An "e-reader, also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a "mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading "e-books and digital periodicals. An e-reader is similar in form, but more limited in purpose than a "tablet. In comparison to tablets, many e-readers are better than tablets for reading because they are more portable, have better readability in sunlight and have longer battery life. In July 2010, online bookseller "Amazon.com reported sales of e-books for its proprietary "Kindle outnumbered sales of "hardcover books for the first time ever during the second "quarter of 2010, saying it sold 140 e-books for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there was no "digital edition. By January 2011, e-book sales at Amazon had surpassed its paperback sales. In the overall US market, paperback book sales are still much larger than either hardcover or e-book; the American Publishing Association estimated e-books represented 8.5% of sales as of mid-2010, up from 3% a year before. At the end of the first quarter of 2012, e-book sales in the United States surpassed hardcover book sales for the first time.
In "Canada, "The Sentimentalists won the prestigious national "Giller Prize. Owing to the small scale of the novel's independent publisher, the book was initially not widely available in printed form, but the e-book edition became the top-selling title for "Kobo devices in 2010. Until late 2013, use of an e-reader was not allowed on airplanes during takeoff and landing. In November 2013, the FAA allowed use of e-readers on airplanes at all times if it is in Airplane Mode, which means all radios turned off, and Europe followed this guidance the next month. In 2014, the New York Times predicted that by 2018 e-books will make up over 50% of total consumer publishing revenue in the United States and Great Britain.
Some of the major book retailers and multiple third-party developers offer free (and in some third-party cases, premium paid) e-reader "software applications (apps) for the Mac and PC computers as well as for Android, Blackberry, iPad, iPhone, Windows Phone and Palm OS devices to allow the reading of e-books and other documents independently of dedicated e-book devices. Examples are apps for the "Amazon Kindle, "Barnes & Noble Nook, "iBooks, "Kobo eReader and "Sony Reader.
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- "Ángela Ruiz Robles patented in Galicia, Spain, the idea of the electronic book, called the Mechanical Encyclopedia.
- "Roberto Busa begins planning the Index Thomisticus.
- "Andries van Dam starts the "HES (and later "FRESS) projects, with assistance from "Ted Nelson, to develop and use electronic textbooks for humanities and in pedagogy.
- "Michael S. Hart types the "US Declaration of Independence into a computer to create the first e-book available on the Internet and launches "Project Gutenberg in order to create electronic copies of more books.
- "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy radio series launches (novel published in 1979), featuring an electronic reference book containing all knowledge in the Galaxy. This vast amount of data could be fit into something the size of a large paperback book, with updates received over the "Sub-Etha".
- Roberto Busa finishes the Index Thomisticus, a complete "lemmatisation of the 56 printed volumes of "Saint Thomas Aquinas and of a few related authors.
- "Judy Malloy wrote and programmed Uncle Roger, the first online "hypertext fiction with links that took the narrative in different directions depending on the reader's choice.
- Project Gutenberg releases its 10th e-book to its website.
- "Franklin Computer released an electronic edition of the "Bible that was read on a stand-alone device.
- "Eastgate Systems publishes the first hypertext fiction released on floppy disk, ""Afternoon, a story", by "Michael Joyce.
- Electronic Book Technologies releases "DynaText, the first SGML-based system for delivering large-scale books such as aircraft technical manuals. It was later tested on a US aircraft carrier as replacement for paper manuals.["citation needed]
- F. Crugnola and I. Rigamonti design and create the first e-reader, called Incipit, as a thesis project at the "Polytechnic University of Milan.
- "Sony launches the "Data Discman e-book player.
- "Peter James published his novel Host on two "floppy disks and at the time it was called the "world's first electronic novel"; a copy of it is stored at the "Science Museum.
- "Hugo Award and "Nebula Award nominee works are included on a "CD-ROM by "Brad Templeton.
- Bibliobytes, a website for obtaining e-books, both for free and for sale on the "Internet, launches.
