Philippines Campaign (1941–42)
On 26 July 1941, Roosevelt federalized the Philippine Army, recalled MacArthur to active duty in the U.S. Army as a major general, and named him commander of "U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE). MacArthur was promoted to lieutenant general the following day, and then to general on 20 December.  On 31 July 1941, the Philippine Department had 22,000 troops assigned, 12,000 of whom were Philippine Scouts. The main component was the Philippine Division, under the command of Major General "Jonathan M. Wainwright. The initial American plan for the defense of the Philippines called for the main body of the troops to retreat to the Bataan peninsula in Manila Bay to hold out against the Japanese until a relief force could arrive. MacArthur changed this plan to one of attempting to hold all of "Luzon and using B-17 Flying Fortresses to sink Japanese ships that approached the islands. MacArthur persuaded the decision-makers in Washington that his plans represented the best deterrent to prevent Japan from choosing war and of winning a war if worse did come to worse.
Between July and December 1941, the garrison received 8,500 reinforcements. After years of parsimony, much equipment was shipped. By November, a backlog of 1,100,000 shipping tons of equipment intended for the Philippines had accumulated in U.S. ports and depots awaiting vessels. In addition, the Navy intercept station in the islands, known as "Station CAST, had an ultra secret "Purple cipher machine, which decrypted Japanese diplomatic messages, and partial codebooks for the latest "JN-25 naval code. Station CAST sent MacArthur its entire output, via Sutherland, the only officer on his staff authorized to see it.
At 03:30 local time on 8 December 1941 (about 09:00 on 7 December in Hawaii), Sutherland learned of the "attack on Pearl Harbor and informed MacArthur. At 05:30, the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, General "George Marshall, ordered MacArthur to execute the existing war plan, "Rainbow Five. MacArthur did nothing. On three occasions, the commander of the "Far East Air Force, Major General "Lewis H. Brereton, requested permission to attack Japanese bases in "Formosa, in accordance with prewar intentions, but was denied by Sutherland. Not until 11:00 did Brereton speak with MacArthur about it, and obtained permission. MacArthur later denied having the conversation. At 12:30, nine hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, aircraft of Japan's "11th Air Fleet achieved complete tactical surprise when they "attacked Clark Field and the nearby fighter base at "Iba Field, and destroyed or disabled 18 of Far East Air Force's 35 "B-17s, 53 of its 107 "P-40s, three "P-35s, and more than 25 other aircraft. Most were destroyed on the ground. Substantial damage was done to the bases, and casualties totaled 80 killed and 150 wounded. What was left of the Far East Air Force was all but destroyed over the next few days.
MacArthur attempted to slow the Japanese advance with an initial defense against the Japanese landings. MacArthur's plan for holding all of "Luzon against the Japanese collapsed as it spread out the American-Filipino forces too thin. However, he reconsidered his confidence in the ability of his Filipino troops after the Japanese landing force made a rapid advance after landing at "Lingayen Gulf on 21 December, and ordered a "retreat to Bataan. Within two days of the Japanese landing at Lingayen Gulf, MacArthur had reverted to pre-July 1941 plan of attempting to hold only Bataan while waiting for a relief force to come. Most of the American and some of the Filipino troops were able to retreat back to Baatan, but without most of their supplies, which were abandoned in the confusion. Manila was declared an "open city at midnight on 24 December, without any consultation with Admiral "Thomas C. Hart, commanding the "Asiatic Fleet, forcing the Navy to destroy considerable amounts of valuable material.
On the evening of 24 December, MacArthur moved his headquarters to the island fortress of "Corregidor in "Manila Bay arriving at 21:30, with his headquarters reporting to Washington as being open on the 25th. A series of air raids by the Japanese destroyed all the exposed structures on the island and USAFFE headquarters was moved into the "Malinta Tunnel. Later, most of the headquarters moved to Bataan, leaving only the nucleus with MacArthur. The troops on Bataan knew that they had been written off but continued to fight. Some blamed Roosevelt and MacArthur for their predicament. A ballad sung to the tune of ""The Battle Hymn of the Republic" called him "Dugout Doug". However, most clung to the belief that somehow MacArthur "would reach down and pull something out of his hat."
On 1 January 1942, MacArthur accepted $500,000 from President Quezon of the Philippines as payment for his pre-war service. MacArthur's staff members also received payments: $75,000 for Sutherland, $45,000 for Richard Marshall, and $20,000 for Huff. Eisenhower—after being appointed "Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force (AEF)—was also offered money by Quezon, but declined. These payments were known only to a few in Manila and Washington, including President Roosevelt and Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, until they were made public by historian Carol Petillo in 1979. While the payments had been fully legal, the revelation tarnished MacArthur's reputation.
Escape to Australia and Medal of Honor
In February 1942, as Japanese forces tightened their grip on the Philippines, MacArthur was ordered by President Roosevelt to relocate to Australia. On the night of 12 March 1942, MacArthur and a select group that included his wife Jean, son Arthur, and Arthur's "Cantonese "amah, Ah Cheu, fled Corregidor. MacArthur and his party reached "Del Monte Airfield on "Mindanao, where B-17s picked them up, and flew them to Australia. His famous speech, in which he said, "I came through and I shall return", was first made on "Terowie railway station in "South Australia, on 20 March. Washington asked MacArthur to amend his promise to "We shall return". He ignored the request.
Bataan surrendered on 9 April, and Corregidor on 6 May. George Marshall decided that MacArthur would be awarded the Medal of Honor, a decoration for which he had twice previously been nominated, "to offset any propaganda by the enemy directed at his leaving his command". Eisenhower pointed out that MacArthur had not actually performed any acts of valor as required by law, but Marshall cited the 1927 award of the medal to "Charles Lindbergh as a precedent. Special legislation had been passed to authorize Lindbergh's medal, but while similar legislation was introduced authorizing the medal for MacArthur by Congressmen "J. Parnell Thomas and "James E. Van Zandt, Marshall felt strongly that a serving general should receive the medal from the President and the War Department. MacArthur chose to accept it on the basis that "this award was intended not so much for me personally as it is a recognition of the indomitable courage of the gallant army which it was my honor to command." Arthur and Douglas MacArthur thus became the first father and son to be awarded the Medal of Honor. They remained the only pair until 2001, when Theodore Roosevelt was awarded posthumously for his service during the "Spanish–American War, "Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. having received one posthumously for his service during World War II. MacArthur's citation, written by George Marshall, read:
For conspicuous leadership in preparing the Philippine Islands to resist conquest, for gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against invading Japanese forces, and for the heroic conduct of defensive and offensive operations on the Bataan Peninsula. He mobilized, trained, and led an army which has received world acclaim for its gallant defense against a tremendous superiority of enemy forces in men and arms. His utter disregard of personal danger under heavy fire and aerial bombardment, his calm judgment in each crisis, inspired his troops, galvanized the spirit of resistance of the Filipino people, and confirmed the faith of the American people in their Armed Forces.
As the symbol of the forces resisting the Japanese, MacArthur received many other accolades. The Native American tribes of the Southwest chose him as a "Chief of Chiefs", which he acknowledged as from "my oldest friends, the companions of my boyhood days on the Western frontier". He was touched when he was named Father of the Year for 1942, and wrote to the National Father's Day Committee that:
By profession I am a soldier and take pride in that fact, but I am prouder, infinitely prouder to be a father. A soldier destroys in order to build; the father only builds, never destroys. The one has the potentialities of death; the other embodies creation and life. And while the hordes of death are mighty, the battalions of life are mightier still. It is my hope that my son when I am gone will remember me, not from battle, but in the home, repeating with him our simple daily prayer, "Our father, Who art in Heaven."
