Powered by
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia

See also: "Comparison of e-book formats
Reading an e-book on public transit

As e-book formats emerged and proliferated,["citation needed] some garnered support from major software companies, such as "Adobe with its "PDF format that was introduced in 1993.[30] Different e-readers followed different formats, most of them specializing in only one format, thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more. Due to the exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books.["citation needed] However, in the late 1990s, a consortium formed to develop the "Open eBook format as a way for authors and publishers to provide a single source-document which many book-reading software and hardware platforms could handle. Open eBook as defined required subsets of "XHTML and "CSS; a set of multimedia formats (others could be used, but there must also be a fallback in one of the required formats), and an "XML schema for a "manifest", to list the components of a given e-book, identify a table of contents, cover art, and so on.["citation needed] This format led to the open format "EPUB. "Google Books has converted many "public domain works to this open format.[31]

In 2010, e-books continued to gain in their own specialist and underground markets.["citation needed] Many e-book publishers began distributing books that were in the "public domain.["citation needed] At the same time, authors with books that were not accepted by publishers offered their works online so they could be seen by others. Unofficial (and occasionally unauthorized) catalogs of books became available on the web, and sites devoted to e-books began disseminating information about e-books to the public.[32] Nearly two-thirds of the U.S. Consumer e-book publishing market are controlled by the "Big Five". The "Big Five" publishers include: "Hachette, "HarperCollins, "Macmillan, "Penguin Random House and "Simon & Schuster.[33]


US Libraries began providing free e-books to the public in 1998 through their websites and associated services,[34] although the e-books were primarily scholarly, technical or professional in nature, and could not be downloaded. In 2003, libraries began offering free downloadable popular fiction and non-fiction e-books to the public, launching an "E-book lending model that worked much more successfully for public libraries.[35] The number of library e-book distributors and lending models continued to increase over the next few years. From 2005 to 2008 libraries experienced 60% growth in e-book collections.[36] In 2010, a Public Library Funding and Technology Access Study[37] found that 66% of public libraries in the US were offering e-books,[38] and a large movement in the library industry began seriously examining the issues related to lending e-books, acknowledging a tipping point["clarification needed] of broad e-book usage.[39]

However, some publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of "electronic publishing, citing issues with user demand, copyright piracy and challenges with proprietary devices and systems.[40] In a survey of "interlibrary loan librarians it was found that 92% of libraries held e-books in their collections and that 27% of those libraries had negotiated interlibrary loan rights for some of their e-books. This survey found significant barriers to conducting interlibrary loan for e-books.[41] Demand-driven acquisition (DDA) has been around for a few years in public libraries, which allows vendors to streamline the acquisition process by offering to match a library's selection profile to the vendor's e-book titles.[42] The library's catalog is then populated with records for all the e-books that match the profile.[42] The decision to purchase the title is left to the patrons, although the library can set purchasing conditions such as a maximum price and purchasing caps so that the dedicated funds are spent according to the library's budget.[42] The 2012 meeting of the Association of American University Presses included a panel on patron-drive acquisition (PDA) of books produced by university presses based on a preliminary report by Joseph Esposito, a digital publishing consultant who has studied the implications of PDA with a grant from the "Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.[43]


Although the demand for e-book services in libraries has grown in the decades of the 2000s and 2010s, difficulties keep libraries from providing some e-books to clients.[44] Publishers will sell e-books to libraries, but they only give libraries a limited license to the title in most cases. This means the library does not own the electronic text but that they can circulate it either for a certain period of time or for a certain number of check outs, or both. When a library purchases an e-book license, the cost is at least three times what it would be for a personal consumer.[44] E-book licenses are more expensive than paper-format editions because publishers are concerned that an e-book that is sold could theoretically be read and/or checked out by a huge number of users, which could adversely affect sales.

Archival storage[edit]

The "Internet Archive and "Open Library offer over 6,000,000 fully accessible public domain e-books. "Project Gutenberg has over 52,000 freely available "public domain e-books.

