Some of the public relations and marketing campaigns Bernays worked on:
- 1913 Bernays was hired by the actor "Richard Bennett to protect a play that supported "sex education against police interference. Bernays set up a front group called the "Medical Review of Reviews Sociological Fund" (officially concerned with fighting "venereal disease) for the purpose of endorsing the play.
- 1915 Diaghilev's Ballet Russes American tour convince "magazines to write articles that told people that "ballet is fun to watch.
- 1920 Successfully hosted the first "NAACP convention in Atlanta, Georgia. His campaign was considered successful because there was no violence at the convention. His campaign focused on the important contributions of "African-Americans to "Whites living in the "South. He later received an award from the NAACP for his contribution.
- In the 1920s, working for the American Tobacco Company, he sent a group of young models to march in the New York City parade. He then told the press that a group of "women's rights marchers would light ""Torches of Freedom". On his signal, the models lit "Lucky Strike cigarettes in front of the eager photographers. "The New York Times (1 April 1929) printed: "Group of Girls Puff at Cigarettes as a Gesture of 'Freedom'". This helped to break the "taboo against women smoking in public. During this decade, he also handled publicity for the NAACP.
- Bernays once engineered a "pancake breakfast" with vaudevillians for Calvin Coolidge, in what is widely considered one of the first overt media acts for a president.
- Bernays used his uncle "Sigmund Freud's ideas to help convince the public, among other things, that bacon and eggs was the true all-American breakfast.
- In October 1929, Bernays was involved in promoting Light's Golden Jubilee. The event, which spanned across several major cities in the U.S., was designed to celebrate the 50th anniversary of "Thomas Edison's invention of the "light-bulb (though the light-bulb had been previously invented by "Joseph Swan). The publicity elements of the Jubilee – including the special issuance of a U.S. postage stamp and Edison's "re-creating" the invention of the light bulb for a nationwide radio audience – provided evidence of Bernays' love for big ideas and ""ballyhoo". A follow-up event for the 75th anniversary, produced for "television by "David O. Selznick, was titled "Light's Diamond Jubilee and broadcast on all four American TV networks on October 24, 1954.
- Bernays attempted to help Venida hair nets company to get women to wear their hair longer so they would use hairnets more. The campaign failed but did get government officials to require hairnets for some jobs.
- Bernays worked with "Procter & Gamble for "Ivory-brand bar soap. The campaign successfully convinced people that Ivory soap was medically superior to other soaps. He also promoted soap through sculpting contests and floating contests because the soap floated better than competing products.
- In the 1930s, his "Dixie Cup campaign was designed to convince consumers that only "disposable cups were sanitary by linking the imagery of an overflowing cup with subliminal images of vaginas and "venereal disease.
- In the 1930s, he attempted to convince women that Lucky Strike cigarettes' forest green pack was the most fashionable color. Letters were written to interior and fashion designers, department stores, and prominent women of society pushing green as the new hot color for the season. Balls, gallery exhibitions, and window displays all featured green after Bernays got through with them. The result was that green did indeed become a very hot color for the 1934 season and Lucky Strike kept their pack color and female clientele intact.
- He was the publicity director of the "1939 New York World's Fair.
- After his semi-retirement in the 1960s he worked with the pro-health anti-smoking lawyer John Banzhaf's group, "ASH, and supported other anti-smoking campaigns.
Overthrow of government of Guatemala
Bernays' most extreme political propaganda activities were said to be conducted on behalf of the "multinational corporation "United Fruit Company (today's "Chiquita Brands International) and the U.S. government to facilitate "the successful overthrow (see "Operation PBSUCCESS) of the democratically elected president of "Guatemala, Colonel "Jacobo Arbenz Guzman. Bernays' propaganda (documented in the BBC documentary, "The Century of the Self), branding Arbenz as communist, was published in major U.S. media. According to a book review by "John Stauber and "Sheldon Rampton of "Larry Tye's biography of Bernays, The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays & The Birth of PR, "The term '"banana republic' actually originated in reference to United Fruit's domination of corrupt governments in Guatemala and other Central American countries."
