On October 3, 1849, Poe was found delirious on the streets of Baltimore, "in great distress, and... in need of immediate assistance", according to Joseph W. Walker who found him. He was taken to the "Washington Medical College where he died on Sunday, October 7, 1849 at 5:00 in the morning. Poe was never coherent long enough to explain how he came to be in his dire condition and, oddly, was wearing clothes that were not his own. He is said to have repeatedly called out the name "Reynolds" on the night before his death, though it is unclear to whom he was referring. Some sources say that Poe's final words were "Lord help my poor soul". All medical records have been lost, including his death certificate.
Newspapers at the time reported Poe's death as "congestion of the brain" or "cerebral inflammation", common "euphemisms for deaths from disreputable causes such as alcoholism. The actual cause of death remains a mystery. Speculation has included "delirium tremens, "heart disease, "epilepsy, "syphilis, "meningeal inflammation, "cholera, and "rabies. One theory dating from 1872 suggests that "cooping was the cause of Poe's death, a form of electoral fraud in which citizens were forced to vote for a particular candidate, sometimes leading to violence and even murder.
The day that Edgar Allan Poe was buried, a long obituary appeared in the "New York Tribune signed "Ludwig". It was soon published throughout the country. The piece began, "Edgar Allan Poe is dead. He died in Baltimore the day before yesterday. This announcement will startle many, but few will be grieved by it." "Ludwig" was soon identified as "Rufus Wilmot Griswold, an editor, critic, and "anthologist who had borne a grudge against Poe since 1842. Griswold somehow became Poe's "literary executor and attempted to destroy his enemy's reputation after his death.
Rufus Griswold wrote a biographical article of Poe called "Memoir of the Author", which he included in an 1850 volume of the collected works. Griswold depicted Poe as a depraved, drunken, drug-addled madman and included Poe's letters as evidence. Many of his claims were either lies or distorted half-truths. For example, it is now known that Poe was not a drug addict. Griswold's book was denounced by those who knew Poe well, but it became a popularly accepted one. This occurred in part because it was the only full biography available and was widely reprinted, and in part because readers thrilled at the thought of reading works by an "evil" man. Letters that Griswold presented as proof of this depiction of Poe were later revealed as "forgeries.
Literary style and themes
Poe's best known fiction works are "Gothic, a genre that he followed to appease the public taste. His most recurring themes deal with questions of death, including its physical signs, the effects of decomposition, concerns of "premature burial, the reanimation of the dead, and "mourning. Many of his works are generally considered part of the "dark romanticism genre, a literary reaction to "transcendentalism which Poe strongly disliked. He referred to followers of the transcendental movement as "Frog-Pondians", after the pond on "Boston Common, and ridiculed their writings as ""metaphor—run mad," lapsing into "obscurity for obscurity's sake" or "mysticism for mysticism's sake". Poe once wrote in a letter to "Thomas Holley Chivers that he did not dislike Transcendentalists, "only the pretenders and "sophists among them".
Beyond horror, Poe also wrote satires, humor tales, and "hoaxes. For comic effect, he used irony and ludicrous extravagance, often in an attempt to liberate the reader from cultural conformity. ""Metzengerstein" is the first story that Poe is known to have published and his first foray into horror, but it was originally intended as a "burlesque satirizing the popular genre. Poe also reinvented science fiction, responding in his writing to emerging technologies such as "hot air balloons in ""The Balloon-Hoax".
Poe wrote much of his work using themes aimed specifically at mass-market tastes. To that end, his fiction often included elements of popular "pseudosciences, such as "phrenology and "physiognomy.
Poe's writing reflects his literary theories, which he presented in his criticism and also in essays such as ""The Poetic Principle". He disliked "didacticism and "allegory, though he believed that meaning in literature should be an undercurrent just beneath the surface. Works with obvious meanings, he wrote, cease to be art. He believed that work of quality should be brief and focus on a specific single effect. To that end, he believed that the writer should carefully calculate every sentiment and idea.
