The "United Kingdom, which had refused to join as a founding member, changed its policy following the "Suez crisis and applied to be a member of the Communities. Other EEC members were also inclined to British membership on those grounds. "French President "Charles de Gaulle vetoed British membership.
Once de Gaulle had left office, the door to enlargement was once again opened. The EEC economy had also slowed down and British membership was seen as a way to revitalise the community. Only after a 12-hour talk between British Prime Minister "Edward Heath and French President "Georges Pompidou took place did Britain's third application succeed. After Britain was accepted Prime Minister Edward Heath said:
"For my part, I have no doubt at all that the discussions which we have had will prove of real and lasting benefit, not only to Britain and France, but to Europe as a whole."
As part of the deal for British entry, France agreed to allow the EEC its own monetary resources. However France made that concession only as Britain's small agriculture sector would ensure that Britain would be a net contributor to the "Common Agricultural Policy dominated "EEC budget. Applying together with the UK, as on the previous occasions, were "Denmark, "Ireland, and "Norway. These countries were so economically linked to the UK that they considered it necessary to join the EEC if the UK did. However the Norwegian government "lost a national referendum on membership and hence did not accede with the others on 1 January 1973. "Gibraltar joined the Community with the United Kingdom at this point, as can be seen in the long title of the "UK European Communities Act 1972.
The next enlargement would occur for different reasons. The 1970s also saw "Greece, "Spain, and "Portugal emerge from dictatorship. These countries desired to consolidate their new democratic systems by binding themselves into the EEC. Equally, the EEC was unsure about which way these countries were heading and wanted to ensure stability along its southern borders. However "François Mitterrand initially opposed their membership fearing they were not ready and it would water the community down to a free trade area.
Greece joined the EU in 1981 followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986.
The year 1985, however, saw the first time a territory voted to "leave the Community, when "Greenland was granted "home rule by Denmark and the territory used its new powers and voted to withdraw from the Community (See "member state territories).
"Morocco and "Turkey applied for membership in 1987. Morocco's application was turned down as it was not considered European, while Turkey's application was considered eligible on the basis of the 1963 "Ankara Association Agreement, but the opinion of the Commission on the possible candidate status was by then negative. Turkey received candidate status only in 1999 and began official membership negotiations in 2005, which are still in progress as of 2016.
After the 1970s, Europe experienced a downturn which led to leaders launching of the "Single European Act which set to create a single market by 1992. The effect of this was that "EFTA states found it harder to export to the EEC and businesses (including large EFTA corporations such as "Volvo) wished to relocate within the new single market making the downturn worse for EFTA. EFTA states began to discuss closer links with the EEC despite its domestic unpopularity.
"Austria, "Finland and "Sweden were neutral in the "Cold War so membership of an organisation developing a "common foreign and security policy would be incompatible with that. With the end of the Cold War in 1989, that obstacle was removed, and the desire to pursue membership grew stronger. On 3 October 1990, the "reunification of East and West Germany brought East Germany into the Community without increasing the number of member states.
The Community later became the European Union in 1993 by virtue of the "Maastricht Treaty, and established standards for new entrants so their suitability could be judged. These "Copenhagen criteria stated in 1993 that a country must be a "democracy, operate a "free market, and be willing to adopt the entire body of "EU law already agreed upon. Also in 1993 the "European Economic Area was established with the EFTA states except "Switzerland. Most of the new EEA states pursued full EU membership as the EEA did not sufficiently satisfy the needs of their export based corporations. The EU has also preferred these states to integrate via the EEA rather than full membership as the EEC wished to pursue "monetary integration and did not wish for another round of enlargement to occupy their attention. However, with the EEA's credibility dented following rejection by businesses and Switzerland, the EU agreed with full membership. This was more readily accepted with the prospect of poorer countries wishing to join; contributions from richer countries would help balance the EU budget. On 1 January 1995 "Austria, "Finland, and "Sweden acceded to the EU marking its fourth enlargement. The Norwegian government lost a second national referendum on membership.
