President Truman, symbolizing a broad-based desire for an Eisenhower candidacy for president, again in 1951 pressed him to run for the office as a Democrat. It was at this time that Eisenhower voiced his disagreements with the Democratic party and declared himself and his family to be Republicans. A ""Draft Eisenhower" movement in the Republican Party persuaded him to declare his candidacy in the "1952 presidential election to counter the candidacy of "non-interventionist Senator "Robert A. Taft. The effort was a long struggle; Eisenhower had to be convinced that political circumstances had created a genuine duty for him to offer himself as a candidate, and that there was a mandate from the populace for him to be their President. Henry Cabot Lodge, who served as his campaign manager, and others succeeded in convincing him, and in June 1952 he resigned his command at NATO to campaign full-time. Eisenhower defeated Taft for the nomination, having won critical delegate votes from Texas. Eisenhower's campaign was noted for the simple but effective slogan, ""I Like Ike". It was essential to his success that Eisenhower express opposition to Roosevelt's policy at Yalta and against Truman's policies in Korea and China—matters in which he had once participated. In defeating Taft for the nomination, it became necessary for Eisenhower to appease the right wing "Old Guard of the Republican Party; his selection of "Richard M. Nixon as the Vice-President on the ticket was designed in part for that purpose. Nixon also provided a strong anti-communist presence as well as some youth to counter Ike's more advanced age.
In the general election, against the advice of his advisors, Eisenhower insisted on campaigning in the South, refusing to surrender the region to the Democratic Party. The campaign strategy, dubbed "K1C2", was to focus on attacking the Truman and Roosevelt administrations on three issues: Korea, Communism and corruption. In an effort to accommodate the right, he stressed that the liberation of Eastern Europe should be by peaceful means only; he also distanced himself from his former boss President Truman.
Two controversies during the campaign tested him and his staff, but did not affect the campaign. One involved a report that Nixon had improperly received funds from a secret trust. Nixon "spoke out adroitly to avoid potential damage, but the matter permanently alienated the two candidates. The second issue centered on Eisenhower's relented decision to confront the controversial methods of "Joseph McCarthy on his home turf in a Wisconsin appearance. Just two weeks prior to the election, Eisenhower vowed to go to Korea and end the war there. He promised to maintain a strong commitment against Communism while avoiding the topic of NATO; finally, he stressed a corruption-free, frugal administration at home.
He defeated Democratic candidate "Adlai Stevenson II in a landslide, with an electoral margin of 442 to 89, marking the first Republican return to the White House in 20 years. In the election he also brought with him a Republican majority in the House (by eight votes) and in the Senate (actually a tie, with Nixon providing the majority vote).
Eisenhower was the last president born in the 19th century, and at age 62, was the oldest man elected President since "James Buchanan in 1856 (President Truman stood at 64 in 1948 as the incumbent president, having succeeded to the Presidency in 1945 upon the death of Franklin Roosevelt). Eisenhower was the only general to serve as President in the 20th century and was the most recent President to have never held elected office prior to the Presidency until "Donald Trump; the other Presidents who did not have prior elected office were "Zachary Taylor, "Ulysses S. Grant, "William Howard Taft and "Herbert Hoover.
Election of 1956
The United States presidential election of 1956 was held on November 6, 1956. Eisenhower, the popular incumbent, successfully ran for re-election. The election was a re-match of 1952, as his opponent in 1956 was Stevenson, a former Illinois governor, whom Eisenhower had defeated four years earlier. Compared to the 1952 election, Eisenhower gained Kentucky, Louisiana, and West Virginia from Stevenson, while losing Missouri.
This was the last presidential election before the admissions of Alaska and Hawaii, which would participate for the first time as states in the 1960 presidential election. It was also the last election in which any of the major candidates was born in the 19th century, and it is the latest where both candidates were renominated for a rematch of the previous presidential election.
Due to a complete estrangement between the two as a result of campaigning, Truman and Eisenhower had minimal discussions about the transition of administrations. After selecting his budget director, "Joseph M. Dodge, Eisenhower asked "Herbert Brownell Jr. and "Lucius D. Clay to make recommendations for his cabinet appointments. He accepted their recommendations without exception; they included "John Foster Dulles and "George M. Humphrey with whom he developed his closest relationships, and one woman, "Oveta Culp Hobby. Eisenhower's cabinet, consisting of several corporate executives and one labor leader, was dubbed by one journalist, "Eight millionaires and a plumber." The cabinet was known for its lack of personal friends, office seekers, or experienced government administrators. He also upgraded the role of the National Security Council in planning all phases of the Cold War.
Prior to his inauguration, Eisenhower led a meeting of advisors at Pearl Harbor addressing foremost issues; agreed objectives were to balance the budget during his term, to bring the Korean War to an end, to defend vital interests at lower cost through nuclear deterrent, and to end price and wage controls. Eisenhower also conducted the first pre-inaugural cabinet meeting in history in late 1952; he used this meeting to articulate his anti-communist Russia policy. His inaugural address, as well, was exclusively devoted to foreign policy and included this same philosophy, as well as a commitment to foreign trade and the United Nations.
Eisenhower made greater use of press conferences than any previous president, holding almost 200 over his two terms. While he saw the benefit of maintaining a good relationship with the press, he saw more value in them as a means of direct communication with the American people.
Throughout his presidency, Eisenhower adhered to a political philosophy of dynamic conservatism. A self-described "progressive conservative" who used terms like “progressive moderate” and “dynamic conservatism” to describe his approach, he continued all the major "New Deal programs still in operation, especially "Social Security. He expanded its programs and rolled them into a new cabinet-level agency, the "Department of Health, Education and Welfare, while extending benefits to an additional ten million workers. He implemented integration in the Armed Services in two years, which had not been completed under Truman.
As the 1954 congressional elections approached, and it became evident that the Republicans were in danger of losing their thin majority in both houses, Eisenhower was among those blaming the Old Guard for the losses, and took up the charge to stop suspected efforts by the right wing to take control of the GOP. Eisenhower then articulated his position as a moderate, progressive Republican: "I have just one purpose ... and that is to build up a strong progressive Republican Party in this country. If the right wing wants a fight, they are going to get it ... before I end up, either this Republican Party will reflect progressivism or I won't be with them anymore."
Initially Eisenhower planned on serving only one term, but as with other decisions, he maintained a position of maximum flexibility in case leading Republicans wanted him to run again. During his recovery from a heart attack late in 1955, he huddled with his closest advisors to evaluate the GOP's potential candidates; the group, in addition to his doctor, concluded a second term was well advised, and he announced in February 1956 he would run again. Eisenhower was publicly noncommittal about Nixon's repeating as the Vice President on his ticket; the question was an especially important one in light of his heart condition. He personally favored "Robert B. Anderson, a Democrat, who rejected his offer; Eisenhower then resolved to leave the matter in the hands of the party. In 1956, Eisenhower faced Adlai Stevenson again and "won by an even larger landslide, with 457 of 531 electoral votes and 57.6% of the popular vote. The level of campaigning was curtailed out of health considerations.
Eisenhower valued the brief respites and the amenities of an office which he endowed with an arduous daily schedule. He made full use of his valet, chauffeur, and secretarial support—he rarely drove or dialed a phone number. He was an avid fisherman, golfer, painter, and bridge player, and preferred active rather than passive forms of entertainment. On August 26, 1959, Eisenhower was aboard the maiden flight of "Air Force One, which replaced the previous Presidential aircraft, the Columbine.
Interstate Highway System
President Eisenhower delivered remarks about the need for a new highway program at Cadillac Square in Detroit on October 29, 1954
Text of speech excerpt
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One of Eisenhower's enduring achievements was championing and signing the bill that authorized the "Interstate Highway System in 1956. He justified the project through the "Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 as essential to American security during the "Cold War. It was believed that large cities would be targets in a possible war, hence the highways were designed to facilitate their evacuation and ease military maneuvers.
Eisenhower's goal to create improved highways was influenced by difficulties encountered during his involvement in the U.S. Army's 1919 "Transcontinental Motor Convoy. He was assigned as an observer for the mission, which involved sending a convoy of U.S. Army vehicles coast to coast. His subsequent experience with encountering German "autobahn "limited-access road systems during "the concluding stages of World War II convinced him of the benefits of an Interstate Highway System. Noticing the improved ability to move logistics throughout the country, he thought an Interstate Highway System in the U.S. would not only be beneficial for military operations, but provide a measure of continued economic growth. The legislation initially stalled in the Congress over the issuance of bonds to finance the project, but the legislative effort was renewed and the law was signed by Eisenhower in June 1956.
In 1953, the Republican Party's Old Guard presented Eisenhower with a dilemma by insisting he disavow the Yalta Agreements as beyond the constitutional authority of the Executive Branch; however, the death of Joseph Stalin in March 1953 made the matter a moot point. At this time Eisenhower gave his "Chance for Peace speech in which he attempted, unsuccessfully, to forestall the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union by suggesting multiple opportunities presented by peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Biographer Stephen Ambrose opined that this was the best speech of Eisenhower's presidency.