Poe describes his method in writing "The Raven" in the essay ""The Philosophy of Composition", and he claims to have strictly followed this method. It has been questioned whether he really followed this system, however. "T. S. Eliot said: "It is difficult for us to read that essay without reflecting that if Poe plotted out his poem with such calculation, he might have taken a little more pains over it: the result hardly does credit to the method." Biographer Joseph Wood Krutch described the essay as "a rather highly ingenious exercise in the art of rationalization".
During his lifetime, Poe was mostly recognized as a literary critic. Fellow critic "James Russell Lowell called him "the most discriminating, philosophical, and fearless critic upon imaginative works who has written in America", suggesting—rhetorically—that he occasionally used "prussic acid instead of ink. Poe's caustic reviews earned him the reputation of being a "tomahawk man". A favorite target of Poe's criticism was Boston's acclaimed poet "Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who was often defended by his literary friends in what was later called "The Longfellow War". Poe accused Longfellow of "the heresy of the didactic", writing poetry that was preachy, derivative, and thematically plagiarized. Poe correctly predicted that Longfellow's reputation and style of poetry would decline, concluding, "We grant him high qualities, but deny him the Future".
Poe was also known as a writer of fiction and became one of the first American authors of the 19th century to become more popular in Europe than in the United States. Poe is particularly respected in France, in part due to early translations by "Charles Baudelaire. Baudelaire's translations became definitive renditions of Poe's work throughout Europe.
Poe's early "detective fiction tales featuring "C. Auguste Dupin laid the groundwork for future detectives in literature. Sir "Arthur Conan Doyle said, "Each [of Poe's detective stories] is a root from which a whole literature has developed.... Where was the detective story until Poe breathed the breath of life into it?" The "Mystery Writers of America have named their awards for excellence in the genre the ""Edgars". Poe's work also influenced science fiction, notably "Jules Verne, who wrote a sequel to Poe's novel "The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket called "An Antarctic Mystery, also known as The Sphinx of the Ice Fields. Science fiction author "H. G. Wells noted, "Pym tells what a very intelligent mind could imagine about the south polar region a century ago." In 2013, "The Guardian cited The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket as one of the greatest novels ever written in the English language, and noted its influence on later authors such as "Henry James, "Arthur Conan Doyle, "B. Traven, and "David Morrell.
Like many famous artists, Poe's works have spawned imitators. One trend among imitators of Poe has been claims by "clairvoyants or "psychics to be "channeling" poems from Poe's spirit. One of the most notable of these was Lizzie Doten, who published Poems from the Inner Life in 1863, in which she claimed to have "received" new compositions by Poe's spirit. The compositions were re-workings of famous Poe poems such as ""The Bells", but which reflected a new, positive outlook.
Even so, Poe has received not only praise, but criticism as well. This is partly because of the negative perception of his personal character and its influence upon his reputation. "William Butler Yeats was occasionally critical of Poe and once called him "vulgar". "Transcendentalist "Ralph Waldo Emerson reacted to "The Raven" by saying, "I see nothing in it", and derisively referred to Poe as "the jingle man". "Aldous Huxley wrote that Poe's writing "falls into vulgarity" by being "too poetical"—the equivalent of wearing a diamond ring on every finger.
It is believed that only 12 copies have survived of Poe's first book Tamerlane and Other Poems. In December 2009, one copy sold at "Christie's, New York for $662,500, a record price paid for a work of American literature.
Physics and cosmology
"Eureka: A Prose Poem, an essay written in 1848, included a cosmological theory that presaged the "Big Bang theory by 80 years, as well as the first plausible solution to "Olbers' paradox. Poe eschewed the scientific method in Eureka and instead wrote from pure "intuition. For this reason, he considered it a work of art, not science, but insisted that it was still true and considered it to be his career masterpiece. Even so, Eureka is full of scientific errors. In particular, Poe's suggestions ignored "Newtonian principles regarding the density and rotation of planets.
