possibly created by German colonists in Ukraine.

United Kingdom[edit]

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Two shop-bought lightly glazed Yum Yums on a plate. On average they are 12–14 cm (4.7–5.5 in) in length.

In some parts of "Scotland, ring doughnuts are referred to as doughrings, with the 'doughnut' name being reserved exclusively for the nut-shaped variety. Glazed, twisted rope-shaped doughnuts are known as yum-yums. It is also possible to buy fudge doughnuts in certain regions of Scotland. Fillings include jam, custard, cream, sweet mincemeat, chocolate and apple. Common ring toppings are sprinkle-iced and chocolate.

In "Northern Ireland, ring doughnuts are known as 'gravy rings', gravy being an archaic term for hot cooking oil.

North America[edit]

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"Puntarenas' cream-filled doughnuts

Caribbean region[edit]

A doughnut known as "kurma" originating in Eastern India but being sold as a delicacy in Trinidad and Tobago, is a small, sweet, and fried cubed or rectangular-shaped doughnut.["citation needed]

Costa Rica[edit]

A traditional "Puntarenas cream-filled doughnut is round and robust, managing to keep the cream inside liquified. They are popular in "Costa Rica.

Mexico[edit]

The Mexican donas are similar to doughnuts, including the name; the dona is a "fried-dough "pastry-based "snack, commonly covered with powdered "brown sugar and "cinnamon, white sugar or chocolate.

United States and Canada[edit]

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"Krispy Kreme glazed doughnuts
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Powdered, glazed and chocolate doughnuts from a variety pack sold at supermarkets

Frosted, glazed, powdered, "Boston cream, "coconut, "sour cream, cinnamon, chocolate, and "jelly are some of the varieties eaten in the United States and Canada. Sweetening, filling, and fancy toppings are now so common that plain doughnuts are now commonly labeled and sold as "old fashioned".

There are also "potato doughnuts (sometimes referred to as "spudnuts). Doughnuts are ubiquitous in the United States and can be found in most grocery stores, as well as in specialty "doughnut shops.

A popular doughnut in "Hawaii is the "malasada. Malasadas were brought to the Hawaiian Islands by early Portuguese settlers, and are a variation on Portugal's "filhós. They are small eggy balls of yeast dough deep-fried and coated in sugar.

Immigrants have brought various doughnut varieties to the United States. To celebrate "Fat Tuesday in eastern "Pennsylvania, churches sell a "potato starch doughnut called a "Fastnacht (or Fasnacht). The treats are so popular there that Fat Tuesday is often called "Fastnacht Day. The Polish doughnut, the "pączki, is popular in U.S. cities with large Polish communities such as "Chicago, "Milwaukee, and "Detroit.

In regions of the country where apples are widely grown, especially the Northeast and Midwest states, "cider doughnuts are a harvest season specialty, especially at orchards open to tourists, where they can be served fresh. Cider doughnuts are a cake doughnut with "apple cider in the batter. The use of cider affects both the texture and flavor, resulting in a denser, moister product. They are often coated with either granulated or powdered sugar or cinnamon sugar.[71]

In Southern Louisiana, a popular variety of the doughnut is the "beignet, a fried, square doughnut served traditionally with powdered sugar. Perhaps the most famous purveyor of beignets is "New Orleans restaurant "Cafe Du Monde.

In "Quebec, homemade doughnuts called beignes de Noël are traditional Christmas desserts.[72][73][74]

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Chocolate-frosted doughnut

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

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Custard-filled doughnut served by Il Fornaio, "St Kilda, Victoria, Australia

In "Australia, the doughnut is a popular snack food. "Jam doughnuts are particularly popular[75] and a unique aspect of Australian culture, especially in "Melbourne, "Victoria and the "Queen Victoria Market, where they are a tradition.[76] Jam doughnuts are similar to a "Berliner, but are served hot with red jam (raspberry or strawberry) injected into a bun that is deep-fried and then frosted in either sugar or cinnamon. Jam doughnuts are sometimes also bought frozen. In "South Australia, they are known as Berliner or Kitchener and often served in cafes. A variant is the custard-filled doughnut.