Nevertheless, the "Cold War escalated during his presidency. When the Soviet Union "successfully tested a hydrogen bomb in late November 1955, Eisenhower, against the advice of Dulles, decided to initiate a disarmament proposal to the Soviets. In an attempt to make their refusal more difficult, he proposed that both sides agree to dedicate fissionable material away from weapons toward peaceful uses, such as power generation. This approach was labeled ""Atoms for Peace".
The U.N. speech was well received but the Soviets never acted upon it, due to an overarching concern for the greater stockpiles of nuclear weapons in the U.S. arsenal. Indeed, Eisenhower embarked upon a greater reliance on the use of nuclear weapons, while reducing conventional forces, and with them the overall defense budget, a policy formulated as a result of "Project Solarium and expressed in "NSC 162/2. This approach became known as the ""New Look", and was initiated with defense cuts in late 1953.
In 1955 American nuclear arms policy became one aimed primarily at arms control as opposed to disarmament. The failure of negotiations over arms until 1955 was due mainly to the refusal of the Russians to permit any sort of inspections. In talks located in London that year, they expressed a willingness to discuss inspections; the tables were then turned on Eisenhower, when he responded with an unwillingness on the part of the U.S. to permit inspections. In May of that year the Russians agreed to sign a treaty giving independence to Austria, and paved the way for a Geneva summit with the U.S., U.K. and France. At the Geneva Conference Eisenhower presented a proposal called "Open Skies" to facilitate disarmament, which included plans for Russia and the U.S. to provide mutual access to each other's skies for open surveillance of military infrastructure. Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev dismissed the proposal out of hand.
In 1954, Eisenhower articulated the "domino theory in his outlook towards communism in Southeast Asia and also in Central America. He believed that if the communists were allowed to prevail in Vietnam, this would cause a succession of countries to fall to communism, from Laos through Malaysia and Indonesia ultimately to India. Likewise, the fall of Guatemala would end with the fall of neighboring Mexico. That year the loss of North Vietnam to the communists and the rejection of his proposed "European Defence Community (EDC) were serious defeats, but he remained optimistic in his opposition to the spread of communism, saying "Long faces don't win wars". As he had threatened the French in their rejection of EDC, he afterwards moved to restore West Germany, as a full NATO partner.
With Eisenhower's leadership and Dulles' direction, CIA activities increased under the pretense of resisting the spread of communism in poorer countries; the CIA in part deposed the leaders of Iran in "Operation Ajax, of Guatemala through "Operation Pbsuccess, and possibly the newly independent "Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville). In 1954 Eisenhower wanted to increase surveillance inside the Soviet Union. With Dulles' recommendation, he authorized the deployment of thirty "Lockheed U-2's at a cost of $35 million. The Eisenhower administration also planned the "Bay of Pigs Invasion to overthrow "Fidel Castro in "Cuba, which "John F. Kennedy was left to carry out."
Eisenhower and the CIA had known since at least January 1957, nine months before Sputnik, that Russia had the capability to launch a small payload into orbit and was likely to do so within a year. He may also privately have welcomed the Russian satellite for its legal implications: By launching a satellite, Russia had in effect acknowledged that space was open to anyone who could access it, without needing permission from other nations.
On the whole, Eisenhower's support of the nation's fledgling space program was officially modest until the Soviet launch of "Sputnik in 1957, gaining the Cold War enemy enormous prestige around the world. He then launched a national campaign that funded not just space exploration but a major strengthening of science and higher education. The Eisenhower administration determined to adopt a non-aggressive policy that would allow "space-crafts of any state to overfly all states, a region free of military posturing and launch Earth satellites to explore space. His "Open Skies Policy attempted to legitimize illegal "Lockheed U-2 flyovers and "Project Genetrix while paving the way for spy satellite technology to orbit over sovereign territory, however "Nikolai Bulganin and "Nikita Khrushchev declined Eisenhower's proposal at the Geneva conference in July 1955. In response to Sputnik being launched in October 1957, Eisenhower created "NASA as a civilian space agency in October 1958, signed a landmark science education law, and improved relations with American scientists.
Fear spread through the United States that the Soviet Union would invade and spread "communism, so Eisenhower wanted to not only create a surveillance satellite to detect any threats but ballistic missiles that would protect the United States. In strategic terms, it was Eisenhower who devised the American basic strategy of nuclear deterrence based upon the "triad of B-52 bombers, land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), and Polaris submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs).
NASA planners projected that human spaceflight would pull the United States ahead in the Space Race as well as accomplishing their long time goal, however, in 1960, an Ad Hoc Panel on Man-in-Space concluded that "man-in-space can not be justified" and was too costly. Eisenhower later resented the space program and its gargantuan price tag—he was quoted as saying, "Anyone who would spend $40 billion in a race to the moon for national prestige is nuts."
Korean War, China, and Taiwan
In late 1952 Eisenhower went to Korea and discovered a military and political stalemate. Once in office, when the Chinese began a buildup in the Kaesong sanctuary, he threatened to use nuclear force if an armistice was not concluded. His earlier military reputation in Europe was effective with the Chinese. The National Security Council, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Strategic Air Command (SAC) devised detailed plans for nuclear war against China. With the death of Stalin in early March 1953, Russian support for a Chinese hard-line weakened and China decided to compromise on the prisoner issue.
In July 1953, an armistice took effect with Korea divided along "approximately the same boundary as in 1950. The armistice and boundary remain in effect today, with American soldiers stationed there to guarantee it. The armistice, concluded despite opposition from Secretary Dulles, South Korean President "Syngman Rhee, and also within Eisenhower's party, has been described by biographer Ambrose as the greatest achievement of the administration. Eisenhower had the insight to realize that unlimited war in the nuclear age was unthinkable, and limited war unwinnable.
A point of emphasis in Ike's campaign had been his endorsement of a policy of liberation from communism as opposed to a policy of containment. This remained his preference despite the armistice with Korea. Throughout his terms Eisenhower took a hard-line attitude toward China, as demanded by conservative Republicans, with the goal of driving a wedge between China and the Soviet Union.
Eisenhower continued Truman's policy of recognizing the "Republic of China (based in "Formosa/"Taiwan) as the legitimate government of China, not the Beijing regime. There were localized flare-ups when the Red Army began shelling the islands of "Quemoy and "Matsu in September 1954. Eisenhower received recommendations embracing every variation of response to the aggression of the Chinese communists. He thought it essential to have every possible option available to him as the crisis unfolded.
The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty with Taiwan was signed in December 1954. He requested and secured from Congress their "Formosa Resolution" in January 1955, which gave Eisenhower unprecedented power in advance to use military force at any level of his choosing in defense of Formosa and the Pescadores. The Resolution bolstered the morale of the Chinese nationalists, and signaled to Beijing that the U.S. was committed to holding the line.
Eisenhower openly threatened the Chinese with use of nuclear weapons, authorizing a series of bomb tests labeled "Operation Teapot. Nevertheless, he left the Chinese communists guessing as to the exact nature of his nuclear response. This allowed Eisenhower to accomplish all of his objectives—the end of this communist encroachment, the retention of the Islands by the Chinese nationalists and continued peace. Defense of Taiwan from an invasion remains a core American policy.
By the end of 1954 Eisenhower's military and foreign policy experts—the NSC, JCS and State Dept.—had unanimously urged him, on no less than five occasions, to launch an atomic attack against China; yet he consistently refused to do so and felt a distinct sense of accomplishment in having sufficiently confronted communism while keeping world peace.
The Middle East and Eisenhower doctrine
Even before he was inaugurated Eisenhower accepted a request from the British government to restore the Shah ("Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) to power. He therefore "authorized the Central Intelligence Agency to overthrow Prime Minister "Mohammad Mosaddegh. This resulted in an increased strategic control over Iranian oil by U.S. and British companies.
In November 1956, Eisenhower forced an end to the combined British, French and Israeli invasion of "Egypt in response to the "Suez Crisis, receiving praise from Egyptian president "Gamal Abdel Nasser. Simultaneously he condemned the brutal Soviet invasion of "Hungary in response to the "Hungarian Revolution of 1956. He publicly disavowed his allies at the United Nations, and used financial and diplomatic pressure to make them withdraw from Egypt. Eisenhower explicitly defended his strong position against Britain and France in his memoirs, which were published in 1965.
After the Suez Crisis the United States became the protector of unstable friendly governments in the Middle East via the ""Eisenhower Doctrine". Designed by Secretary of State Dulles, it held the U.S. would be "prepared to use armed force ... [to counter] aggression from any country controlled by international communism". Further, the United States would provide economic and military aid and, if necessary, use military force to stop the spread of communism in the Middle East.
Eisenhower applied the doctrine in 1957–58 by dispensing economic aid to shore up the Kingdom of "Jordan, and by encouraging "Syria's neighbors to consider military operations against it. More dramatically, in July 1958, he sent 15,000 Marines and soldiers to "Lebanon as part of "Operation Blue Bat, a non-combat peace-keeping mission to stabilize the pro-Western government and to prevent a radical revolution from sweeping over that country.