Poe had a keen interest in "cryptography. He had placed a notice of his abilities in the Philadelphia paper Alexander's Weekly (Express) Messenger, inviting submissions of "ciphers which he proceeded to solve. In July 1841, Poe had published an essay called "A Few Words on Secret Writing" in "Graham's Magazine. Capitalizing on public interest in the topic, he wrote ""The Gold-Bug" incorporating ciphers as an essential part of the story. Poe's success with cryptography relied not so much on his deep knowledge of that field (his method was limited to the simple "substitution cryptogram) as on his knowledge of the magazine and newspaper culture. His keen analytical abilities, which were so evident in his detective stories, allowed him to see that the general public was largely ignorant of the methods by which a simple substitution cryptogram can be solved, and he used this to his advantage. The sensation that Poe created with his cryptography stunts played a major role in popularizing cryptograms in newspapers and magazines.
Poe had an influence on cryptography beyond increasing public interest during his lifetime. "William Friedman, America's foremost cryptologist, was heavily influenced by Poe. Friedman's initial interest in cryptography came from reading "The Gold-Bug" as a child, an interest that he later put to use in deciphering Japan's "PURPLE code during "World War II.
In popular culture
As a character
The historical Edgar Allan Poe has appeared as a fictionalized character, often representing the "mad genius" or "tormented artist" and exploiting his personal struggles. Many such depictions also blend in with characters from his stories, suggesting that Poe and his characters share identities. Often, fictional depictions of Poe use his mystery-solving skills in such novels as "The Poe Shadow by "Matthew Pearl.
Preserved homes, landmarks, and museums
No childhood home of Poe is still standing, including the Allan family's Moldavia estate. The oldest standing home in Richmond, the Old Stone House, is in use as the "Edgar Allan Poe Museum, though Poe never lived there. The collection includes many items that Poe used during his time with the Allan family, and also features several rare first printings of Poe works. 13 West Range is the dorm room that Poe is believed to have used while studying at the University of Virginia in 1826; it is preserved and available for visits. Its upkeep is now overseen by a group of students and staff known as the "Raven Society.
The earliest surviving home in which Poe lived is in Baltimore, preserved as the "Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum. Poe is believed to have lived in the home at the age of 23 when he first lived with Maria Clemm and Virginia (as well as his grandmother and possibly his brother William Henry Leonard Poe). It is open to the public and is also the home of the Edgar Allan Poe Society. Of the several homes that Poe, his wife Virginia, and his mother-in-law Maria rented in Philadelphia, only the last house has survived. The Spring Garden home, where the author lived in 1843–1844, is today preserved by the "National Park Service as the "Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site. Poe's final home is preserved as the "Edgar Allan Poe Cottage in the Bronx.
In Boston, a commemorative plaque on Boylston Street is several blocks away from the actual location of Poe's birth. The house which was his birthplace at 62 Carver Street no longer exists; also, the street has since been renamed "Charles Street South". A "square" at the intersection of Broadway, Fayette, and Carver Streets had once been named in his honor, but it disappeared when the streets were rearranged. In 2009, the intersection of Charles and Boylston Streets (two blocks north of his birthplace) was designated "Edgar Allan Poe Square". In March 2014, fundraising was completed for construction of a permanent memorial sculpture at this location. The winning design by Stefanie Rocknak depicts a life-sized Poe striding against the wind, accompanied by a flying raven; his suitcase lid has fallen open, leaving a "paper trail" of literary works embedded in the sidewalk behind him. The public unveiling on October 5, 2014 was attended by former US poet laureate "Robert Pinsky.
Other Poe landmarks include a building in the "Upper West Side where Poe temporarily lived when he first moved to New York. A plaque suggests that Poe wrote "The Raven" here. The bar still stands where legend says that Poe was last seen drinking before his death, in "Fells Point in "Baltimore. The drinking establishment is now known as "The Horse You Came In On", and local lore insists that a ghost whom they call "Edgar" haunts the rooms above.
