Powered by
TTSReader
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia


Main article: "JavaScript § Features

The ECMAScript language includes "structured, "dynamic, "functional, and "prototype-based features.[37]

Syntax[edit]

ECMAScript syntax

Implementations[edit]

List of ECMAScript engines

ECMAScript is supported in many applications, especially "Web browsers, where it is implemented by JavaScript, or, in the case of Internet Explorer, JScript. Implementations sometimes include extensions to the language, or to the "standard library and related "application programming interfaces (API) such as the "World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specified "Document Object Model (DOM). This means that applications written in one implementation may be incompatible with another, unless they are written to use only a common subset of supported features and APIs.

Implementation Applications ECMAScript edition
"SpiderMonkey "Firefox, the "Gecko "layout engine, "Adobe Acrobat[d 1] 5.1, and features from 2015,[d 2] 2016 and 2017[d 3]
"V8 "Google Chrome, "Node.js, "Opera, "MarkLogic.[38] 2015,[d 4] and features from 2016 and 2017
"JavaScriptCore (Nitro) "WebKit, "Safari, "Qt 5 2017[39]
"Chakra "Microsoft Edge 5.1, and features from 2015, 2016 and 2017[d 5]
"JerryScript Resource constrained IoT devices, "Pebble 5.1[40]
"JScript 9.0 "Internet Explorer, the "Trident layout engine 5.1
"Nashorn "Java 5.1[41]
"Rhino "Java Platform, Standard Edition 3
Carakan (deprecated) "Opera 12 5[d 6][d 7]
"KJS "KHTML 5.1 and features from 2015
Ejscript Appweb Web Server, "Samba 4 2015[42]
"JScript .NET Microsoft ".NET Framework 3[d 8]
"ActionScript "Adobe Flash, "Adobe Flex, "Adobe AIR 4[43]
"ExtendScript "Adobe Creative Suite products: "InDesign, "Illustrator, "Photoshop,
"Bridge, "After Effects, "Premiere Pro
3["citation needed]
"InScript "iCab 3
"Max/MSP engine "Max 3
"QtScript (deprecated) "KDE SC 4 3
"Caja 5[44]
  1. ^ Adobe Acrobat X uses the SpiderMonkey 1.8 engine: JavaScript for Acrobat
  2. ^ Tracking bug for ECMAScript 6 in SpiderMonkey
  3. ^ ECMAScript Next support in Mozilla
  4. ^ According to the widely used compatibility table, Chrome supports the vast majority, but not all, of ECMAScript 2015.
  5. ^ Microsoft states that Edge "supports most ES2015 features," supporting 81% of the specification as of May 2015 and 93% as of November 2016.[1][2]
  6. ^ Full ECMAScript 5.1 support in Opera 11.51+.[3]
  7. ^ Opera's implementation includes some JavaScript and JScript extensions: ECMAScript support in Opera Presto 2.3
  8. ^ Microsoft asserts that JScript 8.0 supports "almost all of the features of the ECMAScript Edition 3 Language Specification", but does not list the unsupported features.

Version correspondence[edit]

Items on the same line are approximately the same language.[45][46]

JavaScript JScript ECMAScript
1.0 (Netscape 2.0, March 1996) 1.0 (IE 3.0 – early versions, August 1996)
1.1 (Netscape 3.0, August 1996) 2.0 (IE 3.0 – later versions, January 1997)
1.2 (Netscape 4.0-4.05, June 1997)
1.3 (Netscape 4.06-4.7x, October 1998) 3.0 (IE 4.0, Oct 1997) Edition 1 (June 1997) / Edition 2 (June 1998)
1.4 (Netscape Server only) 4.0 (Visual Studio 6, no IE release)
5.0 (IE 5.0, March 1999)
5.1 (IE 5.01)
1.5 (Netscape 6.0, Nov 2000; also
later Netscape and "Mozilla releases)
5.5 (IE 5.5, July 2000) Edition 3 (December 1999)
5.6 (IE 6.0, October 2001)
1.6 (Gecko 1.8, Firefox 1.5, November 2005) Edition 3, with some compliant enhancements: "ECMAScript for XML (E4X), extras (e.g. .prototype.forEach), and String generics (New in JavaScript 1.6)
1.7 (Gecko 1.8.1, Firefox 2, October 2006) Edition 3 plus all JavaScript 1.6 enhancements, plus "Pythonic generators and "array comprehensions ([a*a for (a in iter)]), block "scope with let, destructuring assignment (var [a,b]=[1,2]) (New in JavaScript 1.7)
1.8 (Gecko 1.9, Firefox 3, June 2008) Edition 3 plus all JavaScript 1.7 enhancements, plus expression closures (function(x) x * x), generator expressions, and more (New in JavaScript 1.8)
"JScript .NET ("ASP.NET; no IE release) (JScript .NET is said to have been designed with the participation of other Ecma members)[47]