The mission proved a success and the Marines departed three months later. The deployment came in response to the urgent request of Lebanese president "Camille Chamoun after sectarian violence had erupted in the country. Washington considered the military intervention successful since it brought about regional stability, weakened Soviet influence, and intimidated the Egyptian and Syrian governments, whose anti-West political position had hardened after the Suez Crisis.
Most Arab countries were skeptical about the "Eisenhower doctrine" because they considered "Zionist imperialism" the real danger. However, they did take the opportunity to obtain free money and weapons. Egypt and Syria, supported by the Soviet Union, openly opposed the initiative. However, Egypt received American aid until the "Six Day War in 1967.
As the "Cold War deepened, Dulles sought to isolate the "Soviet Union by building regional alliances of nations against it. Critics sometimes called it ""pacto-mania".
Early in 1953, the French asked Eisenhower for help in "French Indochina against the Communists, supplied from China, who were fighting the "First Indochina War. Eisenhower sent Lt. General "John W. "Iron Mike" O'Daniel to "Vietnam to study and assess the French forces there. Chief of Staff "Matthew Ridgway dissuaded the President from intervening by presenting a comprehensive estimate of the massive military deployment that would be necessary. Eisenhower stated prophetically that "this war would absorb our troops by divisions."
Eisenhower did provide France with bombers and non-combat personnel. After a few months with no success by the French, he added other aircraft to drop "napalm for clearing purposes. Further requests for assistance from the French were agreed to but only on conditions Eisenhower knew were impossible to meet – allied participation and congressional approval. When the French fortress of "Dien Bien Phu fell to the Vietnamese Communists in May 1954, Eisenhower refused to intervene despite urgings from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, the Vice President and the head of NCS.
Eisenhower responded to the French defeat with the formation of the "SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) Alliance with the U.K., France, New Zealand and Australia in defense of Vietnam against communism. At that time the French and Chinese reconvened Geneva peace talks; Eisenhower agreed the U.S. would participate only as an observer. After France and the Communists agreed to a partition of Vietnam, Eisenhower rejected the agreement, offering military and economic aid to southern Vietnam. Ambrose argues that Eisenhower, by not participating in the Geneva agreement, had kept the U.S out of Vietnam; nevertheless, with the formation of SEATO, he had in the end put the U.S. back into the conflict.
In late 1954, "Gen. J. Lawton Collins was made ambassador to "Free Vietnam" (the term "South Vietnam came into use in 1955), effectively elevating the country to sovereign status. Collins' instructions were to support the leader "Ngo Dinh Diem in subverting communism, by helping him to build an army and wage a military campaign. In February 1955, Eisenhower dispatched the first American soldiers to Vietnam as military advisors to Diem's army. After Diem announced the formation of the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, commonly known as South Vietnam) in October, Eisenhower immediately recognized the new state and offered military, economic, and technical assistance.
In the years that followed, Eisenhower increased the number of U.S. military advisors in South Vietnam to 900 men. This was due to "North Vietnam's support of "uprisings" in the south and concern the nation would fall. In May 1957 Diem, then "President of South Vietnam, made a "state visit to the United States for ten days. President Eisenhower pledged his continued support, and a parade was held in Diem's honor in New York City. Although Diem was publicly praised, in private Secretary of State John Foster Dulles conceded that Diem had been selected because there were no better alternatives.
After the election of November 1960, Eisenhower in briefing with "John F. Kennedy pointed out the communist threat in Southeast Asia as requiring prioritization in the next administration. Eisenhower told Kennedy he considered "Laos "the cork in the bottle" with regard to the regional threat.
1960 U-2 incident
On May 1, 1960, a U.S. one-man "U-2 spy plane was reportedly shot down at high altitude over "Soviet Union airspace. The flight was made to gain photo intelligence before the scheduled opening of an East-West summit conference, which had been scheduled in Paris, 15 days later. Captain "Francis Gary Powers had bailed out of his aircraft and was captured after parachuting down onto Russian soil. Four days after Powers disappeared, the Eisenhower Administration had NASA issue a very detailed press release noting that an aircraft had "gone missing" north of Turkey. It speculated that the pilot might have fallen unconscious while the autopilot was still engaged, and falsely claimed that "the pilot reported over the emergency frequency that he was experiencing oxygen difficulties."
Soviet Premier "Nikita Khrushchev announced that a "spy-plane" had been shot down but intentionally made no reference to the pilot. As a result, the Eisenhower Administration, thinking the pilot had died in the crash, authorized the release of a cover story claiming that the plane was a "weather research aircraft" which had unintentionally strayed into Soviet airspace after the pilot had radioed "difficulties with his oxygen equipment" while flying over Turkey. The Soviets put Captain Powers on trial and displayed parts of the U-2, which had been recovered almost fully intact.
The 1960 Four Power Paris Summit with Eisenhower, Nikita Khrushchev, "Harold Macmillan and "Charles de Gaulle collapsed because of the incident. Eisenhower refused to accede to Khrushchev's demands that he apologize. Therefore, Khrushchev would not take part in the summit. Up until this event, Eisenhower felt he had been making progress towards better relations with the Soviet Union. Nuclear arms reduction and Berlin were to have been discussed at the summit. Eisenhower stated it had all been ruined because of that "stupid U-2 business".
The affair was an embarrassment for United States prestige. Further, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee held a lengthy inquiry into the U-2 incident. In Russia, Captain Powers made a forced confession and apology. On August 19, 1960, Powers was convicted of espionage and sentenced to imprisonment. On February 10, 1962, Powers was exchanged for "Rudolf Abel in Berlin and returned to the U.S.
While President Truman had begun the process of "desegregating the "Armed Forces in 1948, actual implementation had been slow. Eisenhower made clear his stance in his first "State of the Union address in February 1953, saying "I propose to use whatever authority exists in the office of the President to end segregation in the District of Columbia, including the Federal Government, and any segregation in the Armed Forces". When he encountered opposition from the services, he used government control of military spending to force the change through, stating "Wherever Federal Funds are expended ..., I do not see how any American can justify ... a discrimination in the expenditure of those funds".
When "Robert B. Anderson, Eisenhower's first "Secretary of the Navy, argued that the "U.S. Navy must recognize the "customs and usages prevailing in certain geographic areas of our country which the Navy had no part in creating," Eisenhower overruled him: "We have not taken and we shall not take a single backward step. There must be no second class citizens in this country."
The administration declared "racial discrimination a "national security issue, as Communists around the world used the racial discrimination and history of violence in the U.S. as a point of propaganda attack.
Eisenhower told "District of Columbia officials to make Washington a model for the rest of the country in integrating black and white public school children. He proposed to Congress the "Civil Rights Act of 1957 and "of 1960 and signed those acts into law. The 1957 act for the first time established a permanent civil rights office inside the "Justice Department and a "Civil Rights Commission to hear testimony about abuses of voting rights. Although both acts were much weaker than subsequent civil rights legislation, they constituted the first significant civil rights acts "since 1875.
In 1957, the state of "Arkansas refused to honor a federal court order to integrate their public school system stemming from the "Brown decision. Eisenhower demanded that Arkansas governor "Orval Faubus obey the court order. When Faubus balked, the president placed the "Arkansas National Guard under federal control and sent in the "101st Airborne Division. They escorted and protected "nine black students' entry to "Little Rock Central High School, an all-white public school, for the first time since the "Reconstruction Era. "Martin Luther King Jr. wrote to Eisenhower to thank him for his actions, writing "The overwhelming majority of southerners, Negro and white, stand firmly behind your resolute action to restore law and order in Little Rock".
Relations with Congress
Eisenhower had a Republican Congress for only his first two years in office; in the Senate, the Republican majority was by a one-vote margin. Senator "Robert A. Taft assisted the President greatly in working with the Old Guard, and was sorely missed when his death (in July 1953) left Eisenhower with his successor "William Knowland, whom Eisenhower disliked.
This prevented Eisenhower from openly condemning Joseph McCarthy's highly criticized methods against communism. To facilitate relations with Congress, Eisenhower decided to ignore McCarthy's controversies and thereby deprive them of more energy from involvement of the White House. This position drew criticism from a number of corners. In late 1953 McCarthy declared on national television that the employment of communists within the government was a menace and would be a pivotal issue in the "1954 Senate elections. Eisenhower was urged to respond directly and specify the various measures he had taken to purge the government of communists. Nevertheless, he refused.
Among Eisenhower's objectives in not directly confronting McCarthy was to prevent McCarthy from dragging the "Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) into McCarthy's witch hunt for communists, which would interfere with, and perhaps delay, the AEC's important work on "H-bombs. The administration had discovered through its own investigations that one of the leading scientists on the AEC, "J. Robert Oppenheimer, had urged that the H-bomb work be delayed. Eisenhower removed him from the agency and revoked his security clearance, though he knew this would create fertile ground for McCarthy.