For decades, every January 19, a bottle of "cognac and three "roses were left at Poe's original grave marker by an unknown visitor affectionately referred to as the "Poe Toaster". On August 15, 2007, Sam Porpora, a former historian at the Westminster Church in Baltimore where Poe is buried, claimed that he had started the tradition in 1949. Porpora said that the tradition began in order to raise money and enhance the profile of the church. His story has not been confirmed, and some details which he gave to the press are factually inaccurate. The Poe Toaster's last appearance was on January 19, 2009, the day of Poe's bicentennial.
Selected list of works
- "Politian (1835) – Poe's only play
- "The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket (1838) – Poe's only complete novel
- ""The Balloon-Hoax" (1844) – A journalistic "hoax printed as a true story
- ""The Philosophy of Composition" (1846) – Essay
- "Eureka: A Prose Poem (1848) – Essay
- ""The Poetic Principle" (1848) – Essay
- ""The Light-House" (1849) – Poe's last incomplete work
- "Edgar Allan Poe and music
- "Edgar Allan Poe in television and film
- "Edgar Allan Poe in popular culture
- "List of coupled cousins
- "USS E.A. Poe (IX-103)
- Stableford 2003, pp. 18–19
- Meyers 1992, p. 138
- Meyers 1992, p. 256
- "Poe & Boston: 2009". The Raven Returns: Edgar Allan Poe Bicentennial Celebration. The Trustees of Boston College. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
- Allen 1927
- Quinn 1998, p. 13
- Nelson 1981, p. 65
- Canada 1997
- Meyers 1992, p. 8
- Meyers 1992, p. 9
- Quinn 1998, p. 61
- Silverman 1991, pp. 16–18
- PoeMuseum.org 2006
- Meyers 1992, p. 20
- Silverman 1991, pp. 27–28
- Silverman 1991, pp. 29–30
- University of Virginia. A Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the University of Virginia. Second Session, Commencing February 1st, 1826. Charlottesville, VA: Chronicle Steam Book Printing House, 1880, p. 10
- Meyers 1992, pp. 21–22
- Silverman 1991, pp. 32–34
- Meyers 1992, p. 32
- Silverman 1991, p. 41
- Cornelius 2002, p. 13
- Meyers 1992, pp. 33–34
- Meyers 1992, p. 35
- Silverman 1991, pp. 43–47
- Meyers 1992, p. 38
- Cornelius 2002, pp. 13–14
- Sova 2001, p. 5
- Krutch 1926, p. 32
- Cornelius 2002, p. 14
- Meyers 1992, pp. 54–55
- Hecker 2005, pp. 49–51
- Meyers 1992, pp. 50–51
- Hecker 2005, pp. 53–54
- Quinn 1998, pp. 187–188
- Whalen 2001, p. 64
- Quinn 1998, p. 305
- Silverman 1991, p. 247
- Whalen 2001, p. 74
- Silverman 1991, p. 99
- Whalen 2001, p. 82
- Meyers 1992, p. 139
- Sova 2001, p. 162
- Sova 2001, p. 225
- Meyers 1992, p. 73
- Silverman 1991, p. 124
- Meyers 1992, p. 85
- Silverman 1991, p. 137
- Meyers 1992, p. 113
- Sova 2001, pp. 39, 99
- Meyers 1992, p. 119
- Silverman 1991, p. 159
- Quinn 1998, pp. 321–322
- Silverman 1991, p. 186
- Meyers 1992, p. 144
- Silverman 1991, p. 187
- Silverman 1991, p. 188
- Silverman 1991, p. 179
- Sova 2001, p. 34
- Quinn 1998, p. 455
- Hoffman 1998, p. 80
- Ostram 1987, p. 5
- Silverman 1991, p. 530
- Schroth, Raymond A. Fordham: A History and Memoir. New York: Fordham University Press, 2008: 22–25.
- BronxHistoricalSociety.org 2007
- Weekes 2002, p. 149
- Benton 1987, p. 19
- Quinn 1998, p. 628
- Quinn 1998, p. 638
- Meyers 1992, p. 255
- Bramsback 1970, p. 40
- Silverman 1991, pp. 435–436
- Silverman 1991, p. 435
- CrimeLibrary.com 2008
- Benitez 1996
- Walsh 2000, pp. 32–33
- Meyers 1992, p. 259 To read Griswold's full obituary, see Edgar Allan Poe obituary at Wikisource.