As with the Mediterranean countries in the 1980s, the countries in "Central and Eastern Europe had emerged from dictatorships and wanted to consolidate their democracies. They also wanted to join the project of European integration and ensure they did not fall back into the "Russian sphere of influence. The EU and NATO offered a guarantee of this, and the EU was also seen as vital to ensuring the economic success of those countries. However, the EU's desire to accept these countries' membership applications was less than rapid. The collapse of communism came quickly and was not anticipated. The EU struggled to deal with the sudden reunification of Germany with the addition of its poorer 17 million people and, while keeping its monetary union project on track, it was still at that early stage pointing the EFTA countries in the direction of the EEA rather than full membership.
States in Central and Eastern Europe persisted and eventually the above-mentioned issues were cleared. The US also pressured the EU to offer membership as a temporary guarantee; it feared expanding NATO too rapidly for fear of frightening Russia. Although eventually trying to limit the number of members, and after encouragement from the US, the EU pursued talks with ten countries and a change of mind["clarification needed] by "Cyprus and "Malta helped to offset slightly the influx of large poorer member states from Central and Eastern Europe.
In the end, eight Central and Eastern European countries (the "Czech Republic, "Estonia, "Hungary, "Latvia, "Lithuania, "Poland, "Slovakia, and "Slovenia), plus two "Mediterranean countries ("Malta and "Cyprus) were able to join on 1 May 2004. This was the largest single enlargement in terms of people, and number of countries, though not in terms of GDP. The less developed nature of these countries was of concern to some of the older member states, who placed temporary restrictions on the rights of work of the citizens of these states to their countries. The movement westward of some of the labour force of the newly acceded countries that occurred in the aftermath of the enlargement initially spawned clichés among the public opinion and media of some western countries (such as the ""Polish plumber"), despite the generally conceded benefit to the economies concerned. The official EU media (the speeches of the European Commission) frequently referred to the enlargement to the CEE region as "an historical opportunity" and "morally imperative", which reflected the desire of the EU to admit these countries as members, even though they were less developed than the Western European countries. Following this "Romania and "Bulgaria, though were deemed initially as not fully ready by the Commission to join in 2004, acceded nevertheless on 1 January 2007. These, like the countries joining in 2004, faced a series of restrictions as to their citizens not fully enjoying working rights on the territory of some of the older EU members. Bulgaria and Romania are not yet members of the "Schengen area, however their citizens can travel visa-free to the other EU countries.
The socio-economic research on the attitudes towards the integration from both hosting and visiting countries has revealed divergent views.The analysis shows, there are a number of possible factors of the rationalization and understanding of the practices on what the enlargement has been and should be like. Attitudes of even skeptical citizens, do not discard the possibility on future sustainable enlargements. The years subsequent to the EU accession will lead to extensive dialogues between policy-makers, governments, and European citizens about the path for a constructive development.
Western Balkans enlargements
The 2003 European Council summit in "Thessaloniki set integration of the Western "Balkans as a priority of EU expansion. The EU's relations with the "Western Balkans states were moved from the ""External Relations" to the ""Enlargement" policy segment in 2005. Those states which have not been recognised as candidate countries are considered "potential candidate countries". The move to "Enlargement directorate was a consequence of the advancement of the "Stabilisation and Association process.
Slovenia joined the EU during the first wave of the fifth enlargement on 1 May 2004. "Croatia joined on 1 July 2013, following ratification of the "2011 Accession Treaty by all other EU countries. "Albania and the several successor states of the "Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have all adopted EU integration as an aim of foreign policy.