In May 1955, McCarthy threatened to issue subpoenas to White House personnel. Eisenhower was furious, and issued an order as follows: "It is essential to efficient and effective administration that employees of the Executive Branch be in a position to be completely candid in advising with each other on official matters ... it is not in the public interest that any of their conversations or communications, or any documents or reproductions, concerning such advice be disclosed." This was an unprecedented step by Eisenhower to protect communication beyond the confines of a cabinet meeting, and soon became a tradition known as "executive privilege. Ike's denial of McCarthy's access to his staff reduced McCarthy's hearings to rants about trivial matters, and contributed to his ultimate downfall.
In early 1954, the Old Guard put forward a constitutional amendment, called the "Bricker Amendment, which would curtail international agreements by the Chief Executive, such as the "Yalta Agreements. Eisenhower opposed the measure. The Old Guard agreed with Eisenhower on the development and ownership of nuclear reactors by private enterprises, which the Democrats opposed. The President succeeded in getting legislation creating a system of licensure for nuclear plants by the AEC.
The Democrats gained a majority in both houses in the 1954 election. Eisenhower had to work with the Democratic Majority Leader "Lyndon B. Johnson (later U.S. president) in the Senate and Speaker "Sam Rayburn in the House, both from Texas. "Joe Martin, the Republican Speaker from 1947 to 1949 and again from 1953 to 1955, wrote that Eisenhower "never surrounded himself with assistants who could solve political problems with professional skill. There were exceptions, "Leonard W. Hall, for example, who as chairman of the "Republican National Committee tried to open the administration's eyes to the political facts of life, with occasional success. However, these exceptions were not enough to right the balance."
Speaker Martin concluded that Eisenhower worked too much through subordinates in dealing with Congress, with results, "often the reverse of what he has desired" because Members of Congress, "resent having some young fellow who was picked up by the White House without ever having been elected to office himself coming around and telling them 'The Chief wants this'. The administration never made use of many Republicans of consequence whose services in one form or another would have been available for the asking."
Eisenhower appointed the following "Justices to the "Supreme Court of the United States:
- "Earl Warren, 1953 (Chief Justice)
- "John Marshall Harlan II, 1954
- "William J. Brennan, 1956
- "Charles Evans Whittaker, 1957
- "Potter Stewart, 1958
Whittaker was unsuited for the role and soon retired. Stewart and Harlan were conservative Republicans, while Brennan was a Democrat who became a leading voice for liberalism. In selecting a Chief Justice, Eisenhower looked for an experienced jurist who could appeal to liberals in the party as well as law-and-order conservatives, noting privately that Warren "represents the kind of political, economic, and social thinking that I believe we need on the Supreme Court ... He has a national name for integrity, uprightness, and courage that, again, I believe we need on the Court". In the next few years Warren led the Court in a series of liberal decisions that revolutionized the role of the Court.
In addition to his five Supreme Court appointments, Eisenhower appointed 45 judges to the "United States Courts of Appeals, and 129 judges to the "United States district courts.
States admitted to the Union
Eisenhower began smoking cigarettes at West Point, often "two or three packs a day. Eisenhower stated that he "gave [himself] an order" to stop "cold turkey in March 1949 while at Columbia. He was probably the first president to release information about his health and medical records while in office. On September 24, 1955, while vacationing in "Colorado, he had a serious heart attack that required six weeks' hospitalization, during which time Nixon, Dulles, and "Sherman Adams assumed administrative duties and provided communication with the President. He was treated by Dr. "Paul Dudley White, a cardiologist with a national reputation, who regularly informed the press of the President's progress. Instead of eliminating him as a candidate for a second term as President, his physician recommended a second term as essential to his recovery.
As a consequence of his heart attack, Eisenhower developed a left ventricular "aneurysm, which was in turn the cause of a mild stroke on November 25, 1957. This incident occurred during a cabinet meeting when Eisenhower suddenly found himself unable to speak or move his right hand. The stroke had caused an "aphasia. The president also suffered from "Crohn's disease, chronic inflammatory condition of the intestine, which necessitated surgery for a bowel obstruction on June 9, 1956. To treat the intestinal block, surgeons bypassed about ten inches of his "small intestine. His scheduled meeting with "Indian Prime Minister "Jawaharlal Nehru was postponed so he could recover from surgery at his farm in "Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He was still recovering from this operation during the "Suez Crisis. Eisenhower's health issues forced him to give up smoking and make some changes to his dietary habits, but he still indulged in alcohol. During a visit to England he complained of dizziness and had to have his blood pressure checked on August 29, 1959; however, before dinner at Chequers on the next day his doctor General Howard Snyder recalled Eisenhower "drank several gin-and-tonics, and one or two gins on the rocks ... three or four wines with the dinner".
The last three years of Eisenhower's second term in office were ones of relatively good health. Eventually after leaving the White House, he suffered several additional and ultimately crippling heart attacks. A severe heart attack in August 1965 largely ended his participation in public affairs. In August 1966 he began to show symptoms of "cholecystitis, for which he underwent surgery on December 12, 1966, when his gallbladder was removed, containing 16 gallstones. After Eisenhower's death in 1969 (see below), an autopsy unexpectedly revealed an adrenal "pheochromocytoma, a benign adrenaline-secreting tumor that may have made the President more vulnerable to heart disease. Eisenhower suffered seven heart attacks in total from 1955 until his death.
End of presidency
The "22nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1951, and it set term limits to the presidency of two terms. It stipulated that "Harry S. Truman, the incumbent at the time, would not be affected by the amendment. After he had been elected to his second presidential term in 1956, Eisenhower became the first U.S. president constitutionally prevented from running for re-election to the office, having served the maximum two terms.
Eisenhower was also the first outgoing President to come under the protection of the "Former Presidents Act; two living former Presidents, "Herbert Hoover and "Harry S. Truman, left office before the Act was passed. Under the act, Eisenhower was entitled to receive a lifetime pension, state-provided staff and a "Secret Service detail.
In the 1960 election to choose his successor, Eisenhower endorsed his own Vice President, Republican "Richard Nixon, against Democrat "John F. Kennedy. He told friends, "I will do almost anything to avoid turning my chair and country over to Kennedy." He actively campaigned for Nixon in the final days, although he may have done Nixon some harm. When asked by reporters at the end of a televised press conference to list one of Nixon's policy ideas he had adopted, Eisenhower joked, "If you give me a week, I might think of one. I don't remember." Kennedy's campaign used the quote in one of its campaign commercials. Nixon narrowly lost to Kennedy. Eisenhower, who was the oldest president in history at that time (then 70), was succeeded by the youngest elected president, as Kennedy was 43.
On January 17, 1961, Eisenhower gave his final televised Address to the Nation from the "Oval Office. In his "farewell speech, Eisenhower raised the issue of the Cold War and role of the U.S. armed forces. He described the Cold War: "We face a hostile ideology global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose and insidious in method ..." and warned about what he saw as unjustified government spending proposals and continued with a warning that "we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the "military–industrial complex."
He elaborated, "we recognize the imperative need for this development ... the potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist ... Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together."
Because of legal issues related to holding a military rank while in a civilian office, Eisenhower had resigned his permanent commission as "General of the Army before entering the office of President of the United States. Upon completion of his Presidential term, his commission was reactivated by Congress and Eisenhower again was commissioned a five-star general in the United States Army.
Retirement, death and funeral
Eisenhower retired to the place where he and Mamie had spent much of their post-war time, a working farm adjacent to the battlefield at "Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 70 miles from his ancestral home in Elizabethville, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. They also maintained a retirement home in "Palm Desert, California. In 1967 the Eisenhowers donated the Gettysburg farm to the "National Park Service.
In retirement, Eisenhower did not completely retreat from political life. He flew to San Antonio, where he had been stationed years earlier, to support "John W. Goode, the unsuccessful Republican candidate against the Democrat "Henry B. Gonzalez for "Texas' 20th congressional district seat. He addressed the "1964 Republican National Convention, in San Francisco, and appeared with party nominee "Barry Goldwater in a campaign commercial from his Gettysburg retreat. That endorsement came somewhat reluctantly because Goldwater had in the late 1950s criticized Eisenhower's administration as "a dime-store New Deal".
On the morning of March 28, 1969, at the age of 78, Eisenhower died in Washington, D.C., of "congestive heart failure at "Walter Reed Army Medical Center. The following day his body was moved to the "Washington National Cathedral's Bethlehem Chapel, where he lay in repose for 28 hours. On March 30, his body was brought by "caisson to the "United States Capitol, where he lay in state in the "Capitol Rotunda. On March 31, Eisenhower's body was returned to the "National Cathedral, where he was given an "Episcopal Church funeral service.
That evening, Eisenhower's body was placed onto a train en route to "Abilene, Kansas, the last time a "funeral train has been used as part of funeral proceedings of an American president.["citation needed] His body arrived on April 2, and was interred that day in a small chapel on the grounds of the "Eisenhower Presidential Library. The president's body was buried as a General of the Army. The family used an $80 standard soldier's casket, and dressed his body in his famous "short green jacket. The medals worn were: the Army Distinguished Service Medal with three oak leaf clusters, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, and the Legion of Merit. Eisenhower is buried alongside his son Doud, who died at age 3 in 1921. His wife Mamie was buried next to him after her death in 1979.