- C & M Online is founded in Raleigh, North Carolina and publishes e-books through its imprint, "Boson Books. Authors include "Fred Chappell, "Kelly Cherry, "Leon Katz, "Richard Popkin, and "Robert Rodman.
- The popular format for publishing e-books changed from plain text to "HTML.
- Online poet "Alexis Kirke discusses the need for wireless internet "electronic paper readers in his article "The Emuse".
- "Project Gutenberg reaches 1,000 titles.
- "Joseph Jacobson works at "MIT to create "electronic ink, a high-contrast, low-cost, read/write/erase medium to display e-books.
- "E Ink Corporation is co-founded in 1997 by MIT undergraduates J.D. Albert, Barrett Comiskey, MIT professor Joseph Jacobson, as well as Jeremy Rubin and Russ Wilcox to create an electronic printing technology. This technology is later used to on the displays of the "Sony Reader, "Barnes & Noble Nook, and "Amazon Kindle.
- NuroMedia released the first handheld "e-reader, the "Rocket eBook.
- "SoftBook launched its SoftBook reader. This e-reader, with expandable storage, could store up to 100,000 pages of content, including text, graphics and pictures.
- The "Cybook was sold and manufactured at first by Cytale (1998–2003) and later by "Bookeen.
- The "NIST released the "Open eBook format based on "XML to the public domain, most future e-book formats derive from Open eBook. and on "XML.
- Publisher "Simon & Schuster created a new imprint called ibooks and became the first trade publisher to simultaneously to publish some of their titles in e-book and print format.
- "Oxford University Press offered a selection of its books available as e-books through netLibrary.
- Publisher "Baen Books opens up the "Baen Free Library to make available Baen titles as free e-books.
- Kim Blagg, via her company Books OnScreen, began selling multimedia-enhanced e-books on CDs through retailers including "Amazon, "Barnes & Noble and "Borders Books.
- Joseph Jacobson, Barrett O. Comiskey and Jonathan D. Albert are granted "US patents related to displaying electronic books, these patents are later used in the displays for most e-readers.
- "Stephen King releases his novella "Riding the Bullet exclusively online and it became the first mass-market e-book, selling 500,000 copies in 48 hours.
- "Microsoft releases the "Microsoft Reader with "ClearType for increased readability on PCs and handheld devices.
- Microsoft and Amazon worked together to sell e-books that could be purchased on Amazon and using Microsoft software downloaded to PCs and handhelds.
- A digitized version of the "Gutenberg Bible was made available online at the "British Library.
- Adobe releases Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0 allowing users to underline, take notes and bookmark.
- "Palm, Inc and "OverDrive, Inc make Palm Reader e-books available worldwide and offered over 5,000 e-books in several languages; these could be read on Palm PDAs or using a computer application.
- "Random House and "HarperCollins start to sell digital versions of their titles in English.["citation needed]
- Sony Librie, first e-reader using an "E Ink display was released; it had a six-inch screen.
- "Google announces plans to digitize the holdings of several major libraries, as part of what would later be called the "Google Books Library Project.
- Amazon buys "Mobipocket, the creator of the mobi "e-book file format and e-reader software.
- Google is sued for "copyright infringement by the "Authors Guild for scanning books still in copyright.
- "Sony Reader PRS-500 with an E Ink screen and two weeks of battery life was released.
- LibreDigital launched BookBrowse as an online reader for publisher content.["citation needed]
- The "International Digital Publishing Forum releases EPUB to replace Open eBook.
- "Amazon.com releases the "Kindle e-reader with 6-inch E Ink screen in the US and it sells outs in 5.5 hours.
- Simultaneously with the Kindle in November, the "Kindle Store opened that initially had more than 88,000 e-books available.
- "Bookeen launches "Cybook Gen3 in Europe, it could display e-books and play audiobooks.
- Adobe and Sony agree to share their technologies ("Adobe Reader and "DRM) with each other.["citation needed]
- Sony sells the "Sony Reader PRS-505 in UK and France.