New Guinea Campaign
On 18 April 1942, MacArthur was appointed "Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the "Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA). Lieutenant General "George Brett became Commander, Allied Air Forces, and Vice Admiral "Herbert F. Leary became Commander, Allied Naval Forces. Since the bulk of land forces in the theater were Australian, George Marshall insisted an Australian be appointed as Commander, Allied Land Forces, and the job went to General Sir "Thomas Blamey. Although predominantly Australian and American, MacArthur's command also included small numbers of personnel from the Netherlands East Indies, the United Kingdom, and other countries.
MacArthur established a close relationship with the Prime Minister of Australia, "John Curtin, and was probably the second most-powerful person in the country after the prime minister, although many Australians resented MacArthur as a foreign general who had been imposed upon them. MacArthur had little confidence in Brett's abilities as commander of Allied Air Forces, and in August 1942 selected Major General "George C. Kenney to replace him. Kenney's application of air power in support of Blamey's troops would prove crucial.
The staff of MacArthur's General Headquarters (GHQ) was built around the nucleus that had escaped from the Philippines with him, who became known as the "Bataan Gang". Though Roosevelt and George Marshall pressed for Dutch and Australian officers to be assigned to GHQ, the heads of all the staff divisions were American and such officers of other nationalities as were assigned served under them. Initially located in Melbourne, GHQ moved to "Brisbane—the northernmost city in Australia with the necessary communications facilities—in July 1942, occupying the Australian Mutual Provident Society building (renamed after the war as "MacArthur Chambers).
MacArthur formed his own "signals intelligence organization, known as the "Central Bureau, from Australian intelligence units and American "cryptanalysts who had escaped from the Philippines. This unit forwarded "Ultra information to Willoughby for analysis. After a press release revealed details of the Japanese naval dispositions during the "Battle of the Coral Sea, at which a Japanese attempt to capture "Port Moresby was turned back, Roosevelt ordered that censorship be imposed in Australia, and the "Advisory War Council granted GHQ censorship authority over the Australian press. Australian newspapers were restricted to what was reported in the daily GHQ communiqué. Veteran correspondents considered the communiqués, which MacArthur drafted personally, "a total farce" and "Alice-in-Wonderland information handed out at high level."
Anticipating that the Japanese would strike at Port Moresby again, the garrison was strengthened and MacArthur ordered the establishment of new bases at "Merauke and "Milne Bay to cover its flanks. The "Battle of Midway in June 1942 led to consideration of a limited offensive in the Pacific. MacArthur's proposal for an attack on the Japanese base at Rabaul met with objections from the Navy, which favored a less ambitious approach, and objected to an Army general being in command of what would be an "amphibious operation. The resulting compromise called for a three-stage advance. The first stage, the "seizure of the Tulagi area, would be conducted by the "Pacific Ocean Areas, under Admiral "Chester W. Nimitz. The later stages would be under MacArthur's command.
The Japanese struck first, "landing at Buna in July, and at "Milne Bay in August. The Australians repulsed the Japanese at Milne Bay, but a series of defeats in the "Kokoda Track campaign had a depressing effect back in Australia. On 30 August, MacArthur radioed Washington that unless action was taken, "New Guinea Force would be overwhelmed. He sent Blamey to Port Moresby to take personal command. Having committed all available Australian troops, MacArthur decided to send American forces. The "32nd Infantry Division, a poorly trained National Guard division, was selected. A series of embarrassing reverses in the "Battle of Buna–Gona led to outspoken criticism of the American troops by the Australians. MacArthur then ordered Lieutenant General "Robert L. Eichelberger to assume command of the Americans, and "take Buna, or not come back alive."
MacArthur moved the advanced echelon of GHQ to Port Moresby on 6 November 1942. After Buna finally fell on 3 January 1943, MacArthur awarded the Distinguished Service Cross to twelve officers for "precise execution of operations". This use of the country's second highest award aroused resentment, because while some, like Eichelberger and "George Alan Vasey, had fought in the field, others, like Sutherland and Willoughby, had not. For his part, MacArthur was awarded his third Distinguished Service Medal, and the Australian government had him appointed an honorary "Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath.
New Guinea Campaign
At the Pacific Military Conference in March 1943, the "Joint Chiefs of Staff approved MacArthur's plan for "Operation Cartwheel, the advance on Rabaul. MacArthur explained his strategy:
My strategic conception for the Pacific Theater, which I outlined after the Papuan Campaign and have since consistently advocated, contemplates massive strokes against only main strategic objectives, utilizing surprise and air-ground striking power supported and assisted by the fleet. This is the very opposite of what is termed "island hopping" which is the gradual pushing back of the enemy by direct frontal pressure with the consequent heavy casualties which will certainly be involved. Key points must of course be taken but a wise choice of such will obviate the need for storming the mass of islands now in enemy possession. "Island hopping" with extravagant losses and slow progress ... is not my idea of how to end the war as soon and as cheaply as possible. New conditions require for solution and new weapons require for maximum application new and imaginative methods. Wars are never won in the past.
In "New Guinea, a country without roads, large-scale transportation of men and materiel would have to be accomplished by aircraft or ships. A multi-pronged approach was employed to solve this problem. Disassembled "landing craft were shipped to Australia, where they were assembled in Cairns. The range of these small landing craft was to be greatly extended by the "landing ships of the "VII Amphibious Force, which began arriving in late 1942, and formed part of the newly formed "Seventh Fleet. Since the Seventh Fleet had no aircraft carriers, the range of naval operations was limited by that of the fighter aircraft of the "Fifth Air Force.
Lieutenant General "Walter Krueger's "Sixth Army headquarters arrived in SWPA in early 1943 but MacArthur had only three American divisions, and they were tired and depleted from the fighting at Battle of Buna–Gona and "Battle of Guadalcanal. As a result, "it became obvious that any military offensive in the South-West Pacific in 1943 would have to be carried out mainly by the Australian Army." The offensive began with the "landing at Lae by the "Australian 9th Division on 4 September 1943. The next day, MacArthur watched the "landing at Nadzab by "paratroops of the "503rd Parachute Infantry. His B-17 made the trip on three engines because one failed soon after leaving Port Moresby, but he insisted that it fly on to Nadzab. For this, he was awarded the "Air Medal.
The "Australian 7th and 9th Divisions converged on Lae, which fell on 16 September. MacArthur advanced his timetable, and ordered the 7th to capture "Kaiapit and "Dumpu, while the 9th mounted an "amphibious assault on Finschhafen. Here, the offensive bogged down, partly because MacArthur had based his decision to assault Finschhafen on Willoughby's assessment that there were only 350 Japanese defenders at Finschhafen, when in fact there were nearly 5,000. A furious battle ensued.
In early November, MacArthur's plan for a westward advance along the coast of New Guinea to the Philippines was incorporated into plans for the war against Japan. Three months later, airmen reported no signs of enemy activity in the "Admiralty Islands. Although Willoughby did not agree that the islands had been evacuated, MacArthur ordered an amphibious landing there, commencing the "Admiralty Islands campaign. He accompanied the assault force aboard the "light cruiser "Phoenix, the flagship of Vice Admiral "Thomas C. Kinkaid, the new commander of the Seventh Fleet, and came ashore seven hours after the first wave of landing craft, for which he was awarded the "Bronze Star. It took six weeks of fierce fighting before the "1st Cavalry Division captured the islands.