Recognition and criticism
Much of Bernays' reputation today stems from his persistent public relations campaign to build his own reputation as "America's No. 1 Publicist". During his active years, many of his peers in the industry were offended by Bernays' continuous self-promotion. According to "Scott Cutlip, "Bernays was a brilliant person who had a spectacular career, but, to use an old-fashioned word, he was a braggart."
"When a person would first meet Bernays," says Cutlip, "it would not be long until Uncle Sigmund would be brought into the conversation. His relationship with Freud was always in the forefront of his thinking and his counseling." According to Irwin Ross, another writer, "Bernays liked to think of himself as a kind of psychoanalyst to troubled corporations." In the early 1920s, Bernays arranged an English-language translation of Freud's A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis for the US publication. In addition to publicizing Freud's ideas, Bernays used his association with Freud to establish his own reputation as a thinker and theorist—a reputation that was further enhanced when Bernays authored several landmark texts of his own, most notably Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923, "ISBN 0-87140-975-5), Propaganda (1928, "ISBN 0-8046-1511-X) and ""The Engineering of Consent" in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (March 1947).["citation needed]
Bernays defined the profession of "counsel on public relations" as a "practicing social scientist" whose "competence is like that of the industrial engineer, the management engineer, or the investment counselor in their respective fields". To assist clients, PR counselors used "understanding of the behavioral sciences and applying them – sociology, social psychology, anthropology, history, etc." In "Propaganda, his most important book,["citation needed] Bernays argued that the scientific manipulation of public opinion was necessary to overcome chaos and conflict in society.["citation needed]
Bernays' celebration of propaganda helped define public relations, but it did not win the industry many friends. In a letter to "President Franklin D. Roosevelt, "Supreme Court Justice "Felix Frankfurter described Bernays and "Ivy Lee as "professional poisoners of the public mind, exploiters of foolishness, fanaticism and self-interest". History showed the flaw in Bernays' identification of the "manipulation of the masses"—as a natural and necessary feature of a "democratic society—when the "fascist rise to power in Germany demonstrated that propaganda could be used to subvert democracy as easily as it could be used to "resolve conflict".
In his 1965 autobiography, Bernays recalls a dinner at his home in 1933 where
- "Karl von Wiegand, foreign correspondent of the Hearst newspapers, an old hand at interpreting Europe and just returned from Germany, was telling us about "Goebbels and his propaganda plans to consolidate Nazi power. Goebbels had shown Wiegand his propaganda library, the best Wiegand had ever seen. Goebbels, said Wiegand, was using my book Crystallizing Public Opinion as a basis for his destructive campaign against the Jews of Germany. This shocked me. ... Obviously the attack on the Jews of Germany was no emotional outburst of the Nazis, but a deliberate, planned campaign.
According to John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton, in a published review of Larry Tye's biography of Bernays:
- It is impossible to fundamentally grasp the social, political, economic and cultural developments of the past 100 years without some understanding of Bernays and his professional heirs in the public relations industry. PR is a 20th-century phenomenon, and Bernays—widely eulogized as the "father of public relations" at the time of his death in 1995—played a major role in defining the industry's philosophy and methods.
As a result, his legacy remains a highly contested one, as evidenced by Adam Curtis' 2002 BBC documentary "The Century of the Self.