- BooksOnBoard becomes first retailer to sell e-books for "iPhones.["citation needed]
- "Bookeen releases the "Cybook Opus in the US and in Europe.
- Sony releases the Reader Pocket Edition and Reader Touch Edition.
- Amazon releases the "Kindle 2 that included a text-to-speech feature.
- Amazon releases the "Kindle DX that had a 9.7-inch screen in the US.
- Barnes & Noble releases the "Nook e-reader in the US.
- Amazon released the Kindle for PC "application in late 2009, making the Kindle Store library available for the first time outside Kindle hardware.
- In January 2010, Amazon releases the "Kindle DX International Edition worldwide.
- "Bookeen reveals the "Cybook Orizon at "CES.
- "Apple releases the "iPad bundled with an e-book app called "iBooks.
- Kobo Inc. releases its "Kobo eReader to be sold at "Indigo/"Chapters in Canada and "Borders in the "United States.
- Amazon reports that its e-book sales outnumbered sales of "hardcover books for the first time ever during the second "quarter of 2010.
- Amazon releases the third generation Kindle, available in "Wi-Fi and 3G & Wi-Fi versions.
- "Kobo Inc. releases an updated "Kobo eReader, which included Wi-Fi.
- Barnes & Noble releases the "Nook Color, a color LCD tablet.
- Sony releases its second generation Daily Edition PRS-950.["citation needed]
- Google launches "Google eBooks offering over 3 million titles, becoming the world's largest e-book store.
- "PocketBook expands its line with an Android e-reader.
- Amazon.com announces in May that its e-book sales in the US now exceed all of its printed book sales.
- Barnes & Noble releases the "Nook Simple Touch e-reader and "Nook Tablet.
- "Bookeen launches its own e-books store, BookeenStore.com, and starts to sell digital versions of titles in French.
- "Nature Publishing publishes "Principles of Biology, a customizable, modular textbook, with no corresponding paper edition.
- The e-reader market grows in Spain, and companies like Telefónica, Fnac, and Casa del Libro launches their e-readers with the Spanish brand "bq readers".
- Amazon launches the "Kindle Fire and "Kindle Touch; both devices were designed for e-reading.
- E-books sold in the U.S. market collects over three billion in revenue.
- Kbuuk released the "cloud-based e-book self-publishing "SaaS platform on the "Pubsoft digital publishing engine.
- Apple releases "iBooks Author, software for creating "iPad e-books to be directly published in its "iBooks bookstore or to be shared as "PDF files.
- Apple opens a "textbook section in its "iBooks bookstore.
- "Library.nu - previously called ebooksclub.org and gigapedia.com, a popular linking website for downloading e-books - was accused of "copyright infringement and shut down by court order on February 15.
- The publishing companies "Random House, "Holtzbrinck, and "arvato get an e-book library called Skoobe on the market.
- "US Department of Justice prepares "anti-trust lawsuit against Apple, "Simon & Schuster, "Hachette Book Group, "Penguin Group, "Macmillan, and "HarperCollins, alleging "collusion to increase the price of books sold on Amazon.
- PocketBook releases the PocketBook Touch, an E Ink Pearl e-reader, winning awards from German magazines Tablet PC and Computer Bild.
- In September, Amazon releases the "Kindle Paperwhite, its first e-reader with built-in front LED lights.
- In April 2013, Barnes & Noble posts losses of $475 million on its Nook business for the prior fiscal year and in June announces its intention to discontinue manufacturing Nook tablets, although it plans to continue making and designing black-and-white e-readers such as the Nook Simple Touch, which "are more geared to serious readers, who are its customers, than to tablets".
- The "Association of American Publishers announces that e-books now account for about 20% of book sales. Barnes & Noble estimates it has a 27% share of the U.S. e-book market.