Dedicated hardware readers and mobile software[edit]

E-reader Comparison of e-book readers
The BEBook e-reader

An "e-reader, also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a "mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading "e-books and digital periodicals. An e-reader is similar in form, but more limited in purpose than a "tablet. In comparison to tablets, many e-readers are better than tablets for reading because they are more portable, have better readability in sunlight and have longer battery life.[45] In July 2010, online bookseller "Amazon.com reported sales of e-books for its proprietary "Kindle outnumbered sales of "hardcover books for the first time ever during the second "quarter of 2010, saying it sold 140 e-books for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there was no "digital edition.[46] By January 2011, e-book sales at Amazon had surpassed its paperback sales.[47] In the overall US market, paperback book sales are still much larger than either hardcover or e-book; the American Publishing Association estimated e-books represented 8.5% of sales as of mid-2010, up from 3% a year before.[48] At the end of the first quarter of 2012, e-book sales in the United States surpassed hardcover book sales for the first time.[3]

In "Canada, "The Sentimentalists won the prestigious national "Giller Prize. Owing to the small scale of the novel's independent publisher, the book was initially not widely available in printed form, but the e-book edition became the top-selling title for "Kobo devices in 2010.[49] Until late 2013, use of an e-reader was not allowed on airplanes during takeoff and landing.[50] In November 2013, the FAA allowed use of e-readers on airplanes at all times if it is in Airplane Mode, which means all radios turned off, and Europe followed this guidance the next month.[51] In 2014, the New York Times predicted that by 2018 e-books will make up over 50% of total consumer publishing revenue in the United States and Great Britain.[52]


Reading applications on different devices

Some of the major book retailers and multiple third-party developers offer free (and in some third-party cases, premium paid) e-reader "software applications (apps) for the Mac and PC computers as well as for Android, Blackberry, iPad, iPhone, Windows Phone and Palm OS devices to allow the reading of e-books and other documents independently of dedicated e-book devices. Examples are apps for the "Amazon Kindle, "Barnes & Noble Nook, "iBooks, "Kobo eReader and "Sony Reader.


Until 1979[edit]



The DD-8 Data Discman
Bookeen's Cybook Gen1


The larger Kindle DX with a Kindle 2 for size comparison


A Kobo Aura's settings menu


Comparison of e-book formats

Writers and publishers have many formats to choose from when publishing e-books. Each format has advantages and disadvantages. The most popular e-readers[133] and their natively supported formats are shown below:

Reader Native e-book formats
"Amazon Kindle and "Fire tablets[134] AZW, AZW3, KF8, non-DRM MOBI, PDF, PRC, TXT
"Barnes & Noble Nook and "Nook Tablet[135] EPUB, PDF
"Apple iPad[136] EPUB, IBA (Multitouch books made via iBooks Author), PDF
"Sony Reader[134] EPUB, PDF, TXT, RTF, DOC, BBeB
"Kobo eReader and "Kobo Arc[137][138] EPUB, PDF, TXT, RTF, HTML, CBR (comic), CBZ (comic)
"PocketBook Reader and PocketBook Touch[139][140] EPUB DRM, EPUB, PDF DRM, PDF, FB2, FB2.ZIP, TXT, DJVU, HTM, HTML, DOC, DOCX, RTF, CHM, TCR, PRC (MOBI)

Digital rights management[edit]

Digital rights management § DRM and e-books

Most e-book publishers do not warn their customers about the possible implications of the "digital rights management tied to their products. Generally, they claim that digital rights management is meant to prevent illegal copying of the e-book. However in many cases, it is also possible that digital rights management will result in the complete denial of access by the purchaser to the e-book.[141] The e-books sold by most major publishers and electronic retailers, which are "Amazon.com, "Google, "Barnes & Noble, "Kobo Inc. and "Apple Inc., are DRM-protected and tied to the publisher's "e-reader software or hardware. The first major publisher to omit DRM was "Tor Books, one of the largest publishers of science fiction and fantasy, in 2012. Smaller e-book publishers such as "O'Reilly Media, Carina Press and "Baen Books had already forgone DRM previously.[142]


Book scanning

Some e-books are produced simultaneously with the production of a printed format, as described in "electronic publishing, though in many instances they may not be put on sale until later. Often, e-books are produced from pre-existing "hard-copy books, generally by "document scanning, sometimes with the use of "robotic book scanners, having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the original print edition. Scanning a book produces a set of image files, which may additionally be converted into text format by an "OCR program.[143] Occasionally, as in some projects, an e-book may be produced by re-entering the text from a keyboard. Sometimes only the electronic version of a book is produced by the publisher.["examples needed] It is possible to release an e-book chapter by chapter as each chapter is written.["examples needed] This is useful in fields such as "information technology where topics can change quickly in the months that it takes to write a typical book. It is also possible to convert an electronic book to a printed book by "print on demand. However, these are exceptions as tradition dictates that a book be launched in the print format and later if the author wishes an electronic version is produced. "The New York Times keeps a list of best-selling e-books, for both fiction[144] and non-fiction.[145]

