This article needs to be updated.(January 2017)
|Economic Community of West African States
|" "Faure Gnassingbe|
• President of the Commission
|" "Marcel Alain de Souza|
|" Moustapha Cissé Lô|
|28 May 1975|
|5,114,162 km2 (1,974,589 sq mi) ("7th)|
• 2015 estimate
|68.3/km2 (176.9/sq mi)|
|"GDP ("PPP)||2015 estimate|
|US$1.483 trillion ("18th)|
• Per capita
$675 billion2015 ("21st)
• Per capita
|Time zone||("UTC+0 to +1)|
The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional "economic union of fifteen countries located in "West Africa. Collectively, these countries comprise an area of 5,114,162 km2 (1,974,589 sq mi), and in 2015 had an estimated population of over 349 million.
The union was established on 28 May 1975, with the signing of the "Treaty of Lagos, with its stated mission to promote economic integration across the region. A revised version of the treaty was agreed and signed on 24 July 1993 in Cotonou. Considered one of the pillar "regional blocs of the continent-wide "African Economic Community (AEC), the states goal of ECOWAS is to achieve "collective "self-sufficiency" for its member states by creating a single large trade bloc by building a full economic and trading union.
ECOWAS also serves as a "peacekeeping force in the region, with member states occasionally sending joint military forces to intervene in the bloc's member countries at times of political instability and unrest. In recent years these included interventions in "Ivory Coast in 2003, "Liberia in 2003, "Guinea-Bissau in 2012, "Mali in 2013, and "Gambia in 2017.
ECOWAS includes two sub-regional blocs:
ECOWAS operates in three co-official languages—"French, "English, and "Portuguese, and consists of two institutions to implement policies: the ECOWAS Commission and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development (EBID), formerly known as the Fund for Cooperation until it was renamed in 2001. A few members of the organization have come and gone over the years. In 1976 "Cape Verde joined ECOWAS, and in December 2000 "Mauritania withdrew, having announced its intention to do so in December 1999.
In 2011, ECOWAS adopted its development blueprint for the next decade, Vision 2020, and, to accompany it, a Policy on Science and Technology ("ECOPOST).
H.E "Ahmed Sekou Toure (Guinea)
H.E "Aristedes Pereira (Cabo Verde)
H.E Dr. "Siaka Stevens (Sierra Leone)
H.E Dr. "William Richard Tolbert Jr. (Liberia)
H.E Gen. "Sangoule Lamizana (Burkina Faso)
H.E General "Gnassingbe Eyadema (Togo)
H.E General "Ignatius Kutu Acheampong (Ghana)
H.E General "Yakubu Gowon (Nigeria)
H.E "Leopold Senghor (Senegal)
H.E Lt. Col. "Mathieu Kerekou (Benin)
H.E "Luis de Almeida Cabral (Guinea Bissau)
H.E "Moktar Ould Daddah (Mauritania)
H.E "Moussa Traore (Mali)
H.E Mr. "Felix Houphouet-Boigny (Cote d'Ivoire)
As of February 2017, ECOWAS has 15 member states, eight of these are French-speaking, five are English-speaking and two Portuguese-speaking. All current members joined the community as founding members in May 1975, except "Cabo Verde which joined in 1977. The only former member of ECOWAS is Arabic-speaking "Mauritania, which was also one of the founding members in 1975 and decided to withdraw in December 2000.
Statistics for population, nominal GDP and purchase price parity GDP listed below are taken from "World Bank estimates for 2015, published in December 2016. Area data is taken from a 2012 report compiled by the "United Nations Statistics Division.
ECOWAS ZONE A MEMBER STATES
|ECOWAS ZONE A Total||1,917,883||60,550||42,923||110,895||&
ECOWAS ZONE B MEMBER STATES
|"Burkina Faso||272,967||18,106||10,678||30,708||"CFA franc||"French|
|"Ivory Coast||322,463||22,702||31,759||79,766||"CFA franc||"French|
|ECOWAS ZONE B Total||3,196,279||277,502||580,568||1,371,861||&
Jean-Claude Kassi BROU
Before his appointment as President of ECOWAS Commission during the 52nd Conference of Heads of State and Government that took place in Abuja (Nigeria) on December 15th and 16th2017, Mr Jean-Claude BROU has been the Minister of Industry and Mining of Cote d’Ivoire since November 2012 (the mining sector was added to his Department in July 2013).
Dr. BROU holds a PhD in Economics (1982) and a Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Finance (1980) from the University of Cincinnati (Ohio, USA). He received a Masters Degree in Economics from the National University of Cote d’Ivoire (1976). As an Instructor in the Department of Economics of University of Cincinnati (Ohio, USA), Dr. BROU taught macroeconomics and microeconomics (1981 – 1982).
Dr. BROU has two publications:
Dr. BROU is fluent in French and English and understands Portuguese and Spanish.
"Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé Eyadéma, Chairperson of the ECOWAS. In office 4th of June 2017 - till date.
The ECOWAS nations assigned a non-aggression protocol in 1990 along with two earlier agreements in 1978 and 1981. They also signed a Protocol on Mutual Defence Assistance in Freetown, Sierra Leone, on 29 May 1981, that provided for the establishment of an Allied Armed Force of the Community.
|This article is part of a series on the
"politics and government of
the African Union
The Community Parliament consists of 115 members, distributed based on the population of each member state. This body is headed by the Speaker of the Parliament, who is above the Secretary General.
The Parliament shall be the Assembly of the peoples of the Community
The Parliament shall have political and administrative wings.
The structures of the political wings are as follows:
The House of Representatives of the Peoples of the Community shall be designated as the:”ECOWAS Parliament”
Seat of the Parliament
The Seat of the Parliament shall be determined by the Authority.
|Inaugural holder "Aboubakar Diaby Ouattara||"Ivory Coast||January 1977 – 1985|
|"Momodu Munu||"Sierra Leone||1985–1989|
|"Abass Bundu||"Sierra Leone||1989–1993|
|"Lansana Kouyaté||"Guinea||September 1997 – 31 January 2002|
|"Mohamed Ibn Chambas||"Ghana||1 February 2002 – 31 December 2007|
|"Mohamed Ibn Chambas||"Ghana||1 January 2007 – 18 February 2010|
|"Victor Gbeho||"Ghana||18 February 2010 – 1 March 2012|
|"Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo||"Burkina Faso||1 March 2012 – 4 June 2016|
|"Marcel Alain de Souza||"Benin||4 June 2016 –1 March 2018|
|Jean-Claude Kassi BROU||"Ivory Coast||1 March 2018 – Present|
|"Yakubu Gowon||"Nigeria||28 May 1975 – 29 July 1975|
|"Gnassingbé Eyadéma||"Togo||29 July 1975 – 13 September 1977|
|"Olusegun Obasanjo||"Nigeria||13 September 1977 – 30 September 1979|
|"Léopold Sédar Senghor||"Senegal||30 September 1979 – 31 December 1980|
|"Siaka Stevens||"Sierra Leone||1981–1982|
|"Ahmed Sékou Touré||"Guinea||1983–1984|
|"Muhammadu Buhari||"Nigeria||1985 – 27 August 1985|
|"Ibrahim Babangida||"Nigeria||27 August 1985 – 1989|
|"Blaise Compaoré||"Burkina Faso||1990–1991|
|"Jerry Rawlings||"Ghana||1994 – 27 July 1996|
|"Sani Abacha||"Nigeria||27 July 1996 – 8 June 1998|
|"Abdulsalami Abubakar||"Nigeria||9 June 1998 – 1999|
|"Gnassingbé Eyadéma||"Togo||1999 – 1999|
|"Alpha Oumar Konaré||"Mali||1999 – 21 December 2001|
|"Abdoulaye Wade||"Senegal||21 December 2001 – 31 January 2003|
|"John Kufuor||"Ghana||31 January 2003 – 19 January 2005|
|"Mamadou Tandja||"Niger||19 January 2005 – 19 January 2007|
|"Blaise Compaoré||"Burkina Faso||19 January 2007 – 19 December 2008|
|"Umaru Musa Yar'Adua||"Nigeria||19 December 2008 – 18 February 2010|
|"Goodluck Jonathan||"Nigeria||18 February 2010 – 17 February 2012|
|"Alassane Ouattara||"Ivory Coast||17 February 2012 – 17 February 2013|
|"John Mahama||"Ghana||17 February 2013 – 19 May 2015|
|"Macky Sall||"Senegal||19 May 2015 – 4 June 2016|
|"Ellen Johnson Sirleaf||"Liberia||4 June 2016 – 4 June 2017|
|"Faure Gnassingbé||"Togo||4 June 2017 – present|
The ECOWAS Commission is the main engine room of all ECOWAS programmes, projects and activities. This ECOWAS administrative instrument was transformed from an Executive Secretariat into a Commission in 2007 in fulfillment of a decision to that effect taken the previous year in Niamey.
The change of nomenclature is not just for its sake. In their wisdom, the Heads of States and Governments came to terms with the fact that a Commission such as we now have, is the right set up that can make ECOWAS better adapt to the international environment and bring about more equity, transparency and greater functionality in accordance with global best practices. In other words, the Commission is in a better position to support ECOWAS member states to build their capacities for programme implementation.
Heads of State and Government have also endorsed institutional reforms covering all arms of ECOWAS. By implementing the transformation process faithfully, ECOWAS is re-positioned to fulfill the mandate of its founding fathers and meet new challenges.
Having taken the historic decision to transform the ECOWAS Secretariat into a Commission, ECOWAS is taking ownership of the grand objectives designed to improve the living conditions of the citizenry, ensure economic growth and create an environment conducive to development and meaningful integration.