- The Broadway Anthology (1917, co-author)
- Crystallizing Public Opinion (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1923) "OCLC 215243834
- A Public Relations Counsel (1927)
- An Outline of Careers: A Practical Guide to Achievement by Thirty-Eight Eminent Americans (1927)
- Verdict of Public Opinion on Propaganda (1927)
- "Propaganda (New York: Horace Liveright. 1928) "ISBN 978-0-8046-1511-2
- This Business of Propaganda (1928)
- Universities—Pathfinders in Public Opinion (1937)
- Careers for Men: A Practical Guide to Opportunity in Business, Written by Thirty-Eight Successful Americans (1939)
- Speak Up for Democracy: What You Can Do—A Practical Plan of Action for Every American Citizen (New York: The Viking Press, 1940)
- Future of Private Enterprise in the Post-War World (1942)
- Democratic Leadership in Total War (1943)
- Psychological Blueprint for the Peace—Canada, U.S.A. (1944)
- "Public Relations (1945)
- Your Place at the Peace Table. What You Can Do to Win a Lasting United Nations Peace (New York: The Gerent Press, 1945)
- What the British Think of Us: A Study of British Hostility to America and Americans and Its Motivation, with Recommendations for Improving Anglo-American Relations (1950, co-author with his wife Doris Fleischman)
- "The Engineering of Consent (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955)(contributor) "OCLC 550584
- Your Future in Public Relations (1961)
- Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of Public Relations Counsel (1965)
- Case for Reappraisal of U.S. Overseas Information Policies and Programs (Special Study) (1970), by Edward L. Bernays and Burnet Hershey (editors)
- "Crowd manipulation
- "Spin (public relations)
- "Mass psychology
- "Isaac Bernays (1792–1849) his great-grandfather
- "Edward Bernays, 'Father of Public Relations' And Leader in Opinion Making, Dies at 103". The New York Times. March 10, 1995.
- Trotter (1919).
- Ewen, Stuart (1996). "Chapter 1: Visiting Edward Bernays". PR! A Social History Of Spin – Chapter 1. Basic Books.
- Colford, Paul D. (December 5, 1991). "A Birthday Salute to the Father of Public Relations". Newsday (Nassau ed.). Part II p. 78. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Tye, Larry. "Chapter 1: Starting with Symbols". The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of Public Relations. Henry Holt.
Bernays was offered positions at the Medical Review of Reviews and the Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette.
- Cook, Joan (July 12, 1980). "Doris Fleischman Bernays Dead; Pioneer Public Relations Counsel". The New York Times. Metropolitan Report p. 22. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- BBC. "The Century of the Self". Archived from the original on February 28, 2012.
- Bernays, Edward (1928). Propaganda. New York: "Horace Liveright. Retrieved February 24, 2016.["pages needed]
- Bernays, Edward (2005) . Propaganda. Brooklyn, N.Y: Ig Pub. p. 47. "ISBN "0970312598.
- Bernays, Edward L. (March 1947). "The Engineering of Consent" (PDF). "Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 250 (1): 113–20 at p. 114. "doi:10.1177/000271624725000116. "ISSN 0002-7162. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 13, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
Any person or organization depends ultimately on public approval, and is therefore faced with the problem of engineering the public's consent to a program or goal.
- Bernays, Edward L. (1961). Crystallizing Public Opinion (PDF). New York: "Liveright Publishing. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- "Smoking in Public Barred for Women; Police Enforce law"
- "Edward L. Bernays tells the story of making bacon & eggs all-American Breakfast".
- Cutlip, Scott M. (1994). The Unseen Power: Public Relations. A History. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 160. "ISBN "0-8058-1464-7 – via Google Books.
- "Guide to People, Organizations, and Topics in Prosperity and Thrift". Prosperity and Thrift: The Coolidge Era and the Consumer Economy, 1921-1929. Library of Congress. 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- Bernays, Edward L. (1965). Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of Public Relations Counsel Edward L. Bernays. "Simon & Schuster. "ASIN B0007DFE5G.
- President's Research Committee on Social Trends (1933). Recent Social Trends in the United States. "Internet Archive. "McGraw-Hill Book Company.
- Peters, John Durham; Simonson, Peter (2004). Mass communication and American social thought: key texts, 1919–1968. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 51–57. "ISBN "978-0-7425-2839-0.
- Edward Bernays Propaganda (1928) p9. 9–10
- Cutlip, Scott M. (1994). The unseen power: public relations, a history. L. Erlbaum Associates. p. 185. "ISBN "0-8058-1464-7.