President Richard Nixon eulogized Eisenhower, saying:
Some men are considered great because they lead great armies or they lead powerful nations. For eight years now, Dwight Eisenhower has neither commanded an army nor led a nation; and yet he remained through his final days the world's most admired and respected man, truly the first citizen of the world.
Legacy and memory
In the immediate years after Eisenhower left office, his reputation declined. He was widely seen by critics as an inactive, uninspiring, golf-playing president compared to his vigorous young successor, "John F. Kennedy, who was 26 years his junior. Despite his unprecedented use of Army troops to enforce a federal desegregation order at "Central High School in Little Rock, Eisenhower was criticized for his reluctance to support the "civil rights movement to the degree that activists wanted. Eisenhower also attracted criticism for his handling of the "1960 U-2 incident and the associated international embarrassment, for the Soviet Union's perceived leadership in the "nuclear arms race and the "Space Race, and for his failure to publicly oppose "McCarthyism.
In particular, Eisenhower was criticized for failing to defend "George Marshall from attacks by "Joseph McCarthy, though he privately deplored McCarthy's tactics and claims.
Historian "John Lewis Gaddis has summarized the turnaround in evaluations by historians:
Historians long ago abandoned the view that Eisenhower's was a failed presidency. He did, after all, end the Korean War without getting into any others. He stabilized, and did not escalate, the Soviet-American rivalry. He strengthened European alliances while withdrawing support from European colonialism. He rescued the Republican Party from isolationism and McCarthyism. He maintained prosperity, balanced the budget, promoted technological innovation, facilitated (if reluctantly) the civil rights movement and warned, in the most memorable farewell address since Washington's, of a "military–industrial complex" that could endanger the nation's liberties. Not until Reagan would another president leave office with so strong a sense of having accomplished what he set out to do.
Although conservatism in politics was strong during the 1950s and Eisenhower generally espoused conservative sentiments, his administration concerned itself mostly with foreign affairs (an area in which the career-military president had more knowledge) and pursued a hands-off domestic policy. Eisenhower looked to moderation and cooperation as a means of governance.
Although he sought to slow or contain the "New Deal and other federal programs, he did not attempt to repeal them outright, and in doing so was popular among the liberal wing of the Republican Party. Conservative critics of his administration found that he did not do enough to advance the goals of the right; according to "Hans Morgenthau, "Eisenhower's victories were but accidents without consequence in the history of the Republican party."
Since the 19th century, many if not all presidents were assisted by a central figure or "gatekeeper", sometimes described as the president's private secretary, sometimes with no official title at all. Eisenhower formalized this role, introducing the office of "White House Chief of Staff – an idea he borrowed from the United States Army. Every president after "Lyndon Johnson has also appointed staff to this position. Initially, "Gerald Ford and "Jimmy Carter tried to operate without a chief of staff, but each eventually appointed one.
As president, Eisenhower also initiated the ""up or out" policy that still prevails in the U.S. military, whereby officers who are passed over for promotion twice are usually honorably but quickly discharged to make way for younger, more able officers. (As an army officer, Eisenhower had been stuck at the rank of major for 16 years between the two world wars.)
On December 20, 1944, Eisenhower was appointed to the rank of General of the Army, placing him in the company of "George Marshall, "Henry "Hap" Arnold, and "Douglas MacArthur, the only four men to achieve the rank in World War Two, and along with "Omar Bradley, one of only five men to achieve the rank since the August 5, 1888 death of "Philip Sheridan, and the only five men to hold the rank as a "Five-star general. The rank was created by an "Act of Congress on a temporary basis when "Public Law 78-482 was passed on 14 December 1944, as a temporary rank, subject to reversion to permanent rank six months after the end of the war. The temporary rank was then declared permanent 23 March 1946 by Public Law 333 of the "79th Congress, which also awarded full pay and allowances in the grade to those on the retired list. It was created to give the most senior American commanders parity of rank with their British counterparts holding the ranks of "field marshal and "admiral of the fleet. This second General of the Army rank is not the same as the post-Civil War era version because of its purpose and five stars.
Eisenhower founded "People to People International in 1956, based on his belief that citizen interaction would promote cultural interaction and world peace. The program includes a "student ambassador component, which sends American youth on educational trips to other countries.
During his second term as president, Eisenhower distinctively preserved his presidential gratitude by awarding individuals a special memento. This memento was a series of specially designed U.S. Mint presidential appreciation medals. Eisenhower presented the medal as an expression of his appreciation and the medal is a keepsake reminder for the recipient.
The development of the appreciation medals was initiated by the White House and executed by the Bureau of the Mint through the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia. The medals were struck from September 1958 through October 1960. A total of twenty designs are cataloged with a total mintage of 9,858. Each of the designs incorporates the text "with appreciation" or "with personal and official gratitude" accompanied with Eisenhower's initials "D.D.E." or facsimile signature. The design also incorporates location, date, and/or significant event. Prior to the end of his second term as President, 1,451 medals were turned in to the Bureau of the Mint and destroyed. The Eisenhower appreciation medals are part of the Presidential Medal of Appreciation Award Medal Series.
Tributes and memorials
Eisenhower is remembered for his role in World War II, the creation of the "Interstate Highway System and ending the "Korean War. He is less remembered for helping negotiate the withdrawal of all Soviet (and Allied) troops from Austria (1955) in exchange for that country's commitment to Swiss-style neutrality, which may be considered the first "thaw" in the "Cold War.["citation needed]
The Interstate Highway System is officially known as the 'Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways' in his honor. It was inspired in part by Eisenhower's own Army experiences in World War II, where he recognized the advantages of the "autobahn system in Germany. Commemorative signs reading "Eisenhower Interstate System" and bearing Eisenhower's permanent "5-star rank insignia were introduced in 1993 and now are displayed throughout the Interstate System. Several highways are also named for him, including the "Eisenhower Expressway (Interstate 290) near "Chicago. the "Eisenhower Tunnel on "Interstate 70 west of "Denver, and "Interstate 80 in California.
The British A4 class steam locomotive No. 4496 (renumbered 60008) Golden Shuttle was renamed "Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1946. It is preserved at the "National Railroad Museum in "Green Bay, Wisconsin.
"USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, the second "Nimitz-class "supercarrier, was named in his honor.
"Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy is a senior war college of the Department of Defense's "National Defense University in Washington, DC. Eisenhower graduated from this school when it was previously known as the "Army Industrial College. The school's building on "Fort Lesley J. McNair, when it was known as the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, was dedicated as Eisenhower Hall in 1960.
In 1965, Eisenhower received an "honorary doctorate from "Grinnell College in Grinnell, Iowa.
"Eisenhower College was a small, liberal arts college chartered in "Seneca Falls, New York, in 1965, with classes beginning in 1968. Financial problems forced the school to fall under the management of the "Rochester Institute of Technology in 1979. Its last class graduated in 1983.
Eisenhower Hall, the cadet activities building at West Point, was completed in 1974. In 1983, the "Eisenhower Monument was unveiled at West Point.
Eisenhower was honored on a "US one dollar coin, minted from 1971 to 1978. His centenary was honored on a "commemorative dollar coin issued in 1990.
In 1969, four major record companies – "ABC Records, "MGM Records, "Buddha Records and "Caedmon Audio – released tribute albums in Eisenhower's honor.
The "Eisenhower Medical Center in "Rancho Mirage, California was named after him in 1971.
The NATO Defense College in Rome has a statue of General Eisenhower as the founder of the College.
The "Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, located at "Fort Gordon near "Augusta, Georgia, was named in his honor.
In 1983, "The Eisenhower Institute was founded in Washington, D.C., as a policy institute to advance Eisenhower's intellectual and leadership legacies.
In 1989, U.S. Ambassador "Charles Price and "British Prime Minister "Margaret Thatcher dedicated a bronze statue of Eisenhower in "Grosvenor Square, London. The statue is located in front of the current "U.S. Embassy in London and across from the former command center for the Allied Expeditionary Force during World War II, offices Eisenhower occupied during the war.
In 1999, the "United States Congress created the "Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, to create an enduring "national memorial in Washington, D.C.. In 2009, the commission chose the architect "Frank Gehry to design the memorial. The memorial will stand near the "National Mall on Maryland Avenue, SW across the street from the "National Air and Space Museum.
On May 7, 2002, the "Old Executive Office Building was officially renamed the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. This building is part of the "White House Complex, and is west of the "West Wing. It currently houses a number of executive offices, including ones for the Vice President and his or her spouse.
A county park in "East Meadow, New York ("Long Island) is named in his honor. "Eisenhower State Park on "Lake Texoma near his birthplace of Denison is named in his honor.
His birthplace is currently operated by the State of Texas as the "Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site. Since 1980, the National Park Service has allowed visitors to the Eisenhower Farm adjacent to the "Gettysburg Battlefield.
Many public "high schools and "middle schools in the U.S. are named after him.
