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Economic nationalism, or economic patriotism, refers to an ideology that favors "state interventionism in the economy, with policies that emphasize domestic control of the economy, labor, and "capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of "tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital. In many cases, economic nationalists oppose "globalization or at least question the benefits of unrestricted "free trade. Economic nationalism is the doctrine of "mercantilism, and as such favors "protectionism. These types of economies are considered "repressed" or "mixed" and are diametrically opposed to a free market in terms of economic theory.
While the coining of the term "economic patriotism” has been attributed to French parliamentarian "Bernard Carayon,  there is evidence that the phrase has been in use since earlier. In an early instance of its use, "William Safire in 1985, in defending "President Reagan's proposal of the "Strategic Defense Initiative "missile defense system, wrote, "Our common denominator is nationalism - both a military and economic patriotism - which inclines us to the side of pervasive national defense."
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Governments have traditionally had a strong interest in preserving their economic, and therefore political, strength, and have therefore sought to use the tools at their disposal. This was especially true when warfare was endemic in the early-modern period: a strong economy often meant the difference between political independence, and conquest by a foreign power.["citation needed] This resulted in the economic system generally known as "mercantilism.["dubious ]
Examples of this include Henry Clay's "American System, French "Dirigisme, "Japan's use of "MITI to "pick winners and losers", "China's controlled exchange of the "yuan, "Argentina's economic policy of "tariffs and "devaluation in the wake of the 2001 financial crisis and the "United States' use of tariffs to protect domestic steel production.["citation needed]
As a "policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes, the following list of would be examples of an economic nationalistic policy, were there a consistent and rational doctrine associated with each individual protectionist measure:
The reason for a policy of economic protectionism in the cases above varied from bid to bid. In the case of Mittal's bid for Arcelor, the primary concerns involved job security for the Arcelor employees based in France and Luxembourg. The cases of French Suez and Spanish Endesa involved the desire for respective European governments to create a 'national champion' capable of competing at both a European and global level. Both the French and US government used national security as the reason for opposing takeovers of Danone, Unocal, and the bid by DP World for 6 US ports. In none of the examples given above was the original bid deemed to be against the interests of competition. In many cases the shareholders supported the foreign bid. For instance in France after the bid for Suez by Enel was counteracted by the French public energy and gas company Gaz De France the shareholders of Suez complained and the unions of Gaz De France were in an uproar because of the privatization of their jobs.
More recently, the economic policies advocated by "Donald Trump and "Steve Bannon in the wake of the "United States presidential election, 2016 has been considered by some as a (partial) return to the economic nationalism of the "Theodore Roosevelt Era.
The objective is to support "economic activity and promote "social cohesion.["citation needed] Some manifestations of economic nationalism are attempts to block foreign "competition or acquisitions of domestic companies.
Consumer preference for local goods gives local producers monopoly power, affording them the ability to lift prices to extract greater profits. Firms that produce locally produced goods can charge a premium for that good. Consumers who favor products by local producers may end up being exploited by profit-maximizing local producers. For example; a "protectionist policy in America placed tariffs on foreign cars, giving local producers (Ford and GM market) market power that allowed them to raise the price of cars, which negatively affected American consumers who faced fewer choices and higher prices.
Locally produced goods can attract a premium if consumers show a "preference towards it, so firms have an incentive to pass foreign goods off as local goods if foreign goods have cheaper costs of production than local goods. This is a viable strategy because the line between foreign-made and locally-made is blurry. However, as supply chains expand globally, the definition of local goods becomes hazy. For example, while a particular car may be assembled in America, its engine may be made in another country such as China. Furthermore, while the engine may be made in China, the engine's components may be imported from several other countries: the pistons may come from Germany and the spark plugs may come from Mexico. The components that make up the spark plugs and pistons may come from different countries and so on.
Notable countries that utilize economic nationalism are Venezuala, Cuba, the People's Republic of China, Zimbabwe, India, Russia, France, and Brazil.