|Born||4th May 1932
|Died||10th September 2014
"Princeton, New Jersey
|"Thesis||On the Operator Theory of Markoff Processes|
|"Doctoral advisor||"Irving Segal|
Edward Nelson (May 4, 1932 – September 10, 2014) was a professor in the Mathematics Department at "Princeton University. He was known for his work on "mathematical physics and "mathematical logic. In mathematical logic, he was noted especially for his "internal set theory, and views on "ultrafinitism and the "consistency of "arithmetic. In "philosophy of mathematics he advocated the view of "formalism rather than "platonism or "intuitionism. He also wrote on the relationship between religion and mathematics.
Born in "Decatur, Georgia, in 1932, Nelson lived in "Italy as a child under the dictatorship of "Mussolini. Nelson moved with his mother to "New York City before "World War II while his father, who spoke fluent "Russian, stayed in "St. Petersburg in connection with issues related to "prisoners of war. After the war he returned to Italy for high school.
He received his Ph.D. in 1955 from the "University of Chicago, where he worked with "Irving Segal. He was a member of the "Institute for Advanced Study from 1956 to 1959. He held a position at "Princeton University starting in 1959, attaining the rank of professor there in 1964 and retiring in 2013.
Nelson made contributions to the theory of infinite-dimensional "group representations, the mathematical treatment of "quantum field theory, the use of "stochastic processes in "quantum mechanics, and the reformulation of "probability theory in terms of "non-standard analysis.For many years he worked on "mathematical physics and probability theory, and he retained a residual interest in these fields, particularly in connection with possible extensions of stochastic mechanics to "field theory.
In 1950, Nelson formulated a popular variant of the "four color problem: What is the chromatic number, denoted , of the plane? In more detail, what is the smallest number of colors sufficient for coloring the points of the Euclidean plane such that no two points of the same color are unit distance apart? We know by simple arguments that 4 ≤ χ ≤ 7. The problem was introduced to a wide mathematical audience by "Martin Gardner in his October 1960 "Mathematical Games column. The chromatic number problem, also now known as the "Hadwiger–Nelson problem, was a favorite of "Paul Erdős, who mentioned it frequently in his problems lectures.
In the later part of his career, he worked on mathematical logic and the foundations of mathematics. One of his goals was to extend IST ("Internal Set Theory—a version of a portion of "Abraham Robinson's "non-standard analysis) in a natural manner that includes external functions and sets, in a way that provides an external function with specified properties unless there is a finitary obstacle to its existence. Other work centered on fragments of arithmetic, studying the divide between those theories interpretable in "Raphael Robinson's Arithmetic and those that are not; "computational complexity, including the problem of whether "P is equal to NP or not; and automated proof checking.
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