"Mount Eisenhower was named in the "Presidential Range of the "White Mountains in "New Hampshire.["citation needed]
"Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport in "Wichita, Kansas. The FAA changed the name in 2014 so it would be included in new 2015 maps, and the official dedication occurred in April 2015.
The Eisenhower Golf Club at the "United States Air Force Academy, a 36-hole facility featuring the Blue and Silver courses, which is ranked No. 1 among "DoD courses, is named in his honor.["citation needed]
Eisenhower Park on Washington Square in "Newport, Rhode Island, dedicated by President Eisenhower in 1960.
The 18th hole at "Cherry Hills Country Club, near "Denver, is named in his honor. Eisenhower was a longtime member of the club, which operated one of his favorite courses.
A "loblolly pine, known as the "Eisenhower Pine", was located on Augusta's 17th hole, approximately 210 yards (192 m) from "the Masters tee. Eisenhower, an "Augusta National member, hit the tree so many times that, at a 1956 club meeting, he proposed that it be cut down. Not wanting to offend the President, the club's chairman, "Clifford Roberts, immediately adjourned the meeting rather than reject the request. The tree was removed in 2014 after an ice storm caused it significant damage.
During a visit to Augusta National, Eisenhower returned from a walk through the woods on the eastern part of the grounds, and informed "Clifford Roberts that he had found a perfect place to build a dam if the club would like a fish pond. Ike's Pond was built and named, and the dam is located just where Eisenhower said it should be.["citation needed]
In 2015, he was honored with a Golden Palm Star on the "Walk of Stars in "Palm Springs, California.
Awards and decorations
- An apartment at the top of the "Culzean Castle in Scotland was given to General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower in recognition of his role as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during the Second World War. The General first visited Culzean Castle in 1946 and stayed there four times, including once while President of the United States. An Eisenhower exhibition occupies one of the rooms, with mementos of his lifetime.
- In June 1945, Eisenhower received an honorary "Freedom of the City of London.
- In January 1946, "The Metropolitan Museum of Art named Eisenhower an Honorary Fellow for Life in recognition of his efforts to recover art looted by the Nazis during World War II.
- In 1966, Eisenhower was the second person awarded "Civitan International's World Citizenship Award.
- In December 1999, he was listed on "Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th century.
- In 2009, he was named to the "World Golf Hall of Fame in the Lifetime Achievement category for his contributions to the sport.
- Eisenhower's name was given to a variety of streets, avenues, etc., in cities around the world, including Paris, France.
|No insignia||"Cadet, "United States Military Academy: June 14, 1911|
|No pin insignia in 1915||"Second Lieutenant, "Regular Army: June 12, 1915|
|""||"First Lieutenant, Regular Army: July 1, 1916|
|""||"Captain, Regular Army: May 15, 1917|
|""||"Major, "National Army: June 17, 1918|
|""||"Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: October 20, 1918|
|""||"Captain, Regular Army: June 30, 1920
(Reverted to permanent rank.)
|""||"Major, Regular Army: July 2, 1920|
|""||"Captain, Regular Army: November 4, 1922
(Discharged as major and appointed as captain due to reduction of Army.)
|""||"Major, Regular Army: August 26, 1924|
|""||"Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: July 1, 1936|
|""||"Colonel, "Army of the United States: March 6, 1941|
|""||"Brigadier General, Army of the United States: September 29, 1941|
|""||"Major General, Army of the United States: March 27, 1942|
|""||"Lieutenant General, Army of the United States: July 7, 1942|
|""||"General, Army of the United States: February 11, 1943|
|""||"Brigadier General, Regular Army: August 30, 1943|
|""||"Major General, Regular Army: August 30, 1943|
|""||"General of the Army, Army of the United States: December 20, 1944|
|""||"General of the Army, Regular Army: April 11, 1946|
Note – Eisenhower relinquished his active duty status when he became president on January 20, 1953. He was returned to active duty when he left office eight years later.
- ""And I don't care what it is", phrase by Eisenhower, 1952, on religion
- "Atoms for Peace, a speech to the UN General Assembly in December 1953
- "Eisenhower baseball controversy
- "Eisenhower Dollar
- "Eisenhower method for time management
- "Eisenhower National Historic Site
- "Eisenhower on U.S. Postage stamps
- "Eisenhower Presidential Center
- "People to People Student Ambassador Program
- "Kay Summersby
- "Ike: Countdown to D-Day – a 2004 American television film about the decisions Eisenhower made as Supreme Commander that led to the successful D-Day invasion of World War II
- "Pressure – a 2014 British play on Eisenhower's part in the meteorological decisions leading up to D-Day; he was played in the premiere production by "Malcolm Sinclair
- "History of the United States (1945–1964)
- "List of Presidents of the United States, sortable by previous experience
- "Historical rankings of United States Presidents
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- Kruse, Kevin M. One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America. p. 57.
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- Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1967). At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends, Garden City, New York, Doubleday & Company, Inc.
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- "Getting on the Right TRRACC" (PDF). Lesson Plans: The Molding of a Leader. Eisenhower National Historic Site. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
...Ike spent his weekends at Davis's camp on the Smoky Hill River.
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- Ambrose 1983, p. 512
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- Ambrose 1983, p. 530
- Gibbs, Nancy (November 10, 2008). "When New President Meets Old, It's Not Always Pretty". "Time.
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- Ambrose (1983). Eisenhower, pp. 556–67.
- Ambrose 1983, p. 571
- "Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 7. "ISBN "0-465-04195-7.
- Ambrose 1984, p. 14
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- Ambrose 1984, pp. 20–5
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- David Eisenhower; Julie Nixon Eisenhower (11 October 2011). Going Home To Glory: A Memoir of Life with Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961–1969. Simon and Schuster. p. 126. "ISBN "978-1-4391-9091-3.
- Miller, James A. (November 21, 2007), An inside look at Eisenhower's civil rights record, Boston Globe
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- Greenberg, David (January 14, 2011) "Beware the military–industrial Complex", "Slate
- John M. Logsdon, "Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program" (NASA; 1995)
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- W.D. Kay, Defining NASA The Historical Debate Over the Agency's Mission, 2005.
- Parmet, Herbert S. Eisenhower and the American Crusades (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1972
- Yankek Mieczkowski, Eisenhower's Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige (Cornell University Press; 2013)
- Peter J. Roman, Eisenhower and the Missile Gap (1996)
- The Presidents's Science Advisory Committee, "Report od the Ad Hoc Panel on Man-in-Space" December 16, 1960. NASA Historical Collection
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- Ambrose 1984, p. 51
- Jones, Matthew (2008). "Targeting China: U.S. Nuclear Planning and 'Massive Retaliation' in East Asia, 1953–1955". Journal of Cold War Studies. 10 (4): 37–65. "doi:10.1162/jcws.2008.10.4.37.
- Ambrose (1984), p. 106–7
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- Qiang Zhai (2000). "Crisis and Confrontations: Chinese-American Relations during the Eisenhower Administration". Journal of American-East Asian Relations. 9 (3/4): 221–49. "doi:10.1163/187656100793645921.
- Ambrose 1984, p. 231
- Ambrose 1984, pp. 245, 246
- Accinelli, Robert (1990). "Eisenhower, Congress, and the 1954–55 offshore island crisis". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 20 (2): 329–48. "doi:10.2307/27550618 (inactive 2017-01-31). "JSTOR 27550618.
- Ambrose 1984, p. 229
- Eisenhower gave verbal approval to Secretary of State "John Foster Dulles and to Director of Central Intelligence "Allen Dulles to proceed with the coup; Ambrose, Eisenhower, Vol. 2: The President p. 111; Ambrose (1990), Eisenhower: Soldier and President, New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 333
- Ambrose 1984, p. 129
- Kingseed, Cole (1995), Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis of 1956, ch 6
- Dwight D. Eisenhower, Waging Peace: 1956–1961 (1965) p 99
- Isaac Alteras, Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.–Israeli Relations, 1953–1960 (1993), p. 296
- Little, Douglas (1996). "His finest hour? Eisenhower, Lebanon, and the 1958 Middle East Crisis". Diplomatic History. 20 (1): 27–54. "doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1996.tb00251.x.
- Hahn, Peter L. (2006). "Securing the Middle East: The Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 36 (1): 38–47. "doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00285.x.
- Navari, Cornelia (2000). Internationalism and the State in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. p. 316. "ISBN "978-0-415-09747-5.
- Dunnigan, James and "Nofi, Albert (1999), Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War. St. Martins Press, p. 85.
- Ambrose 1984, p. 175
- Ambrose 1984, p. 175–7
- Ambrose 1984, p. 185
- Dunnigan, James and Nofi, Albert (1999), Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War, p. 257
- Ambrose 1984, pp. 204–9
- Ambrose 1984, p. 215
- David L. Anderson (1991). Trapped by Success: The Eisenhower Administration and Vietnam, 1953–1961. Columbia U.P. "ISBN "978-0-231-51533-7.
- "Vietnam War". Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Archived from the original on August 3, 2016.