MacArthur had one of the most powerful PR machines of any Allied general during the war, which made him into an extremely popular war hero with the American people. In late 1943–early 1944, there was a serious effort by the conservative faction in the "Republican Party centered in the Midwest to have MacArthur seek the Republican nomination, as they regarded the two men most likely to win the Republican nomination to be the candidate for the presidency in the 1944 election, namely "Wendell Willkie and Governor "Thomas E. Dewey of New York, as too liberal. For a time, MacArthur, who had long seen himself as a potential president was in the words of the U.S historian "Gerhard Weinberg "very interested" in running as the Republican candidate in 1944. However, MacArthur's vow to "return" to the Philippines had not been fulfilled in early 1944 and he decided not to run for president until he had liberated the Philippines.
Furthermore, Weinberg had argued that it is probable that Roosevelt who knew of the "enormous gratuity" MacArthur had accepted from Quezon in 1942 had used his knowledge of this transaction to blackmail MacArthur into not running for president. Finally, despite the best efforts of the conservative Republicans to put MacArthur's name on the ballot, on April 4, 1944, Governor Dewey won such a convincing victory in the Wisconsin primary (regarded as a significant victory given that the Midwest was a stronghold of the conservative Republicans opposed to Dewey) as to ensure that he would win the Republican nomination to be the GOP's candidate for president in 1944.
MacArthur now bypassed the Japanese forces at "Hansa Bay and "Wewak, and assaulted "Hollandia and "Aitape, which Willoughby reported to be lightly defended based on intelligence gathered in the "Battle of Sio. MacArthur's bold thrust by going 600 miles up the coast had surprised and confused the Japanese high command, who had not anticipated that MacArthur would take such risks. Although they were out of range of the Fifth Air Force's fighters based in the Ramu Valley, the timing of the operation allowed the aircraft carriers of Nimitz's "Pacific Fleet to provide air support. Though risky, the operation turned out to be another success. MacArthur caught the Japanese off balance and cut off Lieutenant General "Hatazō Adachi's "Japanese XVIII Army in the Wewak area. Because the Japanese were not expecting an attack, the garrison was weak, and Allied casualties were correspondingly light. However, the terrain turned out to be less suitable for airbase development than first thought, forcing MacArthur to seek better locations further west. While bypassing Japanese forces had great tactical merit, it had the strategic drawback of tying up Allied troops to contain them. Moreover, Adachi was far from beaten, which he demonstrated in the "Battle of Driniumor River.
Philippines Campaign (1944–45)
In July 1944, President Roosevelt summoned MacArthur to meet with him in Hawaii "to determine the phase of action against Japan." Nimitz made the case for attacking Formosa. MacArthur stressed America's moral obligation to liberate the Philippines. In September, Admiral "William Halsey, Jr.'s carriers made a series of air strikes on the Philippines. Opposition was feeble and Halsey concluded, incorrectly, that "Leyte was "wide open" and possibly undefended, and recommended that projected operations be skipped in favor of an assault on Leyte.
On 20 October 1944, troops of Krueger's Sixth Army "landed on Leyte, while MacArthur watched from the light cruiser "USS Nashville. That afternoon he arrived off the beach. The advance had not progressed far; snipers were still active and the area was under sporadic mortar fire. When his whaleboat grounded in knee-deep water, MacArthur requested a landing craft, but the beachmaster was too busy to grant his request. MacArthur was compelled to wade ashore. In his prepared speech, he said:
People of the Philippines: I have returned. By the grace of Almighty God our forces stand again on Philippine soil—soil consecrated in the blood of our two peoples. We have come dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control over your daily lives, and of restoring upon a foundation of indestructible strength, the liberties of your people.
Since Leyte was out of range of Kenney's land-based aircraft, MacArthur was dependent on carrier aircraft. Japanese air activity soon increased, with raids on "Tacloban, where MacArthur decided to establish his headquarters, and on the fleet offshore. MacArthur enjoyed staying on Nashville's bridge during air raids, although several bombs landed close by, and two nearby cruisers were hit. Over the next few days, the Japanese counterattacked in the "Battle of Leyte Gulf, resulting in a near-disaster that MacArthur attributed to the command being divided between himself and Nimitz. Nor did the campaign ashore proceed smoothly. Heavy monsoonal rains disrupted the airbase construction program. Carrier aircraft proved to be no substitute for land-based aircraft, and the lack of air cover permitted the Japanese to pour troops into Leyte. Adverse weather and tough Japanese resistance slowed the American advance, resulting in a protracted campaign.
By the end of December, Krueger's headquarters estimated that 5,000 Japanese remained on Leyte, and on 26 December MacArthur issued a communiqué announcing that "the campaign can now be regarded as closed except for minor mopping up." Yet "Eichelberger's "Eighth Army killed another 27,000 Japanese on Leyte before the campaign ended in May 1945. On 18 December 1944, MacArthur was promoted to the new "five-star rank of "General of the Army, placing him in the company of Marshall, Eisenhower, "Henry "Hap" Arnold, the only four men to achieve the rank in World War II. Including "Omar Bradley, MacArthur was one of only five men to achieve the title of General of the Army since the 5 August 1888 death of "Philip Sheridan, and he was one of only five American officers to hold the rank as a five-star general. MacArthur was senior to all but Marshall. The rank was created by an "Act of Congress when "Public Law 78–482 was passed on 14 December 1944, as a temporary rank, subject to reversion to permanent rank six months after the end of the war. The temporary rank was then declared permanent 23 March 1946 by Public Law 333 of the "79th Congress, which also awarded full pay and allowances in the grade to those on the retired list.
MacArthur's next move was the "invasion of Mindoro, where there were good potential airfield sites. Willoughby estimated, correctly as it turned out, that the island had only about 1,000 Japanese defenders. The problem this time was getting there. Kinkaid balked at sending escort carriers into the restricted waters of the "Sulu Sea, and Kenney could not guarantee land based air cover. The operation was clearly hazardous, and MacArthur's staff talked him out of accompanying the invasion on Nashville. As the invasion force entered the Sulu Sea, a "kamikaze struck Nashville, killing 133 people and wounding 190 more. Australian and American engineers had three airstrips in operation within two weeks, but the resupply convoys were repeatedly attacked by kamikazes. During this time, MacArthur quarreled with Sutherland, notorious for his abrasiveness, over the latter's mistress, Captain Elaine Clark. MacArthur had instructed Sutherland not to be bring Clark to Leyte, due to a personal undertaking to Curtin that Australian women on the GHQ staff would not be taken to the Philippines, but Sutherland had brought her along anyway.
The way was now clear for the "invasion of Luzon. This time, based on different interpretations of the same intelligence data, Willoughby estimated the strength of General "Tomoyuki Yamashita's forces on Luzon at 137,000, while Sixth Army estimated it at 234,000. MacArthur's response was "Bunk!". He felt that even Willoughby's estimate was too high. "Audacity, calculated risk, and a clear strategic aim were MacArthur's attributes", and he disregarded the estimates. In fact, they were too low; Yamashita had more than 287,000 troops on Luzon. This time, MacArthur traveled aboard the light cruiser "USS Boise, watching as the ship was nearly hit by a bomb and torpedoes fired by "midget submarines. His communiqué read: "The decisive battle for the liberation of the Philippines and the control of the Southwest Pacific is at hand. General MacArthur is in personal command at the front and landed with his assault troops."
MacArthur's primary concern was the capture of the port of Manila and the airbase at Clark Field, which were required to support future operations. He urged his commanders on. On 25 January 1945, he moved his advanced headquarters forward to "Hacienda Luisita, closer to the front than Krueger's. He ordered the 1st Cavalry Division to conduct a rapid advance on Manila. It reached the northern outskirts of Manila on 3 February, but, unknown to the Americans, Rear Admiral "Sanji Iwabuchi had decided to defend Manila to the death. The "Battle of Manila raged for the next three weeks. To spare the civilian population, MacArthur prohibited the use of air strikes, but thousands of civilians died in the crossfire or Japanese massacres. He also refused to restrict the traffic of civilians who clogged the roads in and out of Manila, placing humanitarian concerns above military ones except in emergencies. For his part in the capture of Manila, MacArthur was awarded his third Distinguished Service Cross.