Conformance tests[edit]

In 2010, Ecma International started developing a standards test for Ecma 262 ECMAScript.[48] Test262 is an ECMAScript conformance test suite that can be used to check how closely a JavaScript implementation follows the ECMAScript 5th Edition Specification. The test suite contains thousands of individual tests, each of which tests some specific requirements of the ECMAScript specification.

Development of test262 is a project of Ecma Technical Committee 39 (TC39). The testing framework and individual tests are created by member organizations of TC39 and contributed to Ecma for use in Test262.

Important contributions were made by Google (Sputnik testsuite) and Microsoft who both contributed thousands of tests. The Test262 testsuite already contains more than 11,000 tests and is being developed further as of 2013.

The following table shows current conformance results of browser products. Lower scores are better, although scores can not be compared, as tests are not weighted. Also, be aware that Test262 itself is likely to contain bugs that may impact a browser's score. So browsers with a score significantly lower than the current test suite bug count may not necessarily do better than those with a higher one.[49] That may be particularly true when several browsers have a higher score in their current development builds as compared to their last released version.

Results of test262 (suite version: ES5, suite date: 2014-09-18)
Product Latest Stable Test262 failed Preview/Beta Test262 failed Alpha Test262 failed Nightly Test262 failed
"Google Chrome 46.0.2490.86 m 207/11552 47.0.2526.69 beta-m 208/11552 48.0.2564.10 dev-m 203/11552 48.0.2569.0 canary 203/11552
"Mozilla Firefox 42.0 260/11552 43.0 Beta 5 260/11552 44.0a2 (20151120004044) 260/11552 45.0a1 (20151120030227) 260/11552
ESR 38.4.0 228/11552
"Internet Explorer 11.0.25 (11.0.9600.18097) 8/11552
"Maxthon 4.4.2.2000 18/11552
"Opera 33.0.1990.115 207/11552 beta 34.0.2036.3 208/11552 developer 35.0.2052.0 210/11552
12.17 (classic) 11/11552
"Safari 7.1 (9537.85) 7/11552