Reading data[edit]

All of the e-readers and reading apps are capable of tracking e-book reading data, and the data could contain which e-books users open, how long the users spend reading each e-book and how much of each e-book is finished.[146] In December 2014, "Kobo released e-book reading data collected from over 21 million of its users worldwide. Some of the results were that only 44.4% of "UK readers finished the bestselling e-book "The Goldfinch and the 2014 top selling e-book in the UK, "One Cold Night", was finished by 69% of readers; this is evidence that while popular e-books are being completely read, some e-books are only sampled.[147]

Comparison to printed books[edit]


"iLiad e-book reader equipped with an e-paper display visible in sunlight

In the space that a comparably sized print book takes up, an e-reader can contain thousands of e-books, limited only by its memory capacity. Depending on the device, an e-book may be readable in low light or even total darkness. Many e-readers have a built-in light source, can enlarge or change fonts, use "text-to-speech software to read the text aloud for visually impaired, elderly or "dyslexic people or just for convenience.[148] Additionally, e-readers allow readers to look up words or find more information about the topic immediately using an online dictionary.[149][150] Amazon has reported that 85% of its readers look up a word while reading.[151]

Printed books use three times more raw materials and 78 times more water to produce when compared to e-books.[152] While an e-reader costs more than most individual books, e-books usually have a lower cost than paper books.[153] E-books may be printed for less than the price of traditional books using "on-demand book printers.[154] Moreover, numerous e-books are available online free of charge.[155] For example, all books printed before 1923 are in the "public domain.[156]

Depending on possible "digital rights management, e-books (unlike physical books) can be backed up and recovered in the case of loss or damage to the device on which they are stored, and it may be possible to recover a new copy without incurring an additional cost from the distributor, as well as to synchronize the reading location, highlights and bookmarks across several devices.[157]


The "spine of the printed book is an important aspect in "book design and of its beauty as an object

There may be a lack of "privacy for the user's e-book reading activities; for example, Amazon knows the user's identity, what the user is reading, whether the user has finished the book, what page the user is on, how long the user has spent on each page, and which passages the user may have highlighted.[158] One obstacle to wide adoption of the e-book is that a large portion of people value the printed book as an object itself, including aspects such as the texture, smell, weight and appearance on the shelf.[159] Print books are also considered valuable cultural items, and symbols of "liberal education and the "humanities.[160] "Kobo found that 60% of e-books that are purchased from their e-book store are never opened and found that the more expensive the book is, the more likely the reader would at least open the e-book.[161]

"Joe Queenan has written about the pros and cons of e-books:

Electronic books are ideal for people who value the information contained in them, or who have vision problems, or who like to read on the subway, or who do not want other people to see how they are amusing themselves, or who have storage and clutter issues, but they are useless for people who are engaged in an intense, lifelong love affair with books. Books that we can touch; books that we can smell; books that we can depend on.[162]

While a paper book is vulnerable to various threats, including theft, water damage and mold, e-books files may be corrupted, deleted or otherwise lost as well as "pirated. As well, whereas the ownership of a paper book is fairly straightforward (albeit subject to restrictions on renting or copying the paper pages, depending on the book), the owner of an e-book's digital file may have access to the digital text withdrawn due to "digital rights management provisions, the provider's business failing or other file access issues.

Market share[edit]

United States[edit]

US Adult Fiction & Non fiction book sales in 2014[163]
Sellers Percent
Adult non-fiction print
Adult fiction print
Adult fiction ebook
Adult fiction ebook (no ISBN)
Adult non-fiction ebook
Adult non-fiction ebook (no ISBN)

In 2015, the Author Earnings Report estimates that Amazon holds a 74% market share of the e-books sold in the US.[164]


Market share of e-readers in Canada by Ipsos Reid as of January 2012
Sellers Percent


In 2013, Carrenho estimates that e-books would have a 15% market share in Spain in 2015.[166]


According to Nielsen Book Research, e-book share went from 20% to 33% between 2012 and 2014, but down to 29% in the first quarter of 2015. Amazon-published and self-published titles accounted for 17 million of those books - worth £58m – in 2014, representing 5% of the overall book market and 15% of the digital market. The volume and value sales are similar to 2013 but up 70% since 2012.[167]