- "Everett Dean Martin and Edward L. Bernays, Are We Victims of Propaganda? (Library of Congress reproduction from The Forum Magazine, March, 1929)". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- "National Thrift Week". Institute for American Values. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
- Bernays, Edward L. (1965). Biography of an idea: memoirs of public relations counsel. Simon and Schuster. p. 606.
I offered to help organize the Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy, made up for the most part of Americans of Danish ...
- Hasselriis, Caspar Henrik Wolffsen (1959). Helligdag: erindringer (in Danish). Udgivet af Dansk samvirke hos E. Munksgaard. p. 143.
... at han vilde engagere den kendte Public Relations Ekspert Edward L. Bernays til at være Raadgiver. ... Resultatet blev Dannelsen af "American Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy", et Navn foreslaaet af Mr. Bernays, som mente, ...
- Jensen, Mette Bastholm; Jensen, Steven L. B. (2003). Denmark and the Holocaust. Institute for International Studies, Department for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. "ISBN "978-87-989305-1-8.
The "Father of Public Relations and Spin" and nephew of Sigmund Freud Edward L. Bernays (1890–1995), was also hired by the Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy as a ...
- Rampton, Sheldon; Stauber, John (2001), Trust us, we're experts, pp. 44f.
- Stephen Bender. Karl Rove & the Spectre of Freud’s Nephew, "LewRockwell.com, 2005-02-04
- Alix Spiegel. Freud's Nephew and the Origins of Public Relations, "Morning Edition, 2005-04-22
- Alan Bilton (2013). Silent Film Comedy and American Culture. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 16. "ISBN "978-1-137-02025-3.
- BBC. "The Century of the Self". peter1979sk. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
- Cutlip, Scott. 1994. The Unseen Power: Public Relations: A History. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. p. 160. "ISBN 0805814647
- Dennis W. Johnson. Routledge Handbook of Political Management, (New York: Routledge, 2009), 314 n. 3; see Edward Bernays, Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of Public Relations Counsel Edward L. Bernays (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965) .
- Stauber, John and Sheldon Rampton. "Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of PR" (book review). PR Watch 6:2, Second Quarter, 1999 (p. 11).
- American National Biography v. 2, Oxford University Press, 1999.
- "John Stauber and "Sheldon Rampton, Toxic Sludge Is Good For You: Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry
- Edward Bernays, Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of a Public Relations Counsel
- Larry Tye, The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of Public Relations (1998, "ISBN 0-517-70435-8)
- "Scott Cutlip, The Unseen Power: Public Relations: A History (1994, "ISBN 0-8058-1464-7)
- Stuart Ewen, PR! A Social History of Spin 1996, "ISBN 0-465-06168-0, (excerpt )
- "Curtis, Adam (November 26, 2008). "Century Of Self. 1-1 Happiness Machines". BBC. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- "Freud's Nephew and the Origins of Public Relations". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- Nimmo, Dan D.; Chevelle Newsome (1997). Political Commentators in the United States in the 20th Century: A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, Conn.: "Greenwood Press. pp. 1–9. "ISBN "0-313-29585-9.
- "Marvin Olasky column on his interview with Bernays at Townhall.com
- "Wilfred Trotter (1919). Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War – 4th impression, with postscript. New York, MacMillan.
|""||"Wikisource has original works written by or about:
|""||Wikiquote has quotations related to: Edward Bernays|
- Torches of Freedom Video Clip
- Edward L. Bernays tells the story of "Torches of Freedom" in his own words – video clip −1999
- The Edward L. Bernays papers, 1982–1998 (bulk 1993–1995) are located in the Northeastern University Libraries, Archives and Special Collections Department, Boston, MA.
- Booknotes interview with Larry Tye on The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays & The Birth of Public Relations, September 20, 1998.
- Appearances on "C-SPAN
- Works by Edward L. Bernays at "Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Edward Bernays at "Internet Archive