- In June, Apple executive Keith Moerer testifies in the e-book price fixing trial that the iBookstore held approximately 20% of the e-book market share in the United States within the months after launch - a figure that "Publishers Weekly reports is roughly double many of the previous estimates made by third parties. Moerer further testified that iBookstore acquired about an additional 20% by adding Random House in 2011.
- Five major US e-book publishers, as part of their settlement of a price-fixing suit, were ordered to refund about $3 for every electronic copy of a New York Times best-seller that they sold from April 2010 to May 2012. This could equal $160 million in settlement charges.
- Barnes & Noble releases the "Nook Glowlight, which has a 6-inch touchscreen using E Ink Pearl and Regal, with built-in front LED lights.
- In April, Kobo released the "Kobo Aura HD with a 6.8-inch screen, which is larger than the current models produced by its US competitors.
- In May, "Mofibo launched the first Scandinavian unlimited access e-book subscription service.
- In July, US District Court Judge Denise Cote finds Apple guilty of conspiring to raise the retail price of e-books and schedules a trial in 2014 to determine damages.
- In August, Kobo released the "Kobo Aura, a baseline touchscreen six-inch e-reader.
- In September, "Oyster launches its unlimited access e-book subscription service.
- In November, US District Judge Chin sides with Google in "Authors Guild v. Google, citing fair use. The authors said they would appeal.
- In December, "Scribd launched the first public unlimited access subscription service for e-books.
- In early 2014, Amazon launches "Kindle Unlimited as an unlimited-access e-book and audiobook subscription service.
- In April, Kobo released the "Aura H₂0, the world's first "waterproof commercially produced e-reader.
- In June, US District Court Judge Cote grants class action certification to plaintiffs in a lawsuit over Apple's alleged e-book price conspiracy; the plaintiffs are seeking $840 million in damages. Apple appeals the decision.
- In June, Apple settles the e-book antitrust case that alleged Apple conspired to e-book price fixing out of court with the States; however if Judge Cote's ruling is overturned in appeal the settlement would be reversed.
- In June 2015, the 2nd US Circuit Court of Appeals with a 2-1 vote concurs with Judge Cote that Apple conspired to e-book price fixing and violated federal antitrust law. Apple appealed the decision.
- In June, Amazon released the "Kindle Paperwhite (3rd generation) that is the first e-reader to feature "Bookerly, a font exclusively designed for e-readers.
- In September, Oyster announced its unlimited access e-book subscription service would be shut down in early 2016 and that it would be acquired by Google.
- In September, Malaysian e-book company, "e-Sentral, introduced for the first time geo-location distribution technology for e-books via bluetooth beacon. It was first demonstrated in a large scale at Kuala Lumpur International Airport.
- In October, Amazon releases the "Kindle Voyage that has a 6-inch, 300 ppi E Ink Carta HD display, which was the highest resolution and contrast available in e-readers as of 2014. It also features adaptive LED lights and page turn sensors on the sides of the device.
- In October, B&N released the "Glowlight Plus, its first waterproof e-reader.
- In October, the US appeals court sided with Google instead of the Authors' Guild, declaring that Google did not violate copyright law in its book scanning project.
- In December, "Playster launched an unlimited-access subscription service including e-books and audiobooks.
- By the end of 2015, Google Books scanned more than 25 million books.
- By 2015, over 70 million e-readers had been shipped worldwide.
- In March 2016, the "Supreme Court of the United States declined to hear Apple's appeal that it conspired to e-book price fixing therefore the previous court decision stands, which means Apple must pay $450 million.
- In April, the Supreme Court declined to hear the Authors Guild's appeal of its book scanning case that means the lower court's decision stands; this result means Google is allowed to scan library books and display snippets in search results without violating US copyright law.
- In April, Amazon released the "Kindle Oasis, its first e-reader in five years to have physical page turn buttons and as a premium product includes a leather case with a battery inside; the Oasis without including the case is the lightest e-reader on the market.
