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An economic and monetary union is a type of "trade bloc which is composed of an "economic union ("common market and "customs union) with a "monetary union. It is to be distinguished from a mere "monetary union (e.g. the "Latin Monetary Union in the 19th century), which does not involve a common market. This is the sixth stage of "economic integration. EMU is established through a currency-related "trade pact. An intermediate step between pure EMU and a "complete economic integration is the "fiscal union.


List of economic and monetary unions[edit]

Additionally the "autonomous and "dependent territories, such as some of the "EU member state special territories, are sometimes treated as separate "customs territory from their mainland state or have varying arrangements of formal or de facto "customs union, "common market and "currency union (or combinations thereof) with the mainland and in regards to third countries through the "trade pacts signed by the mainland state.[3]


Community Currency Region Target date Notes
"Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) "Central African CFA franc Africa not yet functioning "common market
"West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) "West African CFA franc Africa not yet functioning "common market
"Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) "Khaleeji Middle East Possibly gold backed, but postponed due to the "financial crisis.
"East African Community (EAC) "East African shilling Africa 2015 To be used by the future "East African Federation
"Caribbean Single Market and Economy (as part of the "CARICOM) Latin America
2015 To supplement the "OECS "Eastern Caribbean Currency Union
"Southern African Customs Union (SACU) "South African Rand Africa 2015 de facto for the "CMA member when the "SADC "economic union is established
"Southern African Development Community (SADC) "South African Rand
(interim proposal)
Africa 2016 To supplement or succeed the "CMA and "Southern Africa Customs Union
"South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation South Asia 2016["citation needed]
"Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) Latino[4] Latin America
"Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) Africa To supplement the "Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC)
"Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Africa To succeed "UEMOA and "WAMZ
"African Economic Community Africa 2028 See "African Monetary Union
"Union State of "Russia and "Belarus "Russian ruble Europe
"Arab League "Arab Dinar Arab states Arab Dinar has been proposed ever since the creation of the "Arab Monetary Fund, expected for serious plans of doing so, after the creation of the proposed "Arab Union.
"Eurasian Economic Union "Altyn Eurasia 2025 Kazakhstani President "Nursultan Nazarbayev had first proposed, in 2009, the creation of a common noncash currency called "yevraz" for the Eurasian Economic Community. It would have reportedly helped insulate the countries from the global economic crisis.[5] In 2012, the idea of the new joint currency found support from Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev and by 2014 proposals were drafted in Eurasian Commission documents for the establishment of a Eurasian Central Bank and a common currency to be called the "altyn which is to be introduced by 2025.[6]


Stages of "economic integration around the World (each country colored according to the most integrated form that it participates with):
  Economic and monetary union ("CSME/"EC$, "EU/", Switzerland–Liechtenstein/"CHF)
  "Common market ("EEA–Switzerland, "ASEAN)
  "Customs union ("CAN, "EAC, "EUCU, "SACU)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The states participating in both initiatives are "Antigua and Barbuda, "Dominica, "Grenada, "Saint Kitts and Nevis, "Saint Lucia, "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  2. ^ "Single market through participation in the "internal market of the European Union, "customs union since 1924, informal "currency union since 1920.
  3. ^ EU "Overseas countries and some other territories participate partially in the EU single market per part four of the Treaty Establishing the European Community; Some EU Outermost regions and other territories use the "Euro of the "currency union, others are part of the "customs union; some participate in both unions and some in neither.
    "Territories of the United States, "Australian External Territories and "Realm of New Zealand territories share the "currency and mostly also the "market of their respective mainland state, but are generally not part of its "customs territory.
  4. ^ Proposed by Ecuador's President Rafael Correa on December 15, 2007
  5. ^ "Kazakhstan Suggests a New Currency - News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  6. ^ "Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus to have new joint currency". Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  7. ^ Not currently on any political agenda, based mostly off conspiracy theories.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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