- Karnow, Stanley. (1991), Vietnam, A History, p. 230
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- Fontaine, André; translator R. Bruce (1968). History of the Cold War: From the Korean War to the present. History of the Cold War. 2. Pantheon Books. p. 338.
- Bogle, Lori Lynn, ed. (2001), The Cold War, Routledge, p. 104. 978-0815337218
- State of the Union Address, February 2, 1953, Public Papers, 1953 pp. 30–1.
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- Byrnes to DDE, August 27, 1953, Eisenhower Library"
- Dudziak, Mary L. (2002), Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy
- Eisenhower 1963, p. 230
- Parmet 1972, pp. 438–9
- Mayer, Michael S. (1989). "The Eisenhower Administration and the Civil Rights Act of 1957". Congress & the Presidency. 16 (2): 137–54. "doi:10.1080/07343468909507929.
- Nichol, David (2007). A Matter of Justice: Eisenhower and the Beginning of the Civil Rights Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster. "ISBN "978-1-4165-4150-9.
- to DDE, September 25, 1957, Eisenhower Library
- Ambrose 1984, p. 118
- Ambrose 1984, pp. 56–62
- Ambrose 1984, p. 140
- Ambrose 1984, p. 167
- Ambrose 1984, pp. 188–9
- Ambrose 1984, p. 154
- Ambrose 1984, p. 157
- Ambrose 1984, p. 219
- Joseph W. Martin as told to Donavan, Robert J. (1960), My First Fifty Years in Politics, New York: McGraw Hill, p. 227
- Newton, Eisenhower (2011) pp. 356–7
- "Personal and confidential To Milton Stover Eisenhower, 9 October 1953. In The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, ed. L. Galambos and D. van Ee, (1996) doc. 460". Eisenhowermemorial.org. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Alex Forman (March 28, 1969). "Tall, Slim & Erect: Dwight Eisenhower, 34th". Tallslimerect.com. Archived from the original on January 25, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
- Ferrell, R. H. (1992), Ill-Advised: Presidential Health & Public Trust, University of Missouri Press, Columbia, MO. pp. 53–150
- Ambrose 1984, p. 272
- Ambrose 1984, p. 281
- Johnston, Richard J.H. (June 13, 1956). "Butler Criticizes Illness Reports: Says News Has Been Handled in Terms of Propaganda—Hagerty Denies It". The New York Times. p. 32A.
Paul M. Butler, the Democratic National Chairman, ... declared that the physicians who operated on and attended the President in his most recent illness 'have done a terrific job of trying to convince the American people that a man who has had a heart attack and then was afflicted with Crohn's disease is a better man physically.' He added: 'Whether the American people will buy that, I don't know.'
- Clark, Robert E (June 9, 1956). "President's Heart Reported Sound; Surgery Is Indicated: Inflamed, Obstructed, Intestine Is Blamed". Atlanta Daily World. p. 1.
- Leviero, Anthony (June 9, 1956). "President Undergoes Surgery on Intestine Block at 2:59 A.M.: Doctors Pronounce It Success : Condition Is Good: Operation Lasts Hour and 53 Minutes–13 Attend Him". The New York Times. p. 1.
President Eisenhower was operated on at 2:59 A.M. today for relief of an intestinal obstruction. At 4:55 A.M., the operation was pronounced a success by the surgeons. ... The President's condition was diagnosed as ileitis. This is an inflamation of the ileum—the lowest portion of the small intestine, where it joins the large intestine. ... The President first felt ill shortly after midnight yesterday. He had attended a dinner of the White House News Photographers Association Thursday night and had returned to the White House at 11. Mrs. Eisenhower called Maj. Gen. Howard McC. Snyder, the President's personal physician, at 12:45 A.M. yesterday, telling him the President had some discomfort in his stomach. He recommended a slight dose of milk of magnesia. At 1:20 Mrs. Eisenhower called again, saying the President was still complaining of not feeling well. This time she asked Dr. Snyder to come to the White House from his home about a mile away on Connecticut Avenue. He arrived at 2 A.M. and has not left the President's side since.
- Knighton, Jr., William (June 10, 1956). "Eisenhower Out Of Danger; Will Be Able To Resume Duties And Seek Reelection: Doctors See Prospect of Full Return to Job in Four to Six Weeks: Operation Performed to Prevent Gangrene of Bowel: Signing of Official Papers Viewed as Likely by Tomorrow or Tuesday". The Baltimore Sun. p. 1.
- "Out of Hospital Visit Postponed". The New York Times. July 1, 1956. p. E2.
- Williams, Charles Harold Macmillan (2009) p. 345
- "President Dwight Eisenhower: Health & Medical History". doctorzebra.com. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- "Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum". Eisenhower.archives.gov. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
- Messerli FH, Loughlin KR, Messerli AW, Welch WR: The President and the pheochromocytoma. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99: 1325–1329.
- "Former Presidents Act". "National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
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- Post Presidential Years. Eisenhower Archives. "President Kennedy reactivated his commission as a five star general in the United States Army. With the exception of "George Washington, Eisenhower is the only United States President with military service to reenter the Armed Forces after leaving the office of President."
- "John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum, A Chronology from The New York Times, March 1961". March 23, 1961. Retrieved May 30, 2009.
Mr. Kennedy signed into law the act of Congress restoring the five-star rank of General of the Army to his predecessor, Dwight D. Eisenhower. (15:5)["permanent dead link]
- Klaus, Mary (August 8, 1985). "Tiny Pennsylvania Town An Escape From Modernity". "Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
From this farm the family migrated to Kansas in the summer of 1878.
- Gasbarro, Norman (November 29, 2010). "Eisenhower Family Civil War Veterans". Retrieved January 4, 2016.
a stately old home, identified as the ancestral home of President Dwight D. Eisenhower
- Historical Society of Palm Desert; Rover, Hal; Kousken, Kim; Romer, Brett (2009). Palm Desert. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 103. "ISBN "978-0-7385-5964-3.
- "Eisenhower, Dwight D.: visit to San Antonio in behalf of John Goode and Henry Catto, Jr.; downtown San Antonio". University of Texas Library. October 29, 1961. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- "Ike at Gettysburg (Goldwater, 1964)". 1964: Johnson vs. Goldwater. Museum of the Moving Image. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
- Goldschlag, William (May 11, 2016). "When an ex-president helped an 'extreme' Republican candidate". "Newsday. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- "1969 Year in Review: Eisenhower, Judy Garland die". UPI. October 25, 2005. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- "Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York: Basic Books. p. 27. "ISBN "0-465-04195-7.
- Walsh, Kenneth T. (June 6, 2008). "Presidential Lies and Deceptions". US News and World Report.
- "Presidential Politics". "Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
- John Lewis Gaddis, "He Made It Look Easy: 'Eisenhower in War and Peace', by Jean Edward Smith", New York Times Book Review, April 20, 2012.
- Griffith, Robert (January 1, 1982). "Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Corporate Commonwealth". The American Historical Review. 87 (1): 87–122. "doi:10.2307/1863309. "JSTOR 1863309.
- Morgenthau, Hans J.: "Goldwater – The Romantic Regression", in Commentary, September 1964.
- Medved, Michael (1979). The Shadow Presidents: The Secret History of the Chief Executives and Their Top Aides. New York: Times Books. "ISBN "0-8129-0816-3.
- "Public Law 482". Retrieved 2008-04-29. This law allowed only 75% of pay and allowances to the grade for those on the retired list.
- "Public Law 333, 79th Congress". "Naval Historical Center. April 11, 2007. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved October 22, 2007. The retirement provisions were also applied to the World War II "Commandant of the Marine Corps and the "Commandant of the Coast Guard, both of whom held four-star rank.
- "Public Law 79-333" (PDF). legisworks.org. Legis Works. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- "Our Heritage". People to People International. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
- Gomez, Darryl (2015). Authoritative Numismatic Reference: Presidential Medal of Appreciation Award Medals 1958–1963. North Charleston, South Carolina: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. "ISBN "978-1-5117-8674-4.
- "Dwight D. Eisenhower". aoc.gov. Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- "Dwight D. Eisenhower Highway". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Past Honorary Degrees". Grennell College. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Agnew, James B. (1979). Eggnog Riot. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press. p. 197.
- "Record Companies Run With Eisenhower Tribute Albums". Billboard. google.co.uk. April 12, 1969. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
- "History of Eisenhower Army Medical Center". "Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
- "Statue of President Eisenhower in Grosvenor Square". U.S. Embassy. Archived from the original on July 5, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Mexico, New (April 1, 2009). "Frank Gehry to design Eisenhower Memorial". The Business Journals. American City Business Journals. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- Trescott, Jacqueline (April 2, 2009). "Architect Gehry Gets Design Gig For Eisenhower Memorial". The Washington Post. "The Washington Post Company.
- Plumb, Tiereny (January 22, 2010). "Gilbane to manage design and construction of Eisenhower Memorial". "Washington Business Journal. American City Business Journals, Inc.