|#||Official name||Date||Community countries and "OMR||"Associated territories||"Excluded territories|
|1||"ECSC Foundation||1952-07-23||Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Saarland, Italy, West Germany, West Berlin Until the "unification of Germany in 1990 the de jure status of "West Berlin was that of French, UK and US occupied zones with "West German civilian administration. The treaties applied fully during 1952–1990 over the West German and French responsibilities, and during 1973–1990 over the UK responsibilities. From 3 October 1990 "West Berlin was fully integrated in the "Federal Republic of Germany along with "East Germany.||Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Tunis, Morocco, Guinea, French Cameroon, Togo, Mali, Senegal, Madagascar, DR Congo, Italian Somaliland, Benin, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Mauritania, Burundi, Rwanda, Netherlands New Guinea, Algeria, Comoros, Suriname, French Somaliland, French-administration of Vanuatu, West Berlin, Réunion, French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Mayotte, St.Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean, Netherlands Antilles|
|1953–1957||the above, Saarland joined West Germany||the above without the newly independent: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Tunis, Morocco|
|2||"EEC and "EURATOM Foundation||1958-01-01||the above, Algeria, Réunion, French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe||Guinea, French Cameroon, Togo, Mali, Senegal, Madagascar, DR Congo, Italian Somaliland, Benin, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Mauritania, Burundi, Rwanda, Netherlands New Guinea, Comoros, French Somaliland, French-administration of Vanuatu, Mayotte, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean||the above, Suriname, Netherlands Antilles, West Berlin, without Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean|
|1958–1962||the above||the above, without the newly independent: Guinea, French Cameroon, Togo, Mali, Senegal, Madagascar, DR Congo, Italian Somaliland, Benin, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Mauritania, Burundi, Rwanda, Netherlands New Guinea||the above|
|1962-07-03||the above, without the newly independent: Algeria||the above||the above|
|1962-09-01||the above||the above, with Suriname||the above, without Suriname|
|"Netherlands Antilles Association Convention||1964-10-1||the above||the above, with the Netherlands Antilles||the above, without the Netherlands Antilles|
|3||First Enlargement||1973-01-01||the above, Ireland, United Kingdom, Gibraltar, Denmark, Greenland||the above, Bahamas, Grenada, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Dominica, St. Lucia, Kiribati, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Vanuatu, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Kitts and Nevis, Brunei, St. Helena, the Pitcairn Islands, the Falkland Islands, the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, the British Indian Ocean Territory, Anguilla, Montserrat, the British Virgin Islands, the Turks and Caicos Islands, the Cayman Islands, Bermuda||the above, the Faroe Islands, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Zimbabwe, Hong Kong|
|1973–1980||the above||the above without the newly independent Bahamas, Grenada, Seychelles, the Solomon Islands, Suriname, Tuvalu, Dominica, St. Lucia, Kiribati, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Vanuatu, Comoros and French Somaliland||the above without the newly independent Zimbabwe|
|4||Second Enlargement||1981-01-01||the above, Greece||the above||the above|
|1981–1984||the above||the above without the newly independent Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Kitts and Nevis and Brunei||the above|
|1985-01-01||the above without Greenland||the above, Greenland||the above|
|5||Third Enlargement||1986-01-01||the above, Spain, Portugal, Azores, Madeira, Plazas de soberanía||the above, with Aruba, formerly part of the Netherlands Antilles||the above, Macau, East Timor|
|1990-10-03||the above, East Germany and West Berlin join to form Germany||the above||the above without West Berlin|
|6||Fourth Enlargement||1995-01-01||the above, Austria, Sweden, Finland||the above||the above|
|1997-07-01||the above||the above||the above, without Hong Kong (transferred to China)|
|7||1999-05-01||the above, Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean||the above, without Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean||the above|
|1999-12-20||the above||the above||the above, without Macau (transferred to China)|
|2002-05-20||the above||the above||the above, without the newly independent East Timor|
|8||Fifth Enlargement||2004-05-01||the above, Malta, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Akrotiri and Dhekelia||the above||the above without Akrotiri and Dhekelia|
|9||Sixth Enlargement||2007-01-01||the above, Bulgaria, Romania||the above||the above|
|10||2007-02-22||the above, Clipperton, without Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean||the above, Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean, without Clipperton||the above|
|2010-10-10||the above||the above, without the now-dissolved Netherlands Antilles, with Curaçao, Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba||the above|
|2012-01-01||the above, with Saint Martin, without Saint Barthélemy||the above, Saint Barthélemy||the above|
|2013-07-01||the above, Croatia||the above||the above|
|12||2014-01-01||the above, Mayotte||the above, without Mayotte||the above|
Current enlargement agenda
Article 49 of the "Maastricht Treaty (as amended) says that any European state that respects the "principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law", may apply to join the Union. The Copenhagen European Council set out the conditions for EU membership in June 1993 in the so-called "Copenhagen criteria (see Criteria and process above for details). The Western Balkan states had to sign "Stabilisation and Association Agreements (SAAs) before applying for membership.
