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Eileithyia
Goddess of Childbirth
""Amphora birth Athena Louvre F32.jpg
The birth of "Athena from the head of "Zeus, with Eileithyia on the right.
Abode "Mount Olympus
Personal Information
Parents "Zeus and "Hera
Siblings "Aeacus, "Angelos, "Aphrodite, "Apollo, "Ares, "Artemis, "Athena, "Dionysus, "Enyo, "Ersa, "Hebe, "Helen of Troy, "Heracles, "Hermes, "Minos, "Pandia, "Persephone, "Perseus, "Rhadamanthus, the "Graces, the "Horae, the "Litae, the "Muses, the "Moirai
Roman equivalent "Lucina

Eileithyia or Ilithyia ("/ɪlɪˈθ.ə/;[1] "Greek: Εἰλείθυια;,Ἐλεύθυια (Eleuthyia) in "Crete, also Ἐλευθία (Eleuthia) or Ἐλυσία (Elysia) in "Laconia and "Messene, and Ἐλευθώ (Eleuthō) in literature)[2] was the "Greek goddess of "childbirth and "midwifery.[3] In the cave of "Amnisos ("Crete) she was related with the annual birth of the divine child, and her cult is connected with Enesidaon (the earth shaker), who was the "chthonic aspect of the god "Poseidon. It is possible that her cult is related with the cult of "Eleusis.[4]

Contents

Etymology[edit]

The earliest form of the name is the "Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀩𐀄𐀴𐀊, e-re-u-ti-ja, written in the "Linear B syllabic script.[5] Ilithyia is the "latinisation of Εἰλείθυια. The etymology of the name is uncertain. "R. S. P. Beekes, suggests a not "Indo-European etymology,[6] and "Nilsson believes that the name is "Pre-Greek [7] 19th-century scholars suggested that the name is Greek, derived from the verb eleutho (ἐλεύθω), "to bring," the goddess thus being The Bringer.[8] "Walter Burkert believes that Eileithyia is the Greek goddess of birth and that her name is pure-Greek.[9] However the relation with the Greek prefix ἐλεύθ is uncertain, because the prefix appears in some "Pre-Greek "toponyms like Ἐλευθέρνα ("Eleutherna) therefore it is possible that the name is Pre-Greek.[10] Her name Ἐλυσία ( Elysia) in "Laconia and "Messene, probably relates her with the month Eleusinios and "Eleusis[11][12] "Nilsson believes that the name " Eleusis " is "Pre-Greek[13]

Origins[edit]

According to F. Willets "The links between Eileithyia, an earlier Minoan goddess, and a still earlier "Neolithic prototype are, relatively, firm. The continuity of her cult depends upon the unchanging concept of her function. Eileithyia was the goddess of childbirth; and the divine helper of women in labour has an obvious origin in the human midwife." To "Homer, she is "the goddess of childbirth".[14] The "Iliad pictures Eileithyia alone, or sometimes multiplied, as the Eileithyiai:

And even as when the sharp dart striketh a woman in travail, [270] the piercing dart that the Eilithyiae, the goddesses of childbirth, send—even the daughters of Hera that have in their keeping bitter pangs;[15]
Iliad 11.269–272

"Hesiod (c. 700 BC) described Eileithyia as a daughter of Hera by "Zeus (Theogony 921)[16]—and the "Bibliotheca (Roman-era) and "Diodorus Siculus (c. 90–27 BC) (5.72.5) agreed. But "Pausanias, writing in the 2nd century AD, reported another early source (now lost): "The "Lycian "Olen, an earlier poet, who composed for the "Delians, among other hymns, one to Eileithyia, styles her '"the clever spinner', clearly identifying her with "Fate, and makes her older than "Cronus."[17] Being the youngest born to "Gaia, Cronus was a Titan of the first generation and he was identified as the father of Zeus. Likewise, the meticulously accurate mythographer "Pindar (522–443 BC) also makes no mention of Zeus:

Goddess of childbirth, Eileithyia, maid to the throne of the deep-thinking "Moirai, child of all-powerful "Hera, hear my song.
—Seventh Nemean Ode.

Later, for the Classical Greeks, "She is closely associated with "Artemis and "Hera," Burkert asserts (1985, p 1761), "but develops no character of her own". In the "Orphic Hymn to Prothyraeia, the association of a goddess of childbirth as an epithet of virginal Artemis, making the death-dealing huntress also "she who comes to the aid of women in childbirth," (Graves 1955 15.a.1), would be inexplicable in purely Olympian terms:

When racked with labour pangs, and sore distressed
the sex invoke thee, as the soul's sure rest;
for thou Eileithyia alone canst give relief to pain,
which art attempts to ease, but tries in vain.
Artemis Eileithyia, venerable power,
who bringest relief in labour's dreadful hour.
—Orphic Hymn 2, to Prothyraeia, as translated by "Thomas Taylor, 1792.

Thus "Aelian in the 3rd century AD could refer to "Artemis of the child-bed" (On Animals 7.15).

"The Beauty of Durrës, a large 4th-century BC mosaic showing the head figure of a woman, probably portrays the goddess Eileithyia.[18] Vase-painters, when illustrating the birth of "Athena from Zeus' head, may show two assisting Eileithyiai, with their hands raised in the "epiphany gesture.