- Hoffman 1998, p. 14
- Quinn 1998, p. 693
- Sova 2001, p. 101
- Meyers 1992, p. 263
- Quinn 1998, p. 699
- Meyers 1992, p. 64
- Royot 2002, p. 57
- Kennedy 1987, p. 3
- Koster 2002, p. 336
- Ljunquist 2002, p. 15
- Royot 2002, pp. 61–62
- "(Introduction)" (Exhibition at Boston Public Library). The Raven in the Frog Pond: Edgar Allan Poe and the City of Boston. The Trustees of Boston College. December 17, 2009 – March 31, 2010. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
- Hayes 2002, p. 16
- Silverman 1991, p. 169
- Silverman 1991, p. 88
- Fisher 1993, pp. 142,149
- Tresch 2002, p. 114
- Whalen 2001, p. 67
- Hungerford 1930, pp. 209–231
- Grayson 2005, pp. 56–77
- Krutch 1926, p. 225
- Kagle 1990, p. 104
- Poe 1847, pp. 252–256
- Wilbur 1967, p. 99
- Jannaccone 1974, p. 3
- Hoffman 1998, p. 76
- Krutch 1926, p. 98
- Quinn 1998, p. 432
- Zimmerman, Brett (2005). Edgar Allan Poe: Rhetoric and Style. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 85–87. "ISBN "0-7735-2899-7.
- Lewis, Paul (March 6, 2011). "Quoth the detective: Edgar Allan Poe's case against the Boston literati". boston.com. Globe Newspaper Company. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "Longfellow's Serenity and Poe's Prediction" (Exhibition at Boston Public Library and Massachusetts Historical Society). Forgotten Chapters of Boston's Literary History. The Trustees of Boston College. March 28 – July 30, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- Meyers 1992, p. 258
- Harner 1990, p. 218
- Frank & Magistrale 1997, p. 103
- Neimeyer 2002, p. 206
- Frank & Magistrale 1997, p. 364
- Frank & Magistrale 1997, p. 372
- McCrum, Robert (November 23, 2013). "The 100 best novels: No 10 – The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket by Edgar Allan Poe (1838)". "The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
- Meyers 1992, p. 281
- Carlson 1996, p. 476
- Meyers 1992, p. 274
- Silverman 1991, p. 265
- New York Times 1894
- Huxley 1967, p. 32
- New York Daily News 2009
- Cappi 1994
- Rombeck 2005
- Harrison 1987
- Smoot & Davidson 1994
- Meyers 1992, p. 214
- Silverman 1991, p. 399
- Meyers 1992, p. 219
- Sova 2001, p. 82
- Silverman 1991, p. 152
- Rosenheim 1997, pp. 2, 6
- Friedman 1993, pp. 40–41
- Rosenheim 1997, p. 15
- Rosenheim 1997, p. 146
- Neimeyer 2002, p. 209
- Gargano 1967, p. 165
- Maslin 2006
- The Raven Society 2014
- Edgar Allan Poe Society 2007
- Burns 2006
- "Edgar Allan Poe Birth Place". Massachusetts Historical Markers on Waymarking.com. Groundspeak, Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- Van Hoy 2007
- Glenn 2007
- "An Interactive Map of Literary Boston: 1794–1862" (Exhibition). Forgotten Chapters of Boston's Literary History. The Trustees of Boston College. March 28 – July 30, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- Glenn, Joshua (April 9, 2007). "The house of Poe – mystery solved!". boston.com. The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- "Edgar Allan Poe Square". The City Record, and Boston News-letter. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- "Edgar Allan Poe Square". Massachusetts Historical Markers on Waymarking.com. Groundspeak, Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "The Poe Statue". www.bostonpoe.org. Edgar Allan Poe Foundation of Boston, Inc. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- Fox, Jeremy C. (February 1, 2013). "Vision for an Edgar Allan Poe memorial in Boston comes closer to reality". boston.com (Boston Globe). Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- Kaiser, Johanna (April 23, 2012). "Boston chooses life-size Edgar Allan Poe statue to commemorate writer's ties to city". boston.com (Boston Globe). Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "About the project". Edgar Allan Poe Square Public Art Project. Edgar Allan Poe Foundation of Boston, Inc. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- Lee, M.G. (October 5, 2014). "Edgar Allan Poe immortalized in the city he loathed". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
- Lake 2006, p. 195
- Hall 2007
- Associated Press 2007
- "Poe Toaster tribute is 'nevermore'". The Baltimore Sun. Tribune Company. January 19, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
- Allen, Hervey (1927). "Introduction". The Works of Edgar Allan Poe. New York: P. F. Collier & Son.