For the third time since its inception in 1975, ECOWAS is undergoing institutional reforms. The first was when it revised its treaty on 24 July 1993; the second was in 2007 when the Secretariat was transformed into a Commission. As of July 2013, ECOWAS now has six new departments (Human Resources Management; Education, Science and Culture; Energy and Mines; Telecommunications and IT; Industry and Private Sector Promotion. Finance and Administration to Sierra Leone has been decoupled, to give the incoming Ghana Commissioner the new portfolio of Administration and Conferences)
The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice was created by a protocol signed in 1991 and was later included in Article 6 of the Revised Treaty of the Community in 1993. However, the Court did not officially begin operations until the 1991 protocol came into effect on 5 November 1996. The jurisdiction of the court is outlined in Article 9 and Articles 76 of the Revised Treaty and allows rulings on disputes between states over interpretations of the Revised Treaty. It also provides the ECOWAS Council with advisory opinions on legal issues (Article 10). Like its companion courts the "European Court of Human Rights and "East African Court of Justice, it has jurisdiction to rule on fundamental human rights breaches.
The ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development (EBID), is the financial institution established by the 15 Member States of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) comprising Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo,.
The Bank is an international financial institution with two funding windows to promote private sector activities and fund the development of the public sector. It is based in Lome, the Togolese Republic.
Overall, EBID aims to contribute to the economic development of West Africa through the financing of ECOWAS projects and programs in particular, those related to transport, energy, telecommunications, industry, poverty alleviation, the environment and natural resources.
The West African Health Organization (WAHO) is the regional Agency charged with the responsibility of safeguarding the health of the peoples in the sub-region through the initiation and harmonization of the policies of Member States, pooling of resources, and cooperation with one another and with others for a collective and strategic combat against the health problems of the sub-region.
Established in 1987 when the Heads of State and Government from all fifteen countries in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) adopted the Protocol creating the organization and each government subsequently ratified it, WAHO has transcended linguistic borders and hurdles in the sub-region to serve all fifteen ECOWAS Member States.
The Protocol, grants WAHO status as a Specialized Agency of ECOWAS and describes the organization’s mission as ‘the attainment of the highest possible standard and protection.’
The Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA) was established on 10th December 1999 by the Authority of Heads of State and Government of the ECOWAS. The main focus area of GIABA at inception was the protection of West African economies and financial systems against Money Laundering.
ECOWAS nations organize a broad array of cultural and sports event under the auspices of the body, including the "CEDEAO Cup in "football, the "2012 ECOWAS Games and the Miss CEDEAO "beauty pageant.
The West African Economic and Monetary Union (also known as UEMOA from its name in "French, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is an organization of eight, mainly francophone West African states within the ECOWAS, that was dominated otherwise by anglophone heavyweights like Nigeria and Ghana. It was established to promote "economic integration among countries that share the "CFA franc as a common currency. UEMOA was created by a Treaty signed at "Dakar, "Senegal, on 10 January 1994, by the heads of state and governments of "Benin, "Burkina Faso, "Côte d'Ivoire, "Mali, "Niger, "Senegal, and "Togo. On 2 May 1997, "Guinea-Bissau, a former "Portuguese colony, became the organization's eighth (and only non-"Francophone) member state.
Among its achievements, the UEMOA has successfully implemented macro-economic convergence criteria and an effective surveillance mechanism. It has adopted a customs union and "common external tariff and has combined indirect taxation regulations, in addition to initiating regional structural and sectoral policies. A September 2002 IMF survey cited the UEMOA as "the furthest along the path toward integration" of all the regional groupings in Africa.
ECOWAS and UEMOA have developed a common plan of action on trade liberalisation and macroeconomic policy convergence. The organizations have also agreed on common rules of origin to enhance trade, and ECOWAS has agreed to adopt UEMOA's "customs declaration forms and compensation mechanisms.
Formed in 2000, the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) is a group of six countries within ECOWAS that plan to introduce a common currency called the "Eco. The six member states of WAMZ are "Gambia, "Ghana, "Guinea, "Nigeria and "Sierra Leone who founded the organization together in 2000 and "Liberia who joined on 16 February 2010. Apart from Guinea, which is Francophone, they are all English-speaking countries. Along with "Mauritania, Guinea opted out of the "CFA franc currency shared by all other former French colonies in "West and "Central Africa.
The WAMZ attempts to establish a strong stable currency to rival the CFA franc, whose exchange rate is tied to that of the Euro and is guaranteed by the French Treasury. The eventual goal is for the CFA franc and Eco to merge, giving all of West and Central Africa a single, stable currency. The launch of the new currency is being developed by the "West African Monetary Institute based in "Accra, Ghana.
A Trans-ECOWAS project, established in 2007, plans to upgrade railways in this zone.
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