Cult at Amnisos[edit]

The "cave of Eileithyia near "Amnisos, the harbor of "Knossos, mentioned in the "Odyssey (xix.198) in connection with her cult, was accounted the birthplace of Eileithyia. The Cretan cave has stalactites suggestive of the goddess' double form (Kerenyi 1976 fig. 6), of bringing labor on and of delaying it, and votive offerings to her have been found establishing the continuity of her cult from Neolithic times, with a revival as late as the Roman period.[19] Here she was probably being worshipped before Zeus arrived in the Aegean, but certainly in Minoan–Mycenaean times (Burkert 1985 p 171; Nilsson 1950:53). The goddess is mentioned as Eleuthia in a "Linear B fragment from Knossos. In classical times, there were shrines to Eileithyia in the Cretan cities of "Lato and "Eleutherna and a sacred cave at "Inatos. In the cave of "Amnisos (Crete) the god Enesidaon ( the "earth shaker", who is the chthonic "Poseidon) is related with the cult of Eileithyia.[20] She was related with the annual birth of the divine child.[21] The goddess of nature and her companion survived in the "Eleusinian cult, where the following words were uttered : " Mighty "Potnia bore a strong son"[22]

On the Greek mainland, at "Olympia, an archaic shrine with an inner "cella sacred to the serpent-savior of the city (Sosipolis) and to Eileithyia was seen by the traveller Pausanias in the 2nd century AD (Greece vi.20.1–3); in it, a virgin-priestess cared for a "serpent that was "fed" on honeyed barley-cakes and water—an offering suited to Demeter. The shrine memorialized the appearance of a crone with a babe in arms, at a crucial moment when "Elians were threatened by forces from "Arcadia. The child, placed on the ground between the contending forces, changed into a serpent, driving the Arcadians away in flight, before it disappeared into the hill.

There were ancient icons of Eileithyia at Athens, one said to have been brought from Crete, according to Pausanias, who mentioned shrines to Eileithyia in "Tegea[23] and "Argos, with an extremely important shrine in "Aigion. Eileithyia, along with Artemis and "Persephone, is often shown carrying torches to bring children out of darkness and into light: in "Roman mythology her counterpart in easing labor is "Lucina ("of the light").

In Greek shrines, small terracotta votive figures ("kourotrophos) depicted an immortal nurse who took care of divine infants, who may be connected with Eileithyia. According to the "Homeric Hymn III to Delian Apollo, Hera detained Eileithyia, who was coming from the "Hyperboreans in the far north, to prevent "Leto from going into labor with Artemis and Apollo, because the father was Zeus. Hera was very jealous of Zeus's relations with others and went out of her way to make the women suffer. The other goddesses present at the birthing on Delos sent "Iris to bring her. As she stepped upon the island, the birth began.

Eileithyia was especially worshipped in Crete, in the cities Lato and doubtless, from its etymological link, Eleutherna["citation needed], though no archaeological find has identified her there. Caves were sacred to her: the inescapable association to the birth canal cannot be proved beyond a skeptic's doubt. Her Egyptian counterpart is "Tawaret.

Genealogy[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Joseph Emerson Worcester, A comprehensive dictionary of the English language, Boston, 1871, p. 480, rule 3, where he notes the word has four syllables as in Greek and Latin, "not I-lith-y-i'-a as in "Walker" (e.g. Walker and Trollope, A key to the classical pronunciation etc., London, 1830, p. 123).
  2. ^ Nilsson Vol I, p. 313
  3. ^ Gantz, pp. 82–83.
  4. ^ F.Schachermeyer(1967).Die Minoische Kultur des alten Kreta.W.Kohlhammer Stuttgart. pp. 141–142
  5. ^ "The Linear B word e-re-u-ti-ja". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of Ancient languages.  Raymoure, K.A. "e-re-u-ti-ja". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean. 
  6. ^ "R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 383.
  7. ^ Nilsson Vol I, p. 313
  8. ^ "Max Müller, Contributions to the Science of Mythology, Vol. 2, Kessinger Publishing, 2003 [1897], p. 697
  9. ^ Walter Burkert (1985) Greek Religion. Harvard University Press p.26
  10. ^ Nilsson, Vol I, p. 312
  11. ^ " Cretan dialect 'Eleuthia' would connect Eileithyia (or perhaps the goddess ""Eleutheria") to "Eleusis" . Willets, p. 222.
  12. ^ F.Schachermeyer (1967) Die Minoische Kultur des alten Kreta W.Kohlhammer Stuttgart, p. 141
  13. ^ Nilsson Vol I, p. 312
  14. ^ "Homer, "Iliad 16.187, 19.103.
  15. ^ "Homer, "Iliad 11.270, The plural is also used at "Iliad 19.119.
  16. ^ Theogony 912–923.
  17. ^ "Pausanias, 8.21.3.
  18. ^ Bank of Albania – Coin with “The Beauty of Durrës”
  19. ^ For the proceedings and findings of the archaeology, see "Amnisos.
  20. ^ Dietrich, pp. 220221.
  21. ^ Dietrich, p. 109.
  22. ^ Dietrich, p. 167.
  23. ^ "Pausanias, 8.48.7 .
  24. ^ According to "Homer, "Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, "Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
  25. ^ According to "Hesiod, "Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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