Soon after the first successful telegraph systems were operational, the possibility of transmitting messages across the sea by way of "submarine communications cables was first mooted. One of the primary technical challenges was to sufficiently insulate the submarine cable to prevent the current from leaking out into the water. In 1842, a Scottish surgeon William Montgomerie introduced "gutta-percha, the adhesive juice of the "Palaquium gutta tree, to Europe. "Michael Faraday and Wheatstone soon discovered the merits of gutta-percha as an insulator, and in 1845, the latter suggested that it should be employed to cover the wire which was proposed to be laid from "Dover to "Calais. It was tried on a wire laid across the "Rhine between "Deutz and "Cologne.["citation needed] In 1849, "C.V. Walker, electrician to the "South Eastern Railway, submerged a two-mile wire coated with gutta-percha off the coast from Folkestone, which was tested successfully.
"John Watkins Brett, an engineer from "Bristol, sought and obtained permission from "Louis-Philippe in 1847 to establish "telegraphic communication between France and England. The first undersea cable was laid in 1850, connecting the two countries and was followed by connections to Ireland and the Low Countries.
The "Atlantic Telegraph Company was formed in "London in 1856 to undertake to construct a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean. It was successfully completed on 18 July 1866 by the ship "SS Great Eastern, captained by "Sir James Anderson after many mishaps along the away. Earlier transatlantic "submarine cables installations were attempted in 1857, 1858 and 1865. The 1857 cable only operated intermittently for a few days or weeks before it failed. The study of underwater telegraph cables accelerated interest in mathematical analysis of very long "transmission lines. The telegraph lines from Britain to India were connected in 1870 (those several companies combined to form the Eastern Telegraph Company in 1872).
Australia was first linked to the rest of the world in October 1872 by a submarine telegraph cable at Darwin. This brought news reportage from the rest of the world. The telegraph across the Pacific was completed in 1902, finally encircling the world.
From the 1850s until well into the 20th century, British submarine cable systems dominated the world system. This was set out as a formal strategic goal, which became known as the "All Red Line. In 1896, there were thirty cable laying ships in the world and twenty-four of them were owned by British companies. In 1892, British companies owned and operated two-thirds of the world's cables and by 1923, their share was still 42.7 percent. During World War I, Britain's telegraph communications were almost completely uninterrupted, while it was able to quickly cut Germany's cables worldwide.
End of the telegraph era
In the United States, "Western Union discontinued all telegram and commercial messaging services on 27 January 2006, although it still offered its electronic money transfer services.
India's state-owned telecom company, "BSNL, ended its telegraph service on 14 July 2013. It was reportedly the world's last existing true electric telegraph system.
- "92 Code
- "Aurora (astronomy)
- "Geomagnetically induced current
- "Great Northern Telegraph Company
- "Harrison Gray Dyar, who supposedly erected the first telegraph line and dispatched the first telegram
- "Neutral direct-current telegraph system
- "Submarine communications cable
- "Western Electric Company
- "Wireless telegraphy
- "American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T)
- "Bell Canada
- "Guglielmo Marconi
- "Marconi Wireless Company
- E. A. Marland, Early Electrical Communication, Abelard-Schuman Ltd, London 1964, no ISBN, Library of Congress 64-20875, pages 17-19;
- Prevost, 1805, pp. 176-178
- Jones, R. Victor Samuel Thomas von Sömmering's "Space Multiplexed" Electrochemical Telegraph (1808-10), Harvard University website. Attributed to "Semaphore to Satellite" , International Telecommunication Union, Geneva 1965. Retrieved 2009-05-01
- Henry Pitt Phelps (1884). The Albany Hand-book: A Strangers' Guide and Residents' Manual. Albany: Brandow & Barton. p. 6.
- Gibberd, William (1966). "Edward Davy". "Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Joseph Henry: Inventor of the Telegraph? Smithsonian Institution". Archived from the original on 2006-06-26. Retrieved 2006-06-29.
- Thomas Coulson (1950). Joseph Henry: His Life and Work. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- "Edward Davy". Australian Science Archives Project. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- Appleyard, R. (1930). Pioneers of Electrical Communication. Macmillan.
- Norman, Jeremy. "Francis Ronalds Builds the First Working Electric Telegraph (1816)". HistoryofInformation.com. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Ronalds, B.F. (2016). "Sir Francis Ronalds and the Electric Telegraph". Int. J. for the History of Engineering & Technology. "doi:10.1080/17581206.2015.1119481.
- Ronalds, Francis (1823). Descriptions of an Electrical Telegraph and of some other Electrical Apparatus. London: Hunter.
- Ronalds, B.F. (Feb 2016). "The Bicentennial of Francis Ronalds's Electric Telegraph". Physics Today. "doi:10.1063/PT.3.3079.
- Ronalds, B.F. (2016). Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the Electric Telegraph. London: Imperial College Press. "ISBN "978-1-78326-917-4.
- Huurdeman, A.A., The worldwide history of telecommunications, p.54, Wiley-IEEE, 2003 "ISBN 0-471-20505-2
- Popular Science, February 1882, vol.20, no.28, p.568, Bonnier Corporation, ISSN 0161-7370.