- "Man Reveals Legend of Mystery Visitor to Edgar Allan Poe's Grave". Fox News. Associated Press. August 15, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
- Benitez, R, Michael (September 15, 1996). "Poe's Death Is Rewritten as Case of Rabies, Not Telltale Alcohol". New York Times. Based on "A 39-year-old man with mental status change". Maryland Medical Journal. 45: 765–769. 1996.
- Benton, Richard P. (1987). "Poe's Literary Labors and Rewards". In Fisher, Benjamin Franklin IV. Myths and Reality: The Mysterious Mr. Poe. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe Society. pp. 1–25. "ISBN "978-0-9616449-1-8.
- Bramsback, Birgit (1970). "The Final Illness and Death of Edgar Allan Poe: An Attempt at Reassessment". Studia Neophilologica. University of Uppsala. XLII: 40. "doi:10.1080/00393277008587456.
- BronxHistoricalSociety.org (2007). "Edgar Allan Poe Cottage". Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11.
- Burns, Niccole (November 15, 2006). "Poe wrote most important works in Philadelphia". School of Communication — "University of Miami. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
- Cappi, Alberto (1994). "Edgar Allan Poe's Physical Cosmology". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 35: 177–192. "Bibcode:1994QJRAS..35..177C.
- Canada, Mark, ed. (1997). "Edgar Allan Poe Chronology". Canada's America. Retrieved 2007-06-03.
- CrimeLibrary.com (2008). "Death Suspicion Cholera". Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- Carlson, Eric Walter (1996). A Companion to Poe Studies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. "ISBN "978-0-313-26506-8.
- Cornelius, Kay (2002). "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe". In "Harold Bloom. Bloom's BioCritiques: Edgar Allan Poe. Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House Publishers. "ISBN "978-0-7910-6173-2.
- Edgar Allan Poe Society (2007). "The Baltimore Poe House and Museum". Retrieved 2007-10-13.
- Fisher, Benjamin Franklin IV (1993). "Poe's 'Metzengerstein': Not a Hoax (1971)". On Poe: The Best from American Literature. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 142–149. "ISBN "978-0-8223-1311-3.
- Foye, Raymond, ed. (1980). The Unknown Poe (Paperback ed.). San Francisco, CA: City Lights. "ISBN "0-87286-110-4.
- Frank, Frederick S.; Magistrale, Anthony (1997). The Poe Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. "ISBN "978-0-313-27768-9.
- Friedman, William F. (1993). "Edgar Allan Poe, Cryptographer (1936)". On Poe: The Best from American Literature. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 40–54. "ISBN "978-0-8223-1311-3.
- Gargano, James W. (1967). "The Question of Poe's Narrators". In Regan, Robert. Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. p. 165. "ISBN "978-0-13-684963-6.
- Glenn, Joshua (April 9, 2007). "The house of Poe – mystery solved!". The Boston Globe.
- Grayson, Eric (2005). "Weird Science, Weirder Unity: Phrenology and Physiognomy in Edgar Allan Poe". Mode 1: 56–77.
- Hall, Wiley (August 15, 2007). "Poe Fan Takes Credit for Grave Legend". USA Today. Associated Press.
