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Writing cursive forms of E

E ("named e "//, plural ees)[1] is the fifth "letter and the second "vowel in the "modern English alphabet and the "ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is the most commonly used letter in many languages, including "Czech, "Danish, "Dutch, "English, "French, "German, "Hungarian, "Latin, "Latvian, "Norwegian, "Spanish, and "Swedish.[2][3][4][5][6]

Contents

History[edit]

Egyptian hieroglyph
q’
Phoenician
"He
Etruscan
E
Greek
"Epsilon
Roman/
Cyrillic
E
A28
""PhoenicianE-01.svg ""Alfabeto camuno-e.svg ""Epsilon uc lc.svg ""Roman E

The Latin letter 'E' differs little from its source, the "Greek letter "epsilon, 'Ε'. This in turn comes from the "Semitic letter ", which has been suggested to have started as a praying or calling human figure (hillul 'jubilation'), and was probably based on a similar "Egyptian hieroglyph that indicated a different pronunciation. In Semitic, the letter represented /h/ (and /e/ in foreign words); in Greek, became the letter epsilon, used to represent /e/. The various forms of the "Old Italic script and the "Latin alphabet followed this usage.

Use in writing systems[edit]

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Pronunciation of the name of the letter ⟨e⟩ in European languages

English[edit]

Although "Middle English spelling used ⟨e⟩ to represent long and short /"e/, the "Great Vowel Shift changed long /eː/ (as in 'me' or 'bee') to /iː/ while short /"ɛ/ (as in 'met' or 'bed') remained a "mid vowel. In other cases, the letter is "silent, generally at the end of words.

Other languages[edit]

In the orthography of many languages it represents either ["e], ["], ["ɛ], or some variation (such as a "nasalized version) of these sounds, often with diacritics (as: ⟨e "ê "é "è "ë "ē "ĕ "ě " "ė " "ę "⟩) to indicate contrasts. Less commonly, as in French, German, or Saanich, ⟨e⟩ represents a "mid-central vowel /ə/. "Digraphs with ⟨e⟩ are common to indicate either "diphthongs or "monophthongs, such as ⟨ea⟩ or ⟨ee⟩ for /iː/ or /eɪ/ in English, ⟨ei⟩ for /aɪ/ in "German, and ⟨eu⟩ for /ø/ in "French or /ɔɪ/ in German.

Other systems[edit]

The "International Phonetic Alphabet uses ⟨e⟩ for the "close-mid front unrounded vowel or the "mid front unrounded vowel.

Most common letter[edit]

'E' is the most common (or highest-"frequency) letter in the English alphabet (starting off the typographer's phrase "ETAOIN SHRDLU) and several other European "languages, which has implications in both "cryptography and "data compression. In the story ""The Gold-Bug" by "Edgar Allan Poe, a character figures out a random character code by remembering that the most used letter in English is E. This makes it a hard and popular letter to use when writing "lipograms. "Ernest Vincent Wright's "Gadsby (1939) is considered a "dreadful" novel, and supposedly "at least part of Wright's narrative issues were caused by language limitations imposed by the lack of E."[7] Both "Georges Perec's novel "A Void (La Disparition) (1969) and its English translation by Gilbert Adair omit 'e' and are considered better works.[8]

Related characters[edit]

Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet[edit]

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets[edit]

Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character E e
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E   LATIN SMALL LETTER E
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
"Unicode 69 U+0045 101 U+0065
"UTF-8 69 45 101 65
"Numeric character reference E E e e
"EBCDIC family 197 C5 133 85
"ASCII 1 69 45 101 65
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations[edit]

"NATO phonetic "Morse code
Echo ·
""ICS Echo.svg ""Semaphore Echo.svg ""Sign language E.svg ""⠑
"Signal flag "Flag semaphore "American manual alphabet ("ASL "fingerspelling) "Braille
"dots-15

In "British Sign Language (BSL), the letter 'e' is signed by extending the index finger of the right hand touching the tip of index on the left hand, with all fingers of left hand open.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "E" a letter Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged (1993). Ees is the plural of the name of the letter; the plural of the letter itself is rendered E's, Es, e's, or es.
  2. ^ Kelk, Brian. "Letter frequencies". UK Free Software Network. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  3. ^ Lewand, Robert. "Relative Frequencies of Letters in General English Plain text". Cryptographical Mathematics. "Central College. Archived from the original on 2008-07-08. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  4. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in Spanish". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  5. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in French". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. Archived from the original on 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  6. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in German". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. Archived from the original on 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  7. ^ Ross Eckler, Making the Alphabet Dance: Recreational Word Play. New York: St. Martin's Press (1996): 3
  8. ^ Eckler (1996): 3. Perec's novel "was so well written that at least some reviewers never realized the existence of a letter constraint."
  9. ^ a b c d Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF). 
  10. ^ Lemonen, Therese; Ruppel, Klaas; Kolehmainen, Erkki I.; Sandström, Caroline (2006-01-26). "L2/06-036: Proposal to encode characters for Ordbok över Finlands svenska folkmål in the UCS" (PDF). 
  11. ^ "Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF). 
  12. ^ Ruppel, Klaas; Rueter, Jack; Kolehmainen, Erkki I. (2006-04-07). "L2/06-215: Proposal for Encoding 3 Additional Characters of the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF). 
  13. ^ Anderson, Deborah; Everson, Michael (2004-06-07). "L2/04-191: Proposal to encode six Indo-Europeanist phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF). 
  14. ^ Everson, Michael; Dicklberger, Alois; Pentzlin, Karl; Wandl-Vogt, Eveline (2011-06-02). "L2/11-202: Revised proposal to encode "Teuthonista" phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF). 

External links[edit]

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