After taking Manila, MacArthur installed one of his Filipino friends, "Manuel Roxas – who also happened to be one of the few people who knew about the huge sum of money Quezon had given MacArthur in 1942 – into a position of power that ensured Roxas was to become the next Filipino president. Roxas had been a leading Japanese collaborator serving in the puppet government of Jose Laurel, but MacArthur claimed that Roxas had secretly been an American agent all the long. About MacArthur's claim that Roxas was really part of the resistance, the American historian "Gerhard Weinberg wrote that "...evidence to this effect has yet to surface", and that by favoring the Japanese collaborator Roxas, MacArthur ensured there was no serious effort to address the issue of Filipino collaboration with the Japanese after the war.
After the Battle of Manila, MacArthur turned his attention to Yamashita, who had retreated into the mountains of central and northern Luzon. Yamashita chose to fight a defensive campaign, being pushed back slowly by Krueger, and was still holding out at the time the war ended, much to MacArthur's intense annoyance as he had wished to liberate the entire Philippines before the war ended. On 2 September 1945, Yamashita (who had a hard time believing that the Emperor had ordered Japan to sign an armistice) came down from the mountains to surrender with some 100,000 of his men.
Although MacArthur had no specific directive to do so, and the fighting on Luzon was far from over, he committed his forces to liberate the remainder of the Philippines. In the GHQ communiqué on 5 July, he announced that the Philippines had been liberated and all operations ended, although Yamashita still held out in northern Luzon. Starting in May 1945, MacArthur used his Australian troops in the "invasion of Borneo. He accompanied the "assault on Labuan, and visited the troops ashore. While returning to GHQ in Manila, he visited "Davao, where he told Eichelberger that no more than 4,000 Japanese remained alive on Mindanao. A few months later, six times that number surrendered. In July 1945, he was awarded his fourth Distinguished Service Medal.
As part of preparations for "Operation Downfall, the invasion of Japan, MacArthur became commander in chief U.S. Army Forces Pacific (AFPAC) in April 1945, assuming command of all Army and Army Air Force units in the Pacific except the "Twentieth Air Force. At the same time, Nimitz became commander of all naval forces. Command in the Pacific therefore remained divided. During his planning of the invasion of Japan, MacArthur stressed to the decision-makers in Washington that it was essential to have the Soviet Union enter the war as he argued it was crucial to have the Red Army tie down the Kwantung army in Manchuria. The invasion was pre-empted by the "surrender of Japan in August 1945. On 2 September MacArthur accepted the "formal Japanese surrender aboard the "battleship "USS Missouri, thus ending hostilities in World War II. In recognition of his role as a maritime strategist, the U.S. Navy awarded him the "Navy Distinguished Service Medal.
Occupation of Japan
Protecting the Emperor
On 29 August 1945, MacArthur was ordered to exercise authority through the Japanese government machinery, including the "Emperor "Hirohito. MacArthur's headquarters was located in the "Dai Ichi Life Insurance Building in Tokyo. Unlike in Germany, where the Allies had in May 1945 abolished the German state, the Americans chose to allow the Japanese state to continue to exist, albeit under their ultimate control. Unlike Germany, there was a certain partnership between the occupiers and occupied as MacArthur decided to rule Japan via the Emperor and the most of the rest of the Japanese elite. The Emperor was a living god to the Japanese people, and MacArthur found that ruling via the Emperor made his job in running Japan much easier than it otherwise would have been.
MacArthur took the view that a few "militarist" extremists had "hijacked" Japan starting in 1931 with the "Mukden Incident, the Emperor was a pro-Western "moderate" who had been powerless to stop the militarists, and thus bore no responsibility for any of the war crimes committed by the Japanese between 1931 and 1945. The American historian "Herbert P. Bix described the relationship between the general and the Emperor as: "the Allied commander would use the Emperor, and the Emperor would cooperate in being used. Their relationship became one of expediency and mutual protection, of more political benefit to Hirohito than to MacArthur because Hirohito had more to lose–the entire panoply of symbolic, legitimizing properties of the imperial throne".
At the same time, MacArthur had attacked the imperial mystique when his staff released the famous picture of his first meeting with the Emperor, whose impact on the Japanese public was electric as the Japanese people for the first time saw the Emperor as a mere man overshadowed by the much taller MacArthur instead of the living god he had always been portrayed as.Up to 1945, the Emperor had been a remote, mysterious figure to his people, rarely seen in public and always silent, whose photographs were always taken from a certain angle to make him look taller and more impressive than he really was.No Japanese photographer would have taken such a photo of the Emperor being overshadowed by MacArthur. The Japanese government immediately banned the photo of the Emperor with MacArthur on the grounds that it damaged the imperial mystique, but MacArthur rescinded the ban and ordered all of the Japanese newspapers to print it. The photo was intended as a message to the Emperor about who was going to be the senior partner in their relationship.
As he needed the Emperor, MacArthur protected him from any effort to hold accountable for his actions, and allowed him to issue statements that incorrectly portrayed the emerging democratic post-war era as a continuation of the Meiji era reforms. MacArthur did not allow any investigations of the Emperor, and instead in October 1945 ordered his staff "in the interests of peaceful occupation and rehabilitation of Japan, prevention of revolution and communism, all facts surrounding the execution of the declaration of war and subsequent position of the Emperor which tend to show fraud, menace or duress be marshalled". In January 1946, MacArthur reported to Washington that the Emperor could not be indicted for war crimes on the grounds:
His indictment will unquestionably cause a tremendous convulsion among the Japanese people, the repercussions of which cannot be overestimated. He is a symbol which unites all Japanese. Destroy him and the nation will disintegrate...It is quite possible that a million troops would be required which would have to be maintained for an indefinite number of years.
To protect the Emperor from being indicted, MacArthur had one of his staff, Brigadier General "Bonner Fellers tell the genrō Admiral "Mitsumasa Yonai on 6 March 1946:
To counter this situation, it would be most convenient if the Japanese side could prove to us that the Emperor is completely blameless. I think the forthcoming trials offer the best opportunity to do that. Tojo, in particular should be made to bear all responsibility at his trial. I want you to have Tojo say as follows: "At the imperial conference prior to the start of the war, I already decided to push for war even if his majesty the emperor was against going to war with the United States."
From the viewpoint of both sides, having one especially evil figure in the form of General "Hideki Tojo whom everything that went wrong could be blamed was most politically convenient. At a second meeting on 22 March 1946, Fellers told Admiral Yonai as recorded by his interpreter Mizota Shuichi:
The most influential advocate of un-American thought in the United States is Cohen (a Jew and a Communist), the top adviser to Secretary of State Byrnes. As I told Yonai... it is extremely disadvantageous to MacArthur's standing in the United States to put on trial the very Emperor who is cooperating with him and facilitating the smooth administration of the occupation. This is the reason for my request... "I wonder whether what I said to Admiral Yonai the other day has already been conveyed to Tojo?".
MacArthur's attempts to shield the Emperor from indictment and to have all the blame taken by General Tojo were successful, which as "Herbert P. Bix commented, "...had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on the Japanese understanding of the lost war".