- "The White House. Eisenhower Executive Office Building. Construction Chronology & Historical Events for the Eisenhower Executive Office Building". Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
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- Jordan, Ben (April 11, 2015). "Gala attendees say Wichita airport's new terminal will change visitor perception". KAKE TV. Retrieved October 26, 2015.["permanent dead link]
- The World Atlas of Golf, second edition, 1988, Mitchell and Beazely publishers, London.
- "Ga. ice storm claims Augusta National's famous Eisenhower Tree". Fox News. Associated Press. February 17, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- Palm Springs Walk of Stars official website["permanent dead link]
- Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands in an interview with H.G. Meijer, published in "Het Vliegerkruis", Amsterdam 1997, "ISBN 90-6707-347-4. p. 92.
- "The Arms of Dwight D. Eisenhower". American Heraldry Society.
- "USA and Foreign Decorations of Dwight D. Eisenhower". "Eisenhower Presidential Center. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
- "Questions to the Chancellor" (PDF). Austrian Parliament. 2012. p. 194. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Eisenhower, John S. D. Allies.
- "Culzean Castle Scotland The Eisenhower Apartment Hotel Accommodation". About Scotland. John Boyd-Brent. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- "Eisenhower to Get Honor; City of London to Give Limited Freedom and Sword". The New York Times. June 9, 1945. Retrieved June 25, 2016. (subscription required (. ))
- Finding aid for the Metropolitan Museum of Art 75th Anniversary Committee records, 1945–1950, "Metropolitan Museum of Art.
- Armbrester, Margaret E. (1992). The Civitan Story. Birmingham, AL: Ebsco Media. p. 97.
- "President Eisenhower named to World Golf Hall of Fame". PGA Tour. Archived from the original on June 29, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Ambrose, Stephen (1983). Eisenhower: (vol. 1) Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect (1893–1952). New York: "Simon & Schuster.
- Ambrose, Stephen (1984). Eisenhower: (vol. 2) The President (1952–1969). New York: "Simon & Schuster.
- Boyle, Peter G. (2005). Eisenhower. Pearson/Longman. "ISBN "0-582-28720-0. "OCLC 55665502.
- "D'Este, Carlo (2002). Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life. "ISBN "0-8050-5686-6.
- Krieg, Joann P. ed. (1987). Dwight D. Eisenhower, Soldier, President, Statesman. 24 essays by scholars. "ISBN 0-313-25955-0
- Newton, Jim (2011). Eisenhower: The White House Years. Doubleday. "ISBN "978-0-385-52353-0.
- Parmet, Herbert S. (1972). Eisenhower and the American Crusades. "OCLC 482017.
- Smith, Jean Edward (2012). Eisenhower in War and Peace. Random House. "ISBN "1-4000-6693-X.
- Wicker, Tom (2002). Dwight D. Eisenhower. Times Books. "ISBN "0-8050-6907-0. "OCLC 49893871.
- Ambrose, Stephen E. (1970) The Supreme Commander: The War Years of Dwight D. Eisenhower excerpt and text search
- Ambrose, Stephen E. (1998). The Victors: Eisenhower and his Boys: The Men of World War II, New York : Simon & Schuster. "ISBN 0-684-85628-X
- Eisenhower, David (1986). Eisenhower at War 1943–1945, New York : Random House. "ISBN 0-394-41237-0. A detailed study by his grandson.
- Eisenhower, John S. D. (2003). General Ike, Free Press, New York. "ISBN 0-7432-4474-5
- Irish, Kerry E. "Apt Pupil: Dwight Eisenhower and the 1930 Industrial Mobilization Plan", The Journal of Military History 70.1 (2006) 31–61 online in Project Muse.
- Jordan, Jonathan W. (2011). Brothers Rivals Victors: Eisenhower, Patton, Bradley, and the Partnership that Drove the Allied Conquest in Europe. NAL/Caliber. "ISBN "0-451-23212-7. "OCLC 617565184.
- Jordan, Jonathan W. (2015). American Warlords: How Roosevelt's High Command Led America to Victory in World War II. NAL/Caliber. "ISBN "978-0-451-41457-1. "OCLC 892458610.
- Pogue, Forrest C. (1954). The Supreme Command. "Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army. "OCLC 1247005.
- Weigley, Russell (1981). Eisenhower's Lieutenants: the Campaign of France and Germany, 1944–1945. Indiana University Press. "ISBN "0-253-13333-5. "OCLC 6863111.
- Bowie, Robert R. and Immerman, Richard H. (1998). Waging Peace: How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War Strategy, Oxford University Press. "ISBN 0-19-506264-7
- "Chernus, Ira (2008). Apocalypse Management: Eisenhower and the Discourse of National Insecurity, Stanford University Press. "ISBN 978-0-8047-5807-9 "OCLC 105454244
- Damms, Richard V. (2002). The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953–1961
- David Paul T., ed. (1954). Presidential Nominating Politics in 1952. 5 vols., Johns Hopkins Press. "OCLC 519846
- Divine, Robert A. (1981). Eisenhower and the Cold War.
- Gellman, Irwin F. (2015). The President and the Apprentice: Eisenhower and Nixon, 1952–1961. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. "ISBN 978-0-300-18105-0 "OCLC 910504324
- Greenstein, Fred I. (1991). The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader. Basic Books. "ISBN 0-465-02948-5 "OCLC 8765635
- Harris, Douglas B. "Dwight Eisenhower and the New Deal: The Politics of Preemption", Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997.
- Harris, Seymour E. (1962). The Economics of the Political Parties, with Special Attention to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy. "OCLC 174566
- Medhurst, Martin J. (1993). Dwight D. Eisenhower: Strategic Communicator. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. "ISBN 0-313-26140-7 "OCLC 26764309
- Mayer, Michael S. (2009). The Eisenhower Years Facts on File. "ISBN 0-8160-5387-1
- Newton, Jim. (2011) Eisenhower: The White House Years "ISBN 978-0-385-52353-0 "OCLC 694394274
- Pach, Chester J., and Richardson, Elmo (1991). Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. University Press of Kansas. "ISBN 0-7006-0436-7 "OCLC 22307949
- Prados, John. (2015) "Eisenhower and the Cold War Arms Race: 'Open Skies' and the Military-Industrial Complex." Journal of Cold War Studies.
- Watry, David M. (2014). Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill and Eden in the Cold War. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.
Historiography and interpretations by scholars
- Burk, Robert. "Eisenhower Revisionism Revisited: Reflections on Eisenhower Scholarship", Historian, Spring 1988, Vol. 50, Issue 2, pp. 196–209
- McAuliffe, Mary S. "Eisenhower, the President", Journal of American History 68 (1981), pp. 625–32 "JSTOR 1901942
- McMahon, Robert J. "Eisenhower and Third World Nationalism: A Critique of the Revisionists," Political Science Quarterly (1986) 101#3 pp. 453–73 "JSTOR 2151625
- Polsky, Andrew J. "Shifting Currents: Dwight Eisenhower and the Dynamic of Presidential Opportunity Structure," Presidential Studies Quarterly, March 2015.
- Rabe, Stephen G. "Eisenhower Revisionism: A Decade of Scholarship," Diplomatic History (1993) 17#1 pp 97–115.
- Schlesinger Jr., Arthur. "The Ike Age Revisited," Reviews in American History (1983) 11#1 pp. 1–11 "JSTOR 2701865
- Streeter, Stephen M. "Interpreting the 1954 U.S. Intervention In Guatemala: Realist, Revisionist, and Postrevisionist Perspectives," History Teacher (2000) 34#1 pp 61–74. "JSTOR 3054375
- Boyle, Peter G., ed. (1990). The Churchill–Eisenhower Correspondence, 1953–1955. University of North Carolina Press.
- Boyle, Peter G., ed. (2005). The Eden–Eisenhower correspondence, 1955–1957. University of North Carolina Press. "ISBN 0-8078-2935-8
- Butcher, Harry C. (1946). My Three Years With Eisenhower The Personal Diary of Captain Harry C. Butcher, USNR, candid memoir by a top aide
- Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1948). Crusade in Europe, his war memoirs.
- Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1963). Mandate for Change, 1953–1956.
- Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1965). The White House Years: Waging Peace 1956–1961, Doubleday and Co. online
- Eisenhower Papers 21 volume scholarly edition; complete for 1940–1961.
- Summersby, Kay (1948). Eisenhower was My Boss, New York: Prentice Hall; (1949) Dell paperback.
- Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum
- Eisenhower National Historic Site
- White House biography
- Eisenhower Foundation
- Major speeches of Dwight Eisenhower
- "Dwight D. Eisenhower collected news and commentary". "The New York Times.
- Dwight D. Eisenhower: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress
- NATO Declassified - Dwight D. Eisenhower (biography)
- Extensive essays on Dwight Eisenhower and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the "Miller Center of Public Affairs
- "Life Portrait of Dwight D. Eisenhower", from "C-SPAN's "American Presidents: Life Portraits, October 25, 1999
- Works by Dwight David Eisenhower at "Project Gutenberg
- Dwight D. Eisenhower Personal Manuscripts and Letters
- Works by or about Dwight D. Eisenhower at "Internet Archive
- Dwight D. Eisenhower at the "Internet Movie Database