- Harner, Gary Wayne (1990). "Edgar Allan Poe in France: Baudelaire's Labor of Love". In Fisher, Benjamin Franklin IV. Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe Society. "ISBN "978-0-9616449-2-5.
- "Harrison, Edward (1987). Darkness at Night: A Riddle of the Universe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. "ISBN "978-0-674-19270-6.
- Harrowitz, Nancy (1984), "The Body of the Detective Model: Charles S. Peirce and Edgar Allan Poe", in "Umberto Eco; "Thomas Sebeok, The Sign of Three: Dupin, Holmes, Peirce, Bloomington, IN: History Workshop, Indiana University Press, pp. 179–197, "ISBN "978-0-253-35235-4. Harrowitz discusses Poe's "tales of ratiocination" in the light of "Charles Sanders Peirce's logic of making good guesses or "abductive reasoning.
- Hayes, Kevin J. (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "978-0-521-79326-1.
- Hecker, William J. (2005), Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West Point Poems, Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, "ISBN "978-0-8071-3054-4
- "Hoffman, Daniel (1998) . Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. "ISBN "978-0-8071-2321-8.
- Hungerford, Edward (1930). "Poe and Phrenology". American Literature. 1: 209–231. "doi:10.2307/2920231.
- "Huxley, Aldous (1967). "Vulgarity in Literature". In Regan, Robert. Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. p. 32. "ISBN "978-0-13-684963-6.
- Jannaccone, Pasquale (translated by Peter Mitilineos) (1974). "The Aesthetics of Edgar Poe". Poe Studies. 7 (1). "doi:10.1111/j.1754-6095.1974.tb00224.x.
- Kagle, Steven E. (1990). "The Corpse Within Us". In Fisher, Benjamin Franklin IV. Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe Society. "ISBN "978-0-9616449-2-5.
- Kennedy, J. Gerald (1987). Poe, Death, and the Life of Writing. New Haven: Yale University Press. "ISBN "978-0-300-03773-9.
- Koster, Donald N. (2002). "Influences of Transcendentalism on American Life and Literature". In Galens, David. Literary Movements for Students Vol. 1. Detroit: Thompson Gale.
- Krutch, Joseph Wood (1926). Edgar Allan Poe: A Study in Genius. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. (1992 reprint: "ISBN 978-0-7812-6835-6)
- Lake, Matt (2006). Weird Maryland. New York: Sterling Publishing. "ISBN "978-1-4027-3906-4.
- Ljunquist, Kent (2002). "The poet as critic". In Hayes, Kevin J. The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–20. "ISBN "978-0-521-79727-6.
- Maslin, Janet (June 6, 2006). "The Poe Shadow". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
- Meyers, Jeffrey (1992). Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy (Paperback ed.). New York: Cooper Square Press. "ISBN "978-0-8154-1038-6.
- Neimeyer, Mark (2002). "Poe and Popular Culture". In Hayes, Kevin J. The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 205–224. "ISBN "978-0-521-79727-6.
- Nelson, Randy F. (1981). The Almanac of American Letters. Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann, Inc. "ISBN "978-0-86576-008-0.
- New York Daily News (December 5, 2009). "Edgar Allan Poe's first book from 1827 sells for $662,500; record price for American literature". Retrieved 2009-12-24.
- New York Times (May 20, 1894). "Emerson's Estimate of Poe". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-02.
- Ostram, John Ward (1987). "Poe's Literary Labors and Rewards". In Fisher, Benjamin Franklin IV. Myths and Reality: The Mysterious Mr. Poe. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe Society. pp. 37–47. "ISBN "978-0-9616449-1-8.
- Poe, Edgar Allan (November 1847). "Tale-Writing—Nathaniel Hawthorne". Godey's Ladies Book: 252–256. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- PoeMuseum.org (2006). "Celebrate Edgar Allan Poe's 197th Birthday at the Poe museum". Archived from the original on 2009-01-05.
- Quinn, Arthur Hobson (1998). Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. "ISBN "978-0-8018-5730-0. (Originally published in 1941 by New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.)
- The Raven Society (2014). "History". "University of Virginia alumni. Retrieved 2014-05-18.