War crimes trials
MacArthur was responsible for confirming and enforcing the sentences for war crimes handed down by the "International Military Tribunal for the Far East. In late 1945, Allied military commissions in various cities of the Orient tried 5,700 Japanese, Taiwanese and Koreans for war crimes. About 4,300 were convicted, almost 1,000 sentenced to death, and hundreds given life imprisonment. The charges arose from incidents that included the "Rape of Nanking, the "Bataan Death March and "Manila massacre. The trial in Manila of Yamashita was criticized because he was hanged for Iwabuchi's Manila massacre, which he had not ordered and of which he was probably unaware. Iwabuchi had killed himself as the battle for Manila was ending.
MacArthur gave immunity to "Shiro Ishii and other members of the "bacteriological research units in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. He also exempted the Emperor and all members of the imperial family implicated in war crimes, including Princes "Chichibu, "Asaka, "Takeda, "Higashikuni and "Fushimi, from criminal prosecutions. MacArthur confirmed that the emperor's "abdication would not be necessary. In doing so, he ignored the advice of many members of the imperial family and Japanese intellectuals who publicly called for the abdication of the Emperor and the implementation of a regency.
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
As "Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) in Japan, MacArthur and his staff helped Japan rebuild itself, eradicate militarism and ultra-nationalism, promote political civil liberties, institute democratic government, and chart a new course that ultimately made Japan one of the world's leading industrial powers. The U.S. was firmly in control of Japan to oversee its reconstruction, and MacArthur was effectively the interim leader of Japan from 1945 until 1948. In 1946, MacArthur's staff drafted a new "constitution that renounced war and stripped the Emperor of his military authority. The constitution—which became effective on 3 May 1947—instituted a "parliamentary system of government, under which the Emperor acted only on the advice of his ministers. It included the famous "Article 9, which outlawed belligerency as an instrument of state policy and the maintenance of a standing army. The constitution also enfranchised women, guaranteed fundamental human rights, outlawed racial discrimination, strengthened the powers of Parliament and the Cabinet, and decentralized the police and local government.
A major "land reform was also conducted, led by "Wolf Ladejinsky of MacArthur's SCAP staff. Between 1947 and 1949, approximately 4,700,000 acres (1,900,000 ha), or 38% of Japan's cultivated land, was purchased from the landlords under the government's reform program, and 4,600,000 acres (1,860,000 ha) was resold to the farmers who worked them. By 1950, 89% of all agricultural land was owner-operated and only 11% was tenant-operated. MacArthur's efforts to encourage trade union membership met with phenomenal success, and by 1947, 48% of the non-agricultural workforce was unionized. Some of MacArthur's reforms were rescinded in 1948 when his unilateral control of Japan was ended by the increased involvement of the State Department. During the Occupation, SCAP successfully, if not entirely, abolished many of the financial coalitions known as the "Zaibatsu, which had previously monopolized industry. Eventually, looser industrial groupings known as "Keiretsu evolved. The reforms alarmed many in the U.S. Departments of Defense and State, who believed they conflicted with the prospect of Japan and its industrial capacity as a bulwark against the spread of communism in Asia.
In 1948, MacArthur made a bid to win the Republican nomination to be the GOP candidate for president, which was the most serious of several efforts he made over the years. MacArthur's status as one of America's most popular war heroes together with his reputation as the statesman who had "transformed" Japan gave him a strong basis for running for president, but MacArthur's lack of connections within the GOP were a major handicap. MacArthur's strongest supporters came from the quasi-isolationist, Midwestern wing of the Republicans and embraced men such as Brigadier General "Hanford MacNider, "Philip La Follette, and Brigadier General "Robert E. Wood, a diverse collection of "Old Right" and Progressive Republicans only united by a belief that the U.S. was too much involved in Europe for its own good. MacArthur declined to campaign for the presidency himself, but he privately encouraged his supporters to put his name on the ballot. MacArthur had always stated he would retire when a peace treaty was signed with Japan, and his push in the fall of 1947 to have the U.S sign a peace treaty with Japan was intended to allow him to retire on a high note, and thus campaign for the presidency. For the same reasons, Truman subverted MacArthur's efforts to have peace treaty signed in 1947, saying that more time was needed before the U.S could formally make peace with Japan.
Without a peace treaty, MacArthur decided not to resign while at the same time writing letters to Wood saying he would be more than happy to accept the Republican nomination if it were offered to him. In late 1947 and early 1948, MacArthur received several Republican grandees in Tokyo. On 9 March 1948 MacArthur issued a press statement declaring his interest in being the Republican candidate for president, saying he would be honored if the Republican Party were to nominate him, but would not resign from the Army to campaign for the presidency. The press statement had been forced by Wood, who told MacArthur that it was impossible to campaign for a man who was not officially running for president, and that MacArthur could either declare his candidacy or see Wood cease campaigning for him. MacArthur's supporters made a major effort to win the Wisconsin Republican primary held on 6 April 1948. MacArthur's refusal to campaign badly hurt his chances and it was won to everybody's surprise by "Harold Stassen. The defeat in Wisconsin followed by defeat in Nebraska effectively ended MacArthur's chances of winning the Republican nomination, but MacArthur refused to withdraw his name until the "1948 Republican National Convention which was won by Governor "Thomas Dewey of New York.
In an address to Congress on 19 April 1951, MacArthur declared:
The Japanese people since the war have undergone the greatest reformation recorded in modern history. With a commendable will, eagerness to learn, and marked capacity to understand, they have from the ashes left in war's wake erected in Japan an edifice dedicated to the supremacy of individual liberty and personal dignity, and in the ensuing process there has been created a truly representative government committed to the advance of political morality, freedom of economic enterprise, and social justice.
MacArthur handed over power to the Japanese government in 1949, but remained in Japan until relieved by President "Harry S. Truman on 11 April 1951. The "San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed on 8 September 1951, marked the end of the Allied occupation, and when it went into effect on 28 April 1952, Japan was once again an independent state. The Japanese subsequently gave him the nickname Gaijin Shogun ("foreign military ruler") but not until around the time of his death in 1964.
South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu
On 25 June 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea, starting the "Korean War. The "United Nations Security Council passed "Resolution 82, which authorized a United Nations (UN) force to assist South Korea. The UN empowered the American government to select a commander, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff unanimously recommended MacArthur. He therefore became Commander-in-Chief of the United Nations Command (UNCOM), while remaining SCAP in Japan and Commander of the USAFFE. All South Korean forces were also placed under his command. As they retreated before the North Korean onslaught, MacArthur received permission to commit U.S. ground forces. All the first units to arrive could do was trade men and ground for time, falling back to the "Pusan Perimeter. By the end of August, the crisis subsided. North Korean attacks on the perimeter had tapered off. While the North Korean force numbered 88,000 troops, Lieutenant General "Walton Walker's Eighth Army now numbered 180,000, and he had more tanks and artillery pieces.
In 1949, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General of the Army "Omar Bradley, had predicted that "large scale combined amphibious operations ... will never occur again," but by July 1950, MacArthur was planning just such an operation. MacArthur compared his plan with that of General "James Wolfe at the "Battle of the Plains of Abraham, and brushed aside the problems of tides, "hydrography and terrain. In September, despite lingering concerns from superiors, MacArthur's soldiers and marines made a successful "landing at Inchon, deep behind North Korean lines. Launched with naval and close air support, the landing outflanked the North Koreans, recaptured "Seoul and forced them to retreat northward in disarray. Visiting the battlefield on 17 September, MacArthur surveyed six "T-34 tanks that had been knocked out by Marines, ignoring sniper fire around him, except to note that the North Korean marksmen were poorly trained.