- Calvert 2008.
- Howe, p. 7
- History.com Staff (2009), Morse Code & the Telegraph, A+E Networks
- The telegraphic age dawns BT Group Connected Earth Online Museum. Accessed December 2010, archived 10 Feb 2013
- Bowers, page 129
- Huurdeman, page 67
- Huurdeman, pages 67–68
Beauchamp, page 35
- Mercer, page 7
- Huurdeman, page 69
- Beauchamp, page 35
- Huurdeman, pages 67–69
- Nichols, John (1967). The Gentleman's magazine, Volumes 282–283. p. 545. University of California
- Paul Atterbury. "Victorian Technology". BBC.
- Today in History - October 24, The Transcontinental Telegraph and the End of the Pony Express, Library of Congress, retrieved 3 February 2017.
- Oslin, George P. The Story of Telecommunications, Mercer University Press, 1992. 69.
- Oslin, George P. The Story of Telecommunications. Mercer University Press, 1992. 67
- "Royal Earl House Printing-Telegraph Patent #4464, 1846". Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Royal Earl House Steam-Powered Printing-Telegraph Patent #9505, 1852". Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Oslin, George, P. The Story of Telecommunications, 1992. 71
- "David Edward Hughes". Clarkson University. April 14, 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-04-22. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- Beauchamp, K.G. (2001). History of Telegraphy: Its Technology and Application. "IET. pp. 394–395. "ISBN "0-85296-792-6.
- Phillip R. Easterlin, "Telex in New York", Western Union Technical Review, April 1959: 45
- Haigh, K R (1968). Cable Ships and Submarine Cables. London: Adlard Coles Ltd. pp. 26–27.
- Wilson, Arthur (1994). The Living Rock: The Story of Metals Since Earliest Times and Their Impact on Civilization. p. 203. Woodhead Publishing. "ISBN 978-1-85573-301-5.
- Briggs, Asa and Burke, Peter: "A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet", p110. Polity, Cambridge, 2005.
- Conley, David and Lamble, Stephen (2006) The Daily Miracle: An introduction to Journalism,(Third Edition) Oxford University Press, Australia pp. 305-307
- Kennedy, P. M. (October 1971). "Imperial Cable Communications and Strategy, 1870-1914". The English Historical Review. 86 (341): 728–752. "doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxvi.cccxli.728. "JSTOR 563928.
- Headrick, D.R., & Griset, P. (2001). Submarine telegraph cables: business and politics, 1838-1939. The Business History Review, 75(3), 543-578.
- Wheen, Andrew. DOT-DASH TO DOT.COM: How Modern Telecommunications Evolved from the Telegraph to the Internet (Springer, 2011), p259
- "No farewell to telegram in Goa as BSNL takes day off". The Times of India. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- "World's last telegram to be sent next month". USA Today. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- Beauchamp, Ken, History of Telegraphy, IET, 2001 "ISBN 0852967926.
- Bowers, Brian, Sir Charles Wheatstone: 1802–1875, IET, 2001 "ISBN 0852961030.
- Calvert, J. B. (2008), The Electromagnetic Telegraph
- Huurdeman, Anton A., The Worldwide History of Telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, 2003 "ISBN 0471205052.
- Mercer, David, The Telephone: The Life Story of a Technology, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006 "ISBN 031333207X.
- Cooke, W.F., The Electric Telegraph, Was it invented by Prof. Wheatstone?, London 1856.
- Gray, Thomas (1892). "The Inventors Of The Telegraph And Telephone". Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. 71: 639–659. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- Gauß, C. F., Works, Göttingen 1863-1933.
- Howe, Daniel Walker, What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848, Oxford University Press, 2007 "ISBN 0199743797.
- Peterson, M.J. Roots of Interconnection: Communications, Transportation and Phases of the Industrial Revolution, International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering Background Reading, Version 1; February 2008.
- Steinheil, C.A., Ueber Telegraphie, München 1838.
- Wiley, Samuel T. (ed.), Biographical and Historical Cyclopedia of Indiana and Armstrong Counties, John M. Gresham and Co., Philadelphia PA, 1891, pages 475-476.
- Yates, JoAnne. The Telegraph's Effect on Nineteenth Century Markets and Firms, "Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pp. 149–163.
|""||"Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Morse Telegraph Club, Inc. (The Morse Telegraph Club is an international non-profit organization dedicated to the perpetuation of the knowledge and traditions of telegraphy.)
- Shilling's telegraph, an exhibit of the "A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications
- History of electromagnetic telegraph
- The first electric telegraphs
- The Dawn of Telegraphy (Russian)
- Pavel Shilling and his telegraph- article in PCWeek, Russian edition.
- Distant Writing - The History of the Telegraph Companies in Britain between 1838 and 1868
- NASA - Carrington Super Flare "NASA 6 May 2008
- How Cables Unite The World - a 1902 article about telegraph networks and technology from the magazine "The World's Work