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stefanov, Stoyan (2010). JavaScript Patterns. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 5. "ISBN "9781449396947. Retrieved 2016-01-12. The core JavaScript programming language [...] is based on the ECMAScript standard, or ES for short. 
  2. ^ "TC39 - ECMAScript® (formerly TC39-TG1)". ecma-international.org. "Ecma International. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  3. ^ Krill, Paul (2008-06-23). "JavaScript creator ponders past, future". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  4. ^ "Netscape and Sun Announce JavaScript, the Open, Cross-platform Object Scripting Language for Enterprise Networks and the Internet". Netscape. December 4, 1995. Archived from the original on 2007-09-16. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  5. ^ "Brendan's Roadmap Updates: Popularity". weblogs.mozillazine.org. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. 
  6. ^ "Industry Leaders to Advance Standardization of Netscape's JavaScript at Standards Body Meeting". Netscape. November 15, 1996. Archived from the original on 1998-12-03. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  7. ^ "Will there be a suggested file suffix for es4?". Mail.mozilla.org. 2006-10-03. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  8. ^ "JScript VS JavaScript". About.com. 2015-11-25. 
  9. ^ a b [4]. ECMA‑262 - 7ᵗʰ Edition - ECMAScript® 2016 Language Specification. Retrieved on 2016-06-20.
  10. ^ "Changes to JavaScript, Part 1: EcmaScript 5". YouTube. 2009-05-18. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  11. ^ a b c "ECMAScript 2015 Language Specification". "Ecma International. June 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c "ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification". "Ecma International. June 2016. 
  13. ^ "strawman:strawman [ES Wiki]". Wiki.ecmascript.org. 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  14. ^ "tc39/ecma262". TC39. GitHub. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  15. ^ 2015-03-24 Meeting Notes. ESDiscuss. Also see Ecma withdrawn Standards. ECMA.
  16. ^ "ES4 overview paper released". Mail.mozilla.org. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  17. ^ "Proposed ECMAScript 4th Edition – Language Overview" (PDF). ecmascript.org. 23 October 2007. 
  18. ^ John Resig. "John Resig – Bug Fixes in JavaScript 2". Ejohn.org. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  19. ^ "Compatibility Between ES3 and Proposed ES4" (PDF). Ecmascript.org. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  20. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20090419044026/http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/drafts/tc39-2009-025.pdf
  21. ^ "ECMAScript 3 and Beyond – IEBlog – Site Home – MSDN Blogs". Blogs.msdn.com. 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  22. ^ "What I think about ES4. - Albatross! - Site Home – MSDN Blogs". Blogs.msdn.com. 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  23. ^ "Open letter to Chris Wilson". Brendan Eich. 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  24. ^ "JavaScript 2 and the Open Web". 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  25. ^ "ECMAScript Harmony". Mail.mozilla.org. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  26. ^ "A Major Milestone in JavaScript Standardization – JScript Blog – Site Home – MSDN Blogs". Blogs.msdn.com. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  27. ^ "Ecma International finalises major revision of ECMAScript". Ecma International. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  28. ^ "Ecma latest news". Ecma-international.org. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  29. ^ http://www.infoworld.com/article/2937716/javascript/its-official-ecmascript-6-is-approved.html
  30. ^ http://www.wintellect.com/devcenter/nstieglitz/5-great-features-in-es6-harmony
  31. ^ https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/10/es6-whats-new-next-version-javascript/
  32. ^ http://es6-features.org/
  33. ^ https://kangax.github.io/compat-table/es6/
  34. ^ http://wisdomgeek.com/web-development/using-es6-today-future-of-javascript/
  35. ^ https://github.com/nodejs/node/pull/11029
  36. ^ https://github.com/tc39/proposals/blob/856e38f/finished-proposals.md
  37. ^ "About". ECMAScript. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  38. ^ "Server-side Javascript for Developers". marklogic.com. 1 January 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  39. ^ "Safari 10.1". Apple Developer. 24 January 2017. Support for ECMAScript 2016 and ECMAScript 2017 is available in Safari for macOS and iOS. 
  40. ^ "Samsung/jerryscript". GitHub. Retrieved 2016-11-24. 
  41. ^ "Nashorn extensions". OpenJDK Wiki. Retrieved 2016-11-24. 
  42. ^ "Ejscript Overview". Embedthis Software. Retrieved 2016-11-14. 
  43. ^ Darrick Brown (May 25, 2006). "AS3 language 101 for C/C++ coders". Adobe Blogs: The Kiwi Project. 
  44. ^ "Caja Introduction". Google Developers. February 28, 2012. 
  45. ^ tedster (March 12, 2002). "JavaScript – JScript – ECMAScript version history". Webmasterworld.com. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  46. ^ "Version Information (JScript)". Msdn.microsoft.com. Archived from the original on 2009-12-17. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  47. ^ Andrew Clinick (July 14, 2000). "Introducing JScript .NET". Microsoft.com. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  48. ^ "ECMAScript Language – test262". Test262.ecmascript.org. Retrieved 2013-10-31. 
  49. ^ Schuster, Tom. "Bug 1453". ecmascript.org bug database. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 

External links[edit]

ISO Standard
Ecma Standards
) )