On 11 September, Truman issued orders for an advance beyond the 38th parallel into North Korea. MacArthur now planned another amphibious assault, on "Wonsan on the east coast, but it fell to South Korean troops before the 1st Marine Division could reach it by sea. In October, MacArthur met with Truman at the "Wake Island Conference, with Truman emulating Roosevelt's wartime meeting with MacArthur in Hawaii. The president awarded MacArthur his fifth Distinguished Service Medal. Briefly questioned about the Chinese threat, MacArthur dismissed it, saying that he hoped to be able to withdraw the Eighth Army to Japan by Christmas, and to release a division for service in Europe in January. He regarded the possibility of Soviet intervention as a more serious threat.
A month later, things had changed. The enemy were engaged by the UN forces at the "Battle of Unsan in late October, which demonstrated the presence of Chinese soldiers in Korea and rendered significant losses to the American and other UN troops. Nevertheless, Willoughby downplayed the evidence about Chinese intervention in the war. He estimated that up to 71,000 Chinese soldiers were in the country, while the true number was closer to 300,000. He was not alone in this miscalculation. On 24 November, the "Central Intelligence Agency reported to Truman that while there could be as many as 200,000 Chinese troops in Korea, "there is no evidence that the Chinese Communists plan major offensive operations."
That day, MacArthur flew to Walker's headquarters and he later wrote:
For five hours I toured the front lines. In talking to a group of officers I told them of General Bradley's desire and hope to have two divisions home by Christmas ... What I had seen at the front line worried me greatly. The R.O.K. troops were not yet in good shape, and the entire line was deplorably weak in numbers. If the Chinese were actually in heavy force, I decided I would withdraw our troops and abandon any attempt to move north. I decided to reconnoiter and try to see with my own eyes, and interpret with my own long experience what was going on ...
MacArthur flew over the front line himself in his "Douglas C-54 Skymaster but saw no signs of a Chinese build up and therefore decided to wait before ordering an advance or withdrawal. Evidence of the Chinese activity was hidden to MacArthur: the Chinese Army traveled at night and dug in during the day. For his reconnaissance efforts, MacArthur was nonetheless awarded the "Distinguished Flying Cross and honorary "combat pilot's wings.
The next day, 25 November 1950, Walker's Eighth Army was attacked by the Chinese Army and soon the UN forces were in retreat. MacArthur provided the Chief of Staff, General "J. Lawton Collins with a series of nine successive withdrawal lines. On 23 December, Walker was killed when his jeep collided with a truck, and was replaced by Lieutenant General "Matthew B. Ridgway, whom MacArthur had selected in case of such an eventuality. Ridgway noted that MacArthur's "prestige, which had gained an extraordinary luster after "Inch'on, was badly tarnished. His credibility suffered in the unforeseen outcome of the November offensive ..."
Collins discussed the possible use of nuclear weapons in Korea with MacArthur in December, and later asked him for a list of targets in the Soviet Union in case it entered the war. MacArthur testified before the Congress in 1951 that he had never recommended the use of nuclear weapons. He did at one point consider a plan to cut off North Korea with radioactive poisons; he did not recommend it at the time, although he later broached the matter with Eisenhower, then president-elect, in 1952. In 1954, in an interview published after his death, he stated he had wanted to drop atomic bombs on enemy bases, but in 1960, he challenged a statement by Truman that he had advocated using atomic bombs. Truman issued a retraction, stating that he had no evidence of the claim; it was merely his personal opinion.
In April 1951, the Joint Chiefs of Staff drafted orders for MacArthur authorizing nuclear attacks on Manchuria and the "Shantung Peninsula if the Chinese launched airstrikes originating from there against his forces. The next day Truman met with the chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, "Gordon Dean, and arranged for the transfer of nine "Mark 4 nuclear bombs to military control. Dean was apprehensive about delegating the decision on how they should be used to MacArthur, who lacked expert technical knowledge of the weapons and their effects. The Joint Chiefs were not entirely comfortable about giving them to MacArthur either, for fear that he might prematurely carry out his orders. Instead, they decided that the nuclear strike force would report to the "Strategic Air Command.
Removal from command
Within weeks of the Chinese attack, MacArthur was forced to retreat from North Korea. Seoul fell in January 1951, and both Truman and MacArthur were forced to contemplate the prospect of abandoning Korea entirely. European countries did not share MacArthur's world view, distrusted his judgment, and were afraid that he might use his stature and influence with the American public to re-focus American policy away from Europe and towards Asia. They were concerned that this might lead to a major war with China, possibly involving nuclear weapons. Since in February 1950 the Soviet Union and China had signed a defensive alliance committing each to go to war if the other party was attacked, the possibility that an American attack on China would cause World War III was considered to be very real at the time. In a visit to the United States in December 1950, the British prime minister, "Clement Attlee, had raised the fears of the British and other European governments that "General MacArthur was running the show."
Under Ridgway's command, the Eighth Army pressed north again in January. He inflicted heavy casualties on the Chinese, recaptured Seoul in March 1951, and pushed on to the 38th Parallel. With the improved military situation, Truman now saw the opportunity to offer a negotiated peace but, on 24 March, MacArthur called upon China to admit that it had been defeated, simultaneously challenging both the Chinese and his own superiors. Truman's proposed announcement was shelved.
On 5 April, Representative "Joseph William Martin, Jr., the Republican leader in the House of Representatives, read aloud on the floor of the House a letter from MacArthur critical of Truman's Europe-first policy and limited-war strategy. The letter concluded with:
It seems strangely difficult for some to realize that here in Asia is where the communist conspirators have elected to make their play for global conquest, and that we have joined the issue thus raised on the battlefield; that here we fight Europe's war with arms while the diplomats there still fight it with words; that if we lose the war to communism in Asia the fall of Europe is inevitable, win it and Europe most probably would avoid war and yet preserve freedom. As you pointed out, we must win. There is no substitute for victory.
In March 1951 secret United States intercepts of diplomatic dispatches disclosed clandestine conversations in which General MacArthur expressed confidence to the Tokyo embassies of Spain and Portugal that he would succeed in expanding the Korean War into a full-scale conflict with the Chinese Communists. When the intercepts came to the attention of President Truman, he was enraged to learn that MacArthur was not only trying to increase public support for his position on conducting the war, but had secretly informed foreign governments that he planned to initiate actions that were counter to United States policy. The President was unable to act immediately since he could not afford to reveal the existence of the intercepts and because of MacArthur's popularity with the public and political support in Congress. However, following the release on April 5 by Representative Martin of MacArthur's letter, Truman concluded he could relieve MacArthur of his commands without incurring unacceptable political damage.
Truman summoned Secretary of Defense George Marshall, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Omar Bradley, Secretary of State "Dean Acheson and "Averell Harriman to discuss what to do about MacArthur. They concurred MacArthur should be relieved of his command, but made no recommendation to do so. Although they felt that it was correct "from a purely military point of view," they were aware that there were important political considerations as well. Truman and Acheson agreed that MacArthur was insubordinate, but the Joint Chiefs avoided any suggestion of this. Insubordination was a military offense, and MacArthur could have requested a public court martial similar to that of Billy Mitchell. The outcome of such a trial was uncertain, and it might well have found him not guilty and ordered his reinstatement. The Joint Chiefs agreed that there was "little evidence that General MacArthur had ever failed to carry out a direct order of the Joint Chiefs, or acted in opposition to an order." "In point of fact," Bradley insisted, "MacArthur had stretched but not legally violated any JCS directives. He had violated the President's 6 December directive [not to make public statements on policy matters], relayed to him by the JCS, but this did not constitute violation of a JCS order." Truman ordered MacArthur's relief by Ridgway, and the order went out on 10 April with Bradley's signature.