The Wischenbart Report 2015 estimates the e-book market share to be 4.3%.[168]


The Brazilian e-book market is only emerging. Brazilians are technology savvy, and that attitude is shared by the government.[168] In 2013, around 2.5% of all trade titles sold were in digital format. This was a 400% growth over 2012 when only 0.5% of trade titles were digital. In 2014, the growth was slower, Brazil had 3.5% of its trade titles being sold as e-books.[168]


The Wischenbart Report 2015 estimates the e-book market share to be around 1%.[168]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gardiner, Eileen and Ronald G. Musto. "The Electronic Book." In Suarez, Michael Felix, and H. R. Woudhuysen. The Oxford Companion to the Book. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 164.
  2. ^ "e-book". Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Oxford University Press. (accessed September 2, 2010).
  3. ^ a b eBook Revenues Top Hardcover - GalleyCat. Mediabistro.com (2012-06-15). Retrieved on 2013-08-28.
  4. ^ Bhardwaj, Deepika (2015). "Do e-books really threaten the future of print?". newspaper. Retrieved May 6, 2016. 
  5. ^ a b "e-book Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia". 
  6. ^ E-reading rises as device ownership jumps. Pew Research. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  7. ^ Brown, Bob, The Readies, Google Books, retrieved 2013-08-28 .
  8. ^ a b c d Schuessler, Jennifer (2010-04-11). "The Godfather of the E-Reader". The New York Times. 
  9. ^ Lallanilla, Marc. "Is This 1949 Device the World's First E-Reader?". Live Science. Retrieved 15 May 2014. 
  10. ^ "Stop the reader, Fr. Busa has died". L'Osservatore Romano. Retrieved 2011-08-11. 
  11. ^ a b Priego, Ernesto (12 August 2011). "Father Roberto Busa: one academic's impact on HE and my career". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  12. ^ "Index Thomisticus", Corpus Thomisticum .
  13. ^ a b DeRose, Steven J; van Dam, Andries (1999). "Document Structure and Markup in the FRESS Hypertext System". Markup Languages. 1 (1): 7–32. "doi:10.1162/109966299751940814. 
  14. ^ a b Carmody, Steven; Gross, Walter; Nelson, Theodor H; Rice, David; van Dam, Andries (1969), "A Hypertext Editing System for the /360", in Faiman; Nievergelt, Pertinent Concepts in Computer Graphics: Proceedings of the Second 17 University of Illinois Conference on Computer Graphics, University of Illinois Press, pp. 291–330 .
  15. ^ a b van Dam, Andries; Rice, David E (1970), Computers and Publishing: Writing, Editing and Printing, Advances in Computers (10), Academic Press, pp. 145–74 .
  16. ^ Reilly, Edwin D (Aug 30, 2003), Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology, Greenwood, p. 85 .
  17. ^ Hamm, Steve (December 14, 1998), "Bits & Bytes: Making E-Books Easier on the Eyes", Business Week, p. 134B .
  18. ^ Yankelovich, Nicole; Meyrowitz, Norman; van Dam, Andries (October 1985), "Reading and Writing the Electronic Book", Computer, IEEE, 18 (10): 15–30, "doi:10.1109/mc.1985.1662710 .
  19. ^ Chisholm, Roderick M (16 August 2004). Person And Object: A Metaphysical Study. Psychology Press. pp. 11–. "ISBN "978-0-415-29593-2. Retrieved 12 April 2012. 
  20. ^ "An experimental system for creating and presenting interactive graphical documents." ACM Transactions on Graphics 1(1), Jan. 1982
  21. ^ Nicole Yankelovich; Norman K. Meyrowitz; Andries van Dam (1985). "Reading and Writing the Electronic Book". IEEE Computer Magazine. 18 (10): 15–30. "doi:10.2200/S00215ED1V01Y200907ICR009. 
  22. ^ Michael S. Hart, Project Gutenberg 
  23. ^ Flood, Alison (8 September 2011). "Michael Hart, inventor of the ebook, dies aged 64". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  24. ^ Grimes, William (8 September 2011). "Michael Hart, a Pioneer of E-Books, Dies at 64". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  25. ^ a b c Alison Flood (2011-09-08). "Michael Hart, inventor of the ebook, dies aged 64". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  26. ^ Personal Dynamic Media – By "Alan Kay and "Adele Goldberg
  27. ^ Wisher, Robert A.; Kincaid, J. Peter (March 1989). "Personal Electronic Aid for Maintenance: Final Summary Report" (PDF). "Defense Technical Information Center. 
  28. ^ EP0163511 A1