- In August, Kobo released the "Aura One, the first commercial e-reader with a 7.8-inch E Ink Carta HD display.
- By the end of 2016, smartphones and tablets overtook e-readers as the most popular way to read an ebook.
- In February 2017, the "Association of American Publishers released data that shows the U.S. adult e-book market declined 16.9% in the first nine months of 2016 over the same time in 2015 and Nielsen Book determined that in 2016 the e-book market had an overall total decline of 16% in 2016 over 2015, including all age groups. This decline is partly due to widespread e-book price increases.
- In March, "The Guardian reported that sales of physical books outperform digital titles in the UK, since it can be cheaper to buy the physical version of a book when compared to the digital verison due to Amazon's deal with publishers that allows agency pricing.
Writers and publishers have many formats to choose from when publishing e-books. Each format has advantages and disadvantages. The most popular e-readers and their natively supported formats are shown below:
|Reader||Native e-book formats|
|"Amazon Kindle and "Fire tablets||AZW, AZW3, KF8, non-DRM MOBI, PDF, PRC, TXT|
|"Barnes & Noble Nook and "Nook Tablet||EPUB, PDF|
|"Apple iPad||EPUB, IBA (Multitouch books made via iBooks Author), PDF|
|"Sony Reader||EPUB, PDF, TXT, RTF, DOC, BBeB|
|"Kobo eReader and "Kobo Arc||EPUB, PDF, TXT, RTF, HTML, CBR (comic), CBZ (comic)|
|"PocketBook Reader and PocketBook Touch||EPUB DRM, EPUB, PDF DRM, PDF, FB2, FB2.ZIP, TXT, DJVU, HTM, HTML, DOC, DOCX, RTF, CHM, TCR, PRC (MOBI)|
Digital rights management
Most e-book publishers do not warn their customers about the possible implications of the "digital rights management tied to their products. Generally, they claim that digital rights management is meant to prevent illegal copying of the e-book. However in many cases, it is also possible that digital rights management will result in the complete denial of access by the purchaser to the e-book. The e-books sold by most major publishers and electronic retailers, which are "Amazon.com, "Google, "Barnes & Noble, "Kobo Inc. and "Apple Inc., are DRM-protected and tied to the publisher's "e-reader software or hardware. The first major publisher to omit DRM was "Tor Books, one of the largest publishers of science fiction and fantasy, in 2012. Smaller e-book publishers such as "O'Reilly Media, Carina Press and "Baen Books had already forgone DRM previously.
Some e-books are produced simultaneously with the production of a printed format, as described in "electronic publishing, though in many instances they may not be put on sale until later. Often, e-books are produced from pre-existing "hard-copy books, generally by "document scanning, sometimes with the use of "robotic book scanners, having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the original print edition. Scanning a book produces a set of image files, which may additionally be converted into text format by an "OCR program. Occasionally, as in some projects, an e-book may be produced by re-entering the text from a keyboard. Sometimes only the electronic version of a book is produced by the publisher.["examples needed] It is possible to release an e-book chapter by chapter as each chapter is written.["examples needed] This is useful in fields such as "information technology where topics can change quickly in the months that it takes to write a typical book. It is also possible to convert an electronic book to a printed book by "print on demand. However, these are exceptions as tradition dictates that a book be launched in the print format and later if the author wishes an electronic version is produced. "The New York Times keeps a list of best-selling e-books, for both fiction and non-fiction.
All of the e-readers and reading apps are capable of tracking e-book reading data, and the data could contain which e-books users open, how long the users spend reading each e-book and how much of each e-book is finished. In December 2014, "Kobo released e-book reading data collected from over 21 million of its users worldwide. Some of the results were that only 44.4% of "UK readers finished the bestselling e-book "The Goldfinch and the 2014 top selling e-book in the UK, "One Cold Night", was finished by 69% of readers; this is evidence that while popular e-books are being completely read, some e-books are only sampled.