In a 3 December 1973 article in "Time magazine, Truman was quoted as saying in the early 1960s:
I fired him because he wouldn't respect the authority of the President. I didn't fire him because he was a dumb son of a bitch, although he was, but that's not against the law for generals. If it was, half to three-quarters of them would be in jail.
The relief of the famous general by the unpopular politician for communicating with Congress led to a "constitutional crisis, and a storm of public controversy. Polls showed that the majority of the public disapproved of the decision to relieve MacArthur. By February 1952, almost nine months later, Truman's approval rating had fallen to 22 percent. As of 2014[update], that remains the lowest "Gallup Poll approval rating recorded by any serving president. As the increasingly unpopular war in Korea dragged on, Truman's administration was beset with a series of corruption scandals, and he eventually decided not to run for re-election. Beginning on May 3, 1951, a Joint Senate Committee—chaired by Democrat "Richard Russell, Jr.—investigated MacArthur's removal. It concluded that "the removal of General MacArthur was within the constitutional powers of the President but the circumstances were a shock to national pride."
A day after his arrival in San Francisco from Korea on April 18, 1951, MacArthur had flown with his family to Washington, D.C. where he was scheduled to address a joint session of Congress. It was his and Jean's first visit to the continental United States since 1937, when they had been married; Arthur IV, now aged 13, had never been to the U.S. And, on April 19, 1951, MacArthur made his last official appearance in a farewell address to the U.S. Congress presenting and defending his side of his disagreement with Truman over the conduct of the Korean War. During his speech, he was interrupted by fifty ovations. MacArthur ended the address saying:
I am closing my 52 years of military service. When I joined the Army, even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all of my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain at West Point, and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished, but I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barrack ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that "old soldiers never die; they just fade away."
And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty.
MacArthur received public adulation, which aroused expectations that he would run for president, but he was not a candidate. MacArthur carried out a speaking tour in 1951–52 attacking the Truman administration for "appeasement in Asia" and for mismanaging the economy. Initially attracting large crowds, by early 1952 MacArthur's speeches were attracting smaller and smaller numbers of people as many complained that MacArthur seemed more interested in settling scores with Truman and praising himself than in offering up a constructive vision for the nation. MacArthur felt uncomfortable campaigning for the Republican nomination, and hoped that at the Republican convention, a deadlock would ensue between Senator Robert Taft and General Eisenhower, which would end with the GOP nominating him as the best compromise. MacArthur's unwillingness to campaign for the presidency seriously hurt his ability to win the nomination. In the end, MacArthur endorsed Senator "Robert A. Taft, and was keynote speaker at the "1952 Republican National Convention. Taft lost the nomination to Eisenhower, who went on to win the "1952 election by a landslide. Once elected, Eisenhower consulted with MacArthur about ending the war in Korea.
Douglas and Jean MacArthur spent their last years together in the penthouse of the Waldorf Towers, a part of the "Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. He was elected chairman of the board of "Remington Rand. In that year, he earned a salary of $68,000 (equivalent to $612,000 in 2016), in addition to $20,000 pay and allowances as a General of the Army. The Waldorf became the setting for an annual birthday party on 26 January thrown by the general's former deputy chief engineer, Major General "Leif J. Sverdrup. At the 1960 celebration for MacArthur's 80th birthday, many of his friends were startled by the general's obviously deteriorating health. The next day, he collapsed and was rushed into surgery at St. Luke's Hospital to control a severely swollen prostate.
After his recovery, MacArthur methodically began to carry out the closing acts of his life. He visited the White House for a final reunion with Eisenhower. In 1961, he made a "sentimental journey" to the Philippines, where he was decorated by President "Carlos P. Garcia with the "Philippine Legion of Honor. MacArthur also accepted a $900,000 (equivalent to $7.25 million in 2016) advance from Henry Luce for the rights to his memoirs, and wrote the volume that would eventually be published as Reminiscences. Sections began to appear in serialized form in "Life magazine in the months before his death.
President "John F. Kennedy solicited MacArthur's counsel in 1961. The first of two meetings was held shortly after the "Bay of Pigs Invasion. MacArthur was extremely critical of the military advice given to Kennedy, and cautioned the young President to avoid a U.S. military build-up in Vietnam, pointing out that domestic problems should be given a much greater priority. Shortly before his death, MacArthur gave similar advice to President "Lyndon B. Johnson.
In 1962, West Point honored the increasingly frail MacArthur with the "Sylvanus Thayer Award for outstanding service to the nation, which had gone to Eisenhower the year before. MacArthur's speech to the cadets in accepting the award had as its theme Duty, Honor, Country:
"The shadows are lengthening for me. The twilight is here. My days of old have vanished, tone and tint. They have gone glimmering through the dreams of things that were. Their memory is one of wondrous beauty, watered by tears, and coaxed and caressed by the smiles of yesterday. I listen vainly, but with thirsty ears, for the witching melody of faint bugles blowing reveille, of far drums beating the long roll. In my dreams I hear again the crash of guns, the rattle of musketry, the strange, mournful mutter of the battlefield. But in the evening of my memory, always I come back to West Point. Always there echoes and re-echoes: Duty, Honor, Country. Today marks my final roll call with you, but I want you to know that when I cross the river my last conscious thoughts will be of The Corps, and The Corps, and The Corps. I bid you farewell."
In 1963, President Kennedy asked MacArthur to help mediate a dispute between the "National Collegiate Athletic Association and the "Amateur Athletic Union over control of amateur sports in the country. The dispute threatened to derail the participation of the United States in the "1964 Summer Olympics. His presence helped to broker a deal, and participation in the games went on as planned.
Death and legacy
Douglas MacArthur died at "Walter Reed Army Medical Center on 5 April 1964, of "biliary cirrhosis. Kennedy had authorized a "state funeral before "his own death in 1963, and Johnson confirmed the directive, ordering that MacArthur be buried "with all the honor a grateful nation can bestow on a departed hero." On 7 April, his body was taken on a funeral train to "Union Station and transported by a funeral procession to the "Capitol, where it lay in state. An estimated 150,000 people filed by the "bier. MacArthur had requested to be buried in "Norfolk, "Virginia, where his mother had been born and where his parents had married. Accordingly, on 11 April, his funeral service was held in "St Paul's Episcopal Church in Norfolk and his body was finally laid to rest in the rotunda of the "Douglas MacArthur Memorial (the former Norfolk City Hall and later courthouse).
In 1960, the mayor of Norfolk, Virginia, had proposed using funds raised by public contribution to remodel the old Norfolk City Hall as a memorial to General MacArthur and as a repository for his papers, decorations, and mementos he had accepted. Restored and remodeled, the "MacArthur Memorial contains nine museum galleries whose contents reflect the general's 50 years of military service. At the heart of the memorial is a rotunda. In its center lies a sunken circular crypt with two marble sarcophagi, one for MacArthur, the other for Jean, who continued to live in the Waldorf Towers until her own death in 2000.
The MacArthur Chambers in Brisbane, Australia, hosts the "MacArthur Museum on the 8th floor where MacArthur had his office.
MacArthur has a contested legacy. In the Philippines in 1942, he suffered a defeat that "Gavin Long described as "the greatest in the history of American foreign wars." Despite this, "in a fragile period of the American psyche when the general American public, still stunned by the shock of Pearl Harbor and uncertain what lay ahead in Europe, desperately needed a hero, they wholeheartedly embraced Douglas MacArthur—good press copy that he was. There simply were no other choices that came close to matching his mystique, not to mention his evocative lone-wolf stand—something that has always resonated with Americans."