  29. ^ The book and beyond: electronic publishing and the art of the book. Text of an exhibition held at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1995.
  30. ^ eBooks: 1993 – PDF, from past to present Gutenberg News
  31. ^ Where do these books come from? Google Support. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  32. ^ eBooks: la guerra digital global por el dominio del libro – By Chimo Soler.
  33. ^ "Frequently asked questions regarding e-books and U.S. libraries". Transforming Libraries. American Library Association. 2014-10-03. Retrieved 2014-10-09. 
  34. ^ Doris Small. "E-books in libraries: some early experiences and reactions." Searcher 8.9 (2000): 63–5.
  35. ^ Genco, Barbara. "It's been Geometric! Documenting the Growth and Acceptance of eBooks in America's Urban Public Libraries." "IFLA Conference, July 2009.
  36. ^ Saylor, Michael (2012). The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything. Vanguard Press. p. 124. "ISBN "1-59315-720-7. 
  37. ^ Libraries Connect Communities: Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study 2009–2010. ala.org
  38. ^ "66% of Public Libraries in US offering e-Books". Libraries.wright.edu. 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  39. ^ "At the Tipping Point: Four voices probe the top e-book issues for librarians." Library Journal, August 2010
  40. ^ "J.K. Rowling refuses e-books for Potter". USA Today. 2005-06-14. 
  41. ^ Ebooks and Interlibrary Loan. Linda Frederiksen, Joel Cummings, Lara Cummings and Diane Carroll. Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery and Electronic Reserves. 21(31), 2011. p. 117-131.
  42. ^ a b c Becker, B. W. The e-Book Apocalypse: A Survivor's Guide. Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian v. 30 no. 3 (July 2011) p. 181–4
  43. ^ Affection for PDA Inside Higher Ed Steve Kolowich, June 20, 2012
  44. ^ a b "Library Ebook Vendors Assess the Road Ahead". The Digital Shift. 
  45. ^ Falcone, John (July 6, 2010). "Kindle vs. Nook vs. iPad: Which e-book reader should you buy?". "CNet. Retrieved January 26, 2013. 
  46. ^ a b "E-Books Top Hardcovers at Amazon". "New York Times. 2010-07-19. Retrieved 2010-07-19. 
  47. ^ "Amazon Media Room: Press Releases". Phx.corporate-ir.net. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  48. ^ Lynn Neary; Don Gonyea (2010-07-27). "Conflict Widens In E-Books Publishing". NPR. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  49. ^ "Scarcity of Giller-winning 'Sentimentalists' a boon to eBook sales". "Toronto Star, November 12, 2010.
  50. ^ Matt Phillips (2009-05-07). "Kindle DX: Must You Turn it Off for Takeoff and Landing?". "The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  51. ^ "Cleared for take-off: Europe allows use of e-readers on planes from gate to gate". The Independent. 
  52. ^ In Europe, Slower Growth for e-Books. New York Times (2014-11-12). Retrieved on 2014-12-05.
  53. ^ Neil Gaiman (1988). DON'T PANIC: The official Hitch-Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy companion. Titan Books. "ISBN "1-85286-013-8. "OCLC 24722438. 
  54. ^ "Pioneering the computational linguistics and the largest published work of all time". IBM. Archived from the original on 2012-03-27. Retrieved 2011-08-11. 
  55. ^ Miller, Michael W. (1989). "A Brave New World: Streams of 1s and 0s". Wall Street Journal. 
  56. ^ Religion: High-Tech Bible "Time
  57. ^ Gutermann, Jimmy, 'Hypertext Before the Web,' "Chicago Tribune, April 8, 1999
  58. ^ Cohen, Michael (2013-12-19). "Scotched: Fair thoughts and happy hours did not attend upon an early enhanced-book adaptation of Macbeth". The Magazine. Seattle, WA: Aperiodical LLC (32). Retrieved 2015-06-07. 
  59. ^ "Foto Franco, l'uomo che inventò l'e-book "Ma nel 1993 nessuno ci diede retta" – 1 di 10". Milano.repubblica.it. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  60. ^ Incipit 1992
  61. ^ Coburn, M.; Burrows, P.; Loi, D.; Wilkins, L. (2001). Cope, B. & Kalantzis, D. Melbourne, eds. "E-book readers directions in enabling technologies". Print and Electronic Text Convergence. Common Ground. pp. 145–182. 
  62. ^ "All Eight Roy Grace Novels by Peter James Now Available in e-Book Format in the United States". Prweb.com. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  63. ^ Publication: Hugo and Nebula Anthology 1993 The Internet Speculative Fiction Database