Comparison to printed books
In the space that a comparably sized print book takes up, an e-reader can contain thousands of e-books, limited only by its memory capacity. Depending on the device, an e-book may be readable in low light or even total darkness. Many e-readers have a built-in light source, can enlarge or change fonts, use "text-to-speech software to read the text aloud for visually impaired, elderly or "dyslexic people or just for convenience. Additionally, e-readers allow readers to look up words or find more information about the topic immediately using an online dictionary. Amazon has reported that 85% of its readers look up a word while reading.
Printed books use three times more raw materials and 78 times more water to produce when compared to e-books. While an e-reader costs more than most individual books, e-books usually have a lower cost than paper books. E-books may be printed for less than the price of traditional books using "on-demand book printers. Moreover, numerous e-books are available online free of charge. For example, all books printed before 1923 are in the "public domain.
Depending on possible "digital rights management, e-books (unlike physical books) can be backed up and recovered in the case of loss or damage to the device on which they are stored, and it may be possible to recover a new copy without incurring an additional cost from the distributor, as well as to synchronize the reading location, highlights and bookmarks across several devices.
There may be a lack of "privacy for the user's e-book reading activities; for example, Amazon knows the user's identity, what the user is reading, whether the user has finished the book, what page the user is on, how long the user has spent on each page, and which passages the user may have highlighted. One obstacle to wide adoption of the e-book is that a large portion of people value the printed book as an object itself, including aspects such as the texture, smell, weight and appearance on the shelf. Print books are also considered valuable cultural items, and symbols of "liberal education and the "humanities. "Kobo found that 60% of e-books that are purchased from their e-book store are never opened and found that the more expensive the book is, the more likely the reader would at least open the e-book.
"Joe Queenan has written about the pros and cons of e-books:
Electronic books are ideal for people who value the information contained in them, or who have vision problems, or who like to read on the subway, or who do not want other people to see how they are amusing themselves, or who have storage and clutter issues, but they are useless for people who are engaged in an intense, lifelong love affair with books. Books that we can touch; books that we can smell; books that we can depend on.
While a paper book is vulnerable to various threats, including theft, water damage and mold, e-books files may be corrupted, deleted or otherwise lost as well as "pirated. As well, whereas the ownership of a paper book is fairly straightforward (albeit subject to restrictions on renting or copying the paper pages, depending on the book), the owner of an e-book's digital file may have access to the digital text withdrawn due to "digital rights management provisions, the provider's business failing or other file access issues.
In 2015, the Author Earnings Report estimates that Amazon holds a 74% market share of the e-books sold in the US.
In 2013, Carrenho estimates that e-books would have a 15% market share in Spain in 2015.
According to Nielsen Book Research, e-book share went from 20% to 33% between 2012 and 2014, but down to 29% in the first quarter of 2015. Amazon-published and self-published titles accounted for 17 million of those books - worth £58m – in 2014, representing 5% of the overall book market and 15% of the digital market. The volume and value sales are similar to 2013 but up 70% since 2012.
The Wischenbart Report 2015 estimates the e-book market share to be 4.3%.
The Brazilian e-book market is only emerging. Brazilians are technology savvy, and that attitude is shared by the government. In 2013, around 2.5% of all trade titles sold were in digital format. This was a 400% growth over 2012 when only 0.5% of trade titles were digital. In 2014, the growth was slower, Brazil had 3.5% of its trade titles being sold as e-books.
The Wischenbart Report 2015 estimates the e-book market share to be around 1%.
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|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Electronic books.|
- James, Bradley (November 20, 2002). The Electronic Book: Looking Beyond the Physical Codex, SciNet
- "Cory Doctorow (February 12, 2004). Ebooks: Neither E, Nor Books, O’Reilly Emerging Technologies Conference
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- Dene Grigar & Stuart Moulthrop (2013-2016) "Pathfinders: Documenting the Experience of Early Digital Literature", "Washington State University Vancouver, July 1, 2013.
- E-book at "DMOZ