- Rombeck, Terry (January 22, 2005). "Poe's little-known science book reprinted". Lawrence Journal-World & News.
- Rosenheim, Shawn James (1997). The Cryptographic Imagination: Secret Writing from Edgar Poe to the Internet. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. "ISBN "978-0-8018-5332-6.
- Royot, Daniel (2002), "Poe's Humor", in Hayes, Kevin J., The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 57–71, "ISBN "978-0-521-79326-1
- "Silverman, Kenneth (1991). Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-Ending Remembrance (Paperback ed.). New York: Harper Perennial. "ISBN "978-0-06-092331-0.
- "Smoot, George; Davidson, Keay (1994). Wrinkles in Time (Reprint ed.). New York: Harper Perennial. "ISBN "978-0-380-72044-6.
- Sova, Dawn B. (2001). Edgar Allan Poe A to Z: The Essential Reference to His Life and Work (Paperback ed.). New York: Checkmark Books. "ISBN "978-0-8160-4161-9.
- "Stableford, Brian (2003). "Science fiction before the genre". In James, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–31. "ISBN "978-0-521-01657-5.
- Tresch, John (2002). "Extra! Extra! Poe invents science fiction". In Hayes, Kevin J. The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 113–132. "ISBN "978-0-521-79326-1.
- Van Hoy, David C. (February 18, 2007). "The Fall of the House of Edgar". The Boston Globe.
- Walsh, John Evangelist (2000) . Poe the Detective: The Curious Circumstances behind 'The Mystery of Marie Roget'. New York: St. Martins Minotaur. "ISBN "978-0-8135-0567-1. (1968 edition printed by Rutgers University Press)
- Weekes, Karen (2002). "Poe's feminine ideal". In Hayes, Kevin J. The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 148–162. "ISBN "978-0-521-79326-1.
- Whalen, Terance (2001). "Poe and the American Publishing Industry". In Kennedy, J. Gerald. A Historical Guide to Edgar Allan Poe. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 63–94. "ISBN "978-0-19-512150-6.
- Wilbur, Richard (1967). "The House of Poe". In Regan, Robert. Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. p. 99. "ISBN "978-0-13-684963-6.
- "Ackroyd, Peter (2008). Poe: A Life Cut Short. London: Chatto & Windus. "ISBN "978-0-7011-6988-6.
- Bittner, William (1962). Poe: A Biography. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. "ISBN "0-316-09686-5.
- George Washington Eveleth (1922). Thomas Ollive Mabbott, ed. The letters from George W. Eveleth to Edgar Allan Poe. Volume 26 of Bulletin of the New York Public Library (reprint ed.). The New York Public Library.
- Hutchisson, James M. (2005). Poe. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. "ISBN "1-57806-721-9.
- "William A. Pannapacker. "A Question of 'Character': Visual Images and the Nineteenth-Century Construction of Edgar Allan Poe." Harvard Library Bulletin, New Series Fall 1996, Volume 7, Number 3
- "Poe, Harry Lee (2008). Edgar Allan Poe: An Illustrated Companion to His Tell-Tale Stories. New York: Metro Books. "ISBN "978-1-4351-0469-3.
- Pope-Hennessy, Una (1934). Edgar Allan Poe, 1809-1849: A Critical Biography. New York: Haskell House.
- "Robinson, Marilynne, "On Edgar Allan Poe", "The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 2 (5 February 2015), pp. 4, 6.
- Works by Edgar Allan Poe at "Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Edgar Allan Poe at "Internet Archive
- Works by Edgar Allan Poe at "LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Works by Edgar Allan Poe at "Open Library
- Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site
- Edgar Allan Poe Society in Baltimore
- Poe Museum in Richmond, Virginia
- Edgar Allan Poe's Personal Correspondence Shapell Manuscript Foundation
- Edgar Allan Poe's Collection at the "Harry Ransom Center at "The University of Texas at Austin
- 'Funeral' honours Edgar Allan Poe "BBC News (with video) 2009-10-11
- Selected Stories from American Studies at the University of Virginia