  64. ^ Ebook timeline 3 January 2002.
  65. ^ "Alexis KIRKE (1995). "The Emuse: Symbiosis and the Principles of Hyperpoetry". Brink. Electronic Poetry Centre, University of Buffalo. 
  66. ^ Day, B. H.; Wortman, W. A. (2000). Literature in English: A Guide for Librarians in the Digital Age. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. p. 170. "ISBN "0-8389-8081-3. 
  67. ^ The Future of Books Wired, February 2006
  68. ^ Journal, Alec Klein Staff Reporter of The Wall Street. "A New Printing Technology Sets Off a High-Stakes Race". Wall Street Journal. "ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  69. ^ eBooks: 1998 – The first ebook readers. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  70. ^ Hamilton, Joan (1999), "Downloaded Any Good Books Lately?", BusinessWeek 
  71. ^ Judge, Paul (1998-11-16), "E-Books: A Library On Your Lap", BusinessWeek, archived from the original on February 8, 2000 
  72. ^ "Prime Palaver #6". Baen.com. 2002-04-15. Archived from the original on 2010-01-02. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  73. ^ Tuscaloosa News June 29, 2000
  74. ^ Spotlight | National Inventors Hall of Fame 2016
  75. ^ De Abrew, Karl (April 24, 2000). "eBooks are Here to Stay". Adobe.com. Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  76. ^ "Microsoft Reader August 2000
  77. ^ Pearson, David (2006). Bowman, J, ed. British Librarianship and Information Work 1991-2000: Rare book librarianship and historical bibliography. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 178. "ISBN "978-0-7546-4779-9. 
  78. ^ Palm Digital Media and OverDrive, Inc. Announce Plans for Global Distribution of Palm Reader eBooks for Handheld Devices April 30, 2002
  79. ^ "Sony LIBRIe – The first ever E-ink e-book Reader". Mobile mag. 2004-03-25. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  80. ^ "Checks Out Library Books – News from". Google. 2004-12-14. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  81. ^ "Franklin sells interest in company, retires shares". Philadelphia Business Journal. 2005-03-31. Retrieved 2011-05-05. 
  82. ^ Samuelson, Pamela (July 2010). "Legally speaking: Should the Google Book settlement be approved?". Communications of the ACM. 53 (7): 32–34. "doi:10.1145/1785414.1785429. 
  83. ^ "Update your PRS-500 Reader", Style, Sony, retrieved November 18, 2009 .
  84. ^ "OPS 2.0 Elevated to Official IDPF Standard". IDPF. eBooklyn. Oct 15, 2007. 
  85. ^ a b Patel, Nilay (November 21, 2007). "Kindle Sells Out in 5.5 Hours". Engadget.com. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. Retrieved November 21, 2007. 
  86. ^ "Cybook specifications". 
  87. ^ Slattery, Brennon (November 10, 2009). "Kindle for PC Released, Color Kindle Coming Soon?". PC World. Archived from the original on October 28, 2010. Retrieved December 2, 2010. 
  88. ^ Kehe, Marjorie (January 6, 2010). "Kindle DX: Amazon takes on the world". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on January 10, 2010. Retrieved January 6, 2010. 
  89. ^ "Bookeen debuts Orizon touchscreen e-reader". Engadget. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  90. ^ "Apple Launches iPad 2 (Announcement)" (Press release). "Apple. March 2, 2011. Retrieved May 21, 2011. 
  91. ^ Andrew Albanese (6 December 2010). "Google Launches Google eBooks, Formerly Google Editions". Publishers Weekly. 
  92. ^ Obaiduzzaman Khan (August 22, 2010). "Pocketbook e-reader with Android". thetechjournal.com. 
  93. ^ Rapaport, Lisa (2011-05-19). "Amazon.com Says Kindle E-Book Sales Surpass Printed Books for First Time". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  94. ^ "The Simple Touch Reader". LJ Interactive 24th May 2011. 
  95. ^ "Bookeen launches a new e-book store". E-reader-info.com. 2011-08-01. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  96. ^ a b Hughes, Evan. (2013-08-20) The Publishing Industry is Thriving. New Republic. Retrieved on 2013-10-09.
  97. ^ "Kbuuk announces competition for self-published authors". Prnewswire.com. June 15, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  98. ^ Chloe Albanesius (January 19, 2012). "Apple Targets Educators Via iBooks 2, iBooks Author, iTunes U App". PCMag.com. 
  99. ^ Josh Lowensohn (January 19, 2012). "Apple unveils iBooks 2 for digital textbooks, self-pub app (live blog)". CNET. 