MacArthur's concept of the role of the soldier as encompassing a broad spectrum of roles that included civil affairs, quelling riots and low-level conflict, was dismissed by the majority of officers who had fought in Europe during World War II, and afterwards saw the Army's role as fighting the Soviet Union. Unlike them, in his victories in New Guinea in 1944, the Philippines in 1945 and Korea in 1950, he fought outnumbered, and relied on maneuver and surprise for success. The American Sinologist John Fairbank called MacArthur "our greatest soldier".
On the other hand, Truman once remarked that he did not understand how the US Army could "produce men such as "Robert E. Lee, John J. Pershing, Eisenhower and Bradley and at the same time produce "Custers, "Pattons and MacArthur." His relief of MacArthur cast a long shadow over American civil-military relations for decades. When Lyndon Johnson met with "William Westmoreland in Honolulu in 1966, he told him: "General, I have a lot riding on you. I hope you don't pull a MacArthur on me." MacArthur's relief "left a lasting current of popular sentiment that in matters of war and peace, the military really knows best," a philosophy which became known as "MacArthurism."
MacArthur remains a controversial and enigmatic figure. He has been portrayed as a reactionary, although he was in many respects ahead of his time. He championed a progressive approach to the reconstruction of Japanese society, arguing that all occupations ultimately ended badly for the occupier and the occupied. He was often out of step with his contemporaries, such as in 1941 when he contended that Nazi Germany could not defeat the Soviet Union, when he argued that North Korea and China were no mere Soviet puppets, and throughout his career in his insistence that the future lay in the Far East. This implicitly rejected White American contemporary notions of their own racial superiority. He always treated Filipino and Japanese leaders with respect as equals. At the same time, his Victorian sensibilities recoiled at leveling Manila with aerial bombing, an attitude the hardened World War II generation regarded as old fashioned. When asked about MacArthur, Blamey once said that "The best and the worst things you hear about him are both true."
Honors and awards
During his lifetime, MacArthur earned over 100 military decorations from the U.S. and other countries including the Medal of Honor, the French "Légion d'honneur and "Croix de guerre, the "Order of the Crown of Italy, the "Order of Orange-Nassau from the Netherlands, the "Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath from Australia, and the "Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers, Grand Cordon from Japan.
MacArthur was enormously popular with the American public. Streets, public works, and children were named after him. Even a dance step was named after him. In 1955, his promotion to "General of the Armies was proposed in Congress, but the proposal was shelved.
Since 1987 the General Douglas MacArthur Leadership Awards are presented annually by the United States Army on behalf of the General Douglas MacArthur Foundation to recognize company grade officers (lieutenants and captains) and junior warrant officers (warrant officer one and chief warrant officer two) who have demonstrated the attributes of "duty, honor, country" in their professional lives and in service to their communities.
The MacArthur Leadership Award at the "Royal Military College of Canada in "Kingston, Ontario is awarded to the graduating officer cadet who demonstrates outstanding leadership performance based on the credo of Duty-Honor-Country and potential for future military service.
In popular culture
Several actors have portrayed MacArthur on screen. "Dayton Lummis played him in the 1955 picture "The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell, "Henry Fonda in the television movie Collision Course: Truman vs. MacArthur in 1976, "Gregory Peck in the 1977 film "MacArthur, "Laurence Olivier in "Inchon in 1981, and "Daniel von Bargen in the 1995 "HBO film "Truman. In the 2013 film "Emperor he is played by "Tommy Lee Jones. and in 2016 he was played by "Liam Neeson in "Operation Chromite 
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- Valley, David J. (2000). Gaijin Shogun: General Douglas MacArthur, Stepfather of Postwar Japan. Sektor Company. "ISBN "0-9678175-2-8. "OCLC 45586737.
- Vierk, Valerie Lee (2005). Gold Stars and Purple Hearts: the War Dead of the Ravenna, Nebraska Area. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse. "ISBN "1-4208-7607-4. "OCLC 70700519.
- "Willoughby, Charles A., ed. (1966). Japanese Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area Volume II – Part I. Reports of General MacArthur. Washington, D.C.: "United States Government Printing Office. "OCLC 482111659. CMH Pub 13-1. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
- "Barbey, Daniel E. (1969). MacArthur's Amphibious Navy: Seventh Amphibious Force Operations, 1943–1945. Annapolis, Maryland: "United States Naval Institute. "OCLC 52066.
- Bartsch, William H. (2003). 8 December 1941: MacArthur's Pearl Harbor. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. "ISBN "1-58544-246-1. "OCLC 50920708.
- "Bix, Herbert P. (2000). "Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: HarperCollins. "ISBN "0-06-019314-X. "OCLC 43031388.
- Duffy, Bernard K; Carpenter, Ronald H. (1997). Douglas MacArthur: Warrior as Wordsmith. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. "ISBN "0-313-29148-9. "OCLC 34117548.
- "Leary, William M., ed. (1988). We Shall Return!: MacArthur's Commanders and the Defeat of Japan, 1942–1945. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. "ISBN "978-0-8131-9105-8. "OCLC 17483104.
- Lowitt, Richard (1967). The Truman-MacArthur Controversy. Chicago: Rand McNally. "ISBN "978-0-528-66344-4. "OCLC 712199.
- Lutz, David W. (January 2000). "The Exercise of Military Judgment: A Philosophical Investigation of The Virtues And Vices of General Douglas MacArthur". Journal of Power and Ethics (1).
- Masuda, Hiroshi (2012). MacArthur in Asia: The General and His Staff in the Philippines, Japan, and Korea. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. "ISBN "978-0-8014-4939-0. "OCLC 780415694.
- Rasor, Eugene L. (1994). General Douglas MacArthur, 1880–1964: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. "ISBN "978-0-313-28873-9. "OCLC 29428597.
- Schaller, Michael (1964). Douglas MacArthur: The Far Eastern General. New York: Oxford University Press. "ISBN "0-7351-0354-2. "OCLC 18325485.
- Schonberger, Howard B. (1989). Aftermath of War: Americans and the Remaking of Japan, 1945–1952. American Diplomatic History. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. "ISBN "978-0-87338-382-0. "OCLC 18557205.
- Sodei, Rinjirō (1964). Dear General MacArthur: Letters from the Japanese During the American Occupation. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. "ISBN "0-7425-1115-4. "OCLC 47177004.
- Wainstock, Dennis D. (1999). Truman, MacArthur, and the Korean War. Contributions in Military Studies. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. "ISBN "978-0-313-30837-6. "OCLC 261176470.
- "Weintraub, Stanley (2000). MacArthur's War: Korea and the Undoing of an American Hero. New York: Free Press. "ISBN "0-684-83419-7. "OCLC 41548333.
- "Wolfe, Robert (1984). Americans as Proconsuls: United States Military Government in Germany and Japan, 1944–1952. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. "ISBN "978-0-8093-1115-6. "OCLC 9465314.
- Works by or about Douglas MacArthur at "Internet Archive
- "Douglas MacArthur". Hall of Valor. "Military Times.
- "The MacArthur Memorial".
- "The MacArthur Museum of Arkansas Military History". City of Little Rock.
- "Obituary: Commander of Armies That Turned Back Japan Led a Brigade in World War I". New York Times. 6 April 1964.
- "MacArthur". "PBS.
- "Douglas MacArthur". "History.
- The short film Big Picture: The Douglas MacArthur Story is available for free download at the "Internet Archive
- Truman Fires MacArthur, Aftermath: Original Letters
- Senate joint resolution to authorize the appointment of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur as General of the Armies of the United States
- Douglas MacArthur at the "Internet Movie Database
- Douglas MacArthur (Character) at the "Internet Movie Database
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