Mobile vans that serve doughnuts, traditional or jam, are often seen at spectator events, carnivals and fetes and by the roadside near high-traffic areas like airports and the carparks of large shopping centers. Traditional cinnamon doughnuts are readily available in Australia from specialised retailers and convenience stores. Doughnuts are a popular choice for schools and other not-for-profit groups to cook and sell as a fundraiser.

New Zealand[edit]

In New Zealand, the doughnut is a popular food snack available in corner dairies. They are in the form of a long sweet bread roll with a deep cut down its long axis. In this cut is placed a long dollop of sweetened clotted cream and on top of this is a spot of strawberry jam. Doughnuts are of two varieties: fresh cream or mock cream. The rounded variety is widely available as well.

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]

In "Brazil, bakeries, grocery stores and pastry shops sell ball-shaped doughnuts popularly known as "sonhos" (lit. dreams). The dessert was brought to Brazil by Portuguese colonizers that had contact with Dutch and German traders. They are the equivalent of nowadays "bolas de Berlim" (lit. balls of Berlin) in Portugal, but the traditional Portuguese yellow cream was substituted by local dairy and fruit products. They are made of a special type of bread filled with "goiabada" ("guava jelly) or milk cream, and covered by white sugar.

Chile[edit]

Berlin (plural Berlines) doughnut is popular in "Chile because of the large German community. It may be filled with jam or with "manjar, the Chilean version of "dulce de leche.

Peru[edit]

"Peruvian cuisine includes "picarones which are doughnut-shaped fritters made with a squash and sweet potato base. These snacks are almost always served with a drizzle of sweet molasses-based sauce.

In popular culture[edit]

The doughnut has made an appearance in popular culture, particularly in the United States and Australia. References extend to objects or actions that are doughnut-shaped.

Australia[edit]

"Donut King is Australia's largest retailer of doughnuts. A "Guinness Book of Records largest doughnut made up of 90,000 individual doughnuts was set in "Sydney in 2007 as part of a celebration for the release of "The Simpsons Movie.[77]

Canada[edit]

Per capita, "Canadians consume the most doughnuts, and Canada has the most doughnut stores per capita.[78][79] "Tim Hortons is the most popular Canadian doughnut and coffee franchise, and one of the most successful quick service restaurants in the country.["original research?] In the "Second City Television sketch comedy "The Great White North" featuring the fictional brothers "Bob and Doug MacKenzie and in their film "Strange Brew, doughnuts play a role in the duo's comedy.

United States[edit]

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"New York police officers in a "Dunkin' Donuts in the "East Village

Within the United States, the "Providence metropolitan area was cited as having the most donut shops per capita (25.3 doughnut shops per 100,000 people) as of January 13, 2010.[80] "National Doughnut Day celebrates the doughnut's history and role in popular culture. There is a race in "Staunton, Illinois, featuring doughnuts, called "Tour de Donut.

In "film, the doughnut has inspired "Dora's Dunking Doughnuts (1933), The Doughnuts (1963) and "Tour de Donut: Gluttons for Punishment. In video games, the doughnut has appeared in games like "The Simpsons Game and Donut Dilemma. In the cartoon "Mucha Lucha, there are four things that make up the code of mask wrestling: honor, family, tradition, and doughnuts. Also, in the television sitcom "The Simpsons, "Homer Simpson's love affair with doughnuts makes a prominent ongoing joke as well as the focal point of more than a few episodes. There is also a children's book "Arnie the Doughnut and music albums "The Doughnut in Granny's Greenhouse and Desert Doughnuts.

In several media, doughnuts are frequently presented as enjoyed by "police officers during "coffee break. This "cliché has been parodied in the film "Police Academy 4: Citizens on Patrol, where "Officer Zed is instructing new recruits how to "properly" consume their doughnut with "coffee. It is also parodied in the television series "Twin Peaks, where the police station is always in large supply.[81] In the "video game "Neuromancer there is a Donut World shop, where only policemen are allowed. During a citywide "lockdown" after the "Boston Marathon bombings, a handful of selected "Dunkin' Donuts locations were ordered to remain open to serve police and first responders despite the closing of the vast majority of city businesses.[82]

"Cops & Doughnuts, a doughnut shop in "Clare, Michigan, is notable for being owned and operated by current and former members of the city's police precinct.[83]

See also[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

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