  100. ^ "Gigapedia: The greatest, largest and the best website for downloading eBooks". Retrieved 26 February 2012. 
  101. ^ Skoobe: publishing houses start e-book library (German)
  102. ^ Cooper, Charles. (2012-03-09) Go feds! E-books are way overpriced | Internet & Media – CNET News. News.cnet.com. Retrieved on 2012-04-12.
  103. ^ Catan, Thomas; Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. (March 9, 2012). "U.S. Warns Apple, Publishers". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 9, 2012. 
  104. ^ "IT Magazine about ereaders". Pocketbook-int.com. 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2012-09-16. 
  105. ^ "Test of ereaders in 2012". Pocketbook-int.com. 2012-06-20. Retrieved 2012-09-16. 
  106. ^ a b Phil Wahba Reuters (June 25, 2013). "Barnes & Noble to stop making most of its own Nook tablets". NBC News. 
  107. ^ Eric Slivka (June 12, 2013). "Apple Claims 20% of U.S. E-Book Market, Double Previous Estimates". MacRumors. 
  108. ^ Carnoy, David (2013-04-15). "Kobo Unveils Aura HD: Porsche of eReaders". CNET. CBS Media. Retrieved 2014-05-24. 
  109. ^ Boesen, Steffen (2015-05-12). "Ung millionær vil skabe litterær spotify". Politiken. Retrieved 2015-05-12. 
  110. ^ Judge finds Apple guilty of fixing e-book prices (Updated). Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  111. ^ Chaey, Christina (2013-09-05). "With Oyster, keep 100,000 books in your pocket for $10 a month". Fast Company. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  112. ^ "Google Books ruled legal in massive win for fair use". 
  113. ^ "Siding With Google, Judge Says Book Search Does Not Infringe Copyright", Claire Cain Miller and Julie Bosman, New York Times, November 14, 2013. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  114. ^ Metz, Cade. "Scribd Challenges Amazon and Apple With 'Netflix for Books'". Wired. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  115. ^ About Kindle Unlimited, Amazon .
  116. ^ "Kobo crams 1.5 million pixels into its 6.8" Aura H2O e-reader". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  117. ^ "Apple faces certified class action suit over e-book price conspiracy". Ars. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  118. ^ "Apple settles ebook antitrust case, set to pay millions in damages". ZDNet. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  119. ^ Apple Loses Appeal in eBook Antitrust Case, retrieved 30 June 2015 .
  120. ^ New Bookerly Font and Typography Features, Amazon .
  121. ^ / Oyster HQ Blog. September 22, 2015
  122. ^ migration (2015-09-30). "Pinjam e-buku di KLIA, Berita Dunia - BeritaHarian.sg". BeritaHarian. Retrieved 2016-04-27. 
  123. ^ Amazon Kindle Voyage review: Amazon's best e-reader yet, CNet, retrieved Feb 24, 2015 .
  124. ^ Nook Glowlight Plus Now Available – Waterproof, Dust-Proof, 300ppi Screen, and only $129. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  125. ^ "Google book-scanning project legal, says U.S. appeals court". Reuters. 
  126. ^ Playster audiobook and e-book subscription debuts in the US. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  127. ^ Apple is On the Hook for the $450m Settlement after Supreme Court Rejects Apple's eBook Conspiracy Appeal March 7, 2016
  128. ^ US Supreme Court Rejects Challenge to Google Book-Scanning Project April 18, 2016
  129. ^ Amazon's Kindle Oasis is the funkiest e-reader it's ever made "The Verge Retrieved April 13, 2016
  130. ^ Kobo Aura One Leaks, Has a 300 PPI 7.8″ E-ink Screen for 229 Euros The Digital Reader, Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  131. ^ a b Wood, Zoe (17 March 2017). "Paperback fighter: sales of physical books now outperform digital titles" – via The Guardian. 
  132. ^ E-Book Sales Down 17% In First Three Quarters Of 2016 Forbes, Retrieved 6 March 2017
  133. ^ McCracken, Jeffrey (2011-03-23). "Barnes & Noble Said to Be Likely to End Search Without Buyer". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  134. ^ a b Suleman, Khidr (September 20, 2010). "Sony Reader Touch and Amazon Kindle 3 go head-to-head". The Inquirer. Retrieved January 27, 2012. 
  135. ^ "Beyond Ebooks". Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  136. ^ Patel, Nilay (January 27, 2010). "The Apple iPad: starting at $499". Engadget. Retrieved January 27, 2010. 
  137. ^ Covert, Adrian. "Kobo Touch E-Reader: You'll Want to Love It, But ...". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 17 June 2011. 
  138. ^ "Kobo eReader Touch Specs". Retrieved 29 June 2011. 
  139. ^ Kozlowski, Michael. "Hands on review of the Pocketbook PRO 902 9.7 inch e-Reader". goodereader.com. Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  140. ^ "PocketBook Touch Specs". Retrieved 15 May 2012. 
  141. ^ Pogue, David (2009-07-17). "Case where Amazon remotely deleted titles from purchasers' devices". Pogue.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  142. ^ "Tor/Forge Plans DRM-Free e-Books By July". "Publishers Weekly. 24 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  143. ^ Kimberly Maul Checking Out the Machines Behind Book Digitization. The ebook standard. February 21, 2006
  144. ^ "Best Sellers. E-BOOK FICTION". "The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  145. ^ "Best Sellers. E-BOOK NONFICTION". "The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  146. ^ The Futility of E-Book Completion Data for Trade Publishers Ala Serafin 14 March 14, 2015
  147. ^ Ebooks can tell which novels you didn't finish "The Guardian. 10 December 2014.
  148. ^ Harris, Christopher. "The Truth About Ebooks." School Library Journal 55, no. 6 (2009): 18. Wilson Select Plus. Online Database
  149. ^ Taipale, S. 2014. The Affordances of Reading/Writing on Paper and Digitally in Finland. Telematics and Informatics, 32(4), 532-542, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2013.11.003
  150. ^ Fortunati L., and Vincent J. 2014. Sociological Insights into writing/reading on paper and writing/reading digitally in Telematics and Informatics 31(1) 39-51 doi:10.1016/j.tele.2013.02.005
  151. ^ What are the most looked up words on the Kindle? Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  152. ^ Goleman, Daniel (2010-04-04). "How Green Is My iPad". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  153. ^ Greenfield, Jeremy (January 9, 2013). "Tracking the Price of Ebooks: Average Price of Ebook Best-Sellers in a Two-Month Tailspin". Digital Book World. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  154. ^ Finder, Alan (August 15, 2012). "The Joys and Hazards of Self-Publishing on the Web". "The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2015. Digital publishing and print on demand have significantly reduced the cost of producing a book. 
  155. ^ "Project Gutenberg". "Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  156. ^ Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  157. ^ "Sync Across Kindle Devices & Apps". "Amazon.com. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  158. ^ The Fifty Shades of Grey Paradox. Slate. Feb 13, 2015.
  159. ^ Catone, Josh (January 16, 2013). "Why Printed Books Will Never Die". "Mashable. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  160. ^ Ballatore, Andrea; Natale, Simone (2015-05-18). "E-readers and the death of the book: Or, new media and the myth of the disappearing medium". New Media & Society: 1461444815586984. "doi:10.1177/1461444815586984. "ISSN 1461-4448. 
  161. ^ People are Not Reading the e-Books they Buy Anymore September 20, 2015. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  162. ^ Queenan, Joe (2012). One for the Books. Viking Adult. "ISBN "9780670025824. 
  163. ^ "Adding up the invisible ebook market – analysis of Author Earnings January 2015". Publishing Technology. February 9, 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  164. ^ Amazon Has an Even Bigger Share of the eBook Market Than We Thought – Author Earnings Report 9 October 2015.
  165. ^ Barbour, Mary Beth (2012-04-19). "Latest Wave of Ipsos Study Reveals Mobile Device Brands Canadian Consumers are Considering in 2012". Ipsos Reid. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  166. ^ Rüdiger, W.; Carrenho, C. (2013). Global eBook: Current Conditions & Future Projections. London. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  167. ^ Campbell, Lisa (June 8, 2015). "E-book market share down slightly in 2015". Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  168. ^ a b c d Wischenbart, Rüdiger (2015). Global E-book Report 2015. 

External links[edit]

) )