Turkey "applied for membership in 1987. The Western Balkans have been prioritised for membership since emerging from war during the "breakup of Yugoslavia. "Albania, "Macedonia, "Montenegro, "Serbia, and "Turkey are all recognized as official candidates, and the latter three are undergoing membership talks. "Bosnia and Herzegovina and "Kosovo* are recognized as potential candidates for membership by the EU. Bosnia has an SAA has submitted an application for EU membership, while Bosnia and Kosovo have an SAA with the EU.
In July 2014, "President of the European Commission "Jean-Claude Juncker announced that the EU has no plans to expand in the next five years. "Montenegro and "Serbia have set a goal to finish accession talks by 2019.
Former Soviet Union
"Moldova, "Ukraine and "Georgia signed "Association Agreements with the EU on 27 June 2014, which deepened their trade and political links with the EU, and the "European Parliament passed a resolution recognising the "European perspective" of all three post-Soviet countries.
Ukrainian president "Petro Poroshenko announced 2020 as a target for an EU membership application, but in 2016 Jean-Claude Juncker stated that it would take at least 20–25 years for Ukraine to join the EU and NATO.
On January 12 2002, the European Parliament noted that Armenia and Georgia may enter the EU in the future. However, Armenia acceded to the Eurasian Union in January 2015. On February 24, 2017 "Tigran Sargsyan, the Chairman of the "Eurasian Economic Commission stated that Armenia's stance was to cooperate and work with both the "European Union and the "Eurasian Union. Sargsyan added that although "Armenia is part of the Eurasian Union, a new "European Union Association Agreement between Armenia and the EU would be finalized shortly. Both Armenia and Georgia are members of the "Council of Europe, the EU's "Eastern Partnership, and the "Euronest Parliamentary Assembly which seeks to foster greater cooperation between the EU and Eastern European states.
"Switzerland applied for membership in May 1992 but subsequently froze its application, and formally withdrew it in 2016. "Norway has applied three times but withdrew its application each time, most recently in 1992. "Iceland lodged its application following an economic collapse in 2008, but froze accession negotiations in 2013. In 2017 however, Iceland's newly elected government announced that it may seek to begin talks with the EU on possible future membership once again.
- "Eastern Europe
- "Eastern Partnership
- "Enlargement of the eurozone
- "Enlargement of NATO
- "Euronest Parliamentary Assembly
- "European integration
- "Future enlargement of the European Union
- "Treaty of Accession 2003
- "Treaty of Accession 2005
- "Treaty of Accession 2011
- "Union for the Mediterranean
- "Withdrawal from the European Union
- "European Free Trade Association
- "European Economic Area
- "Schengen Area
- "Switzerland–European Union relations
- "Enlargement of Switzerland
- Current Article 1 of the "Treaty on European Union reads:"The Union shall be founded on the present Treaty and on the "Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Those "two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the "European Community".
- "PRESIDENCY CONCLUSIONS : Copenhagen European Council - 21-22 June 1993" (PDF). Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- Article : A success for Konstantinos Karamanli on CVCE.eu
- "European Commission - Enlargement: Archives Country Profiles". Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- Timetable for accession negotiations by chapter and by country (1998–2004) CVCE.eu
- Piket, Vincent EU Enlargement and Neighbourhood Policy, Institute for Strategic Studies
- Beyond Enlargement Fatigue? The Dutch debate on Turkish accession, European Security Initiative 2006
- Bache, Ian and Stephen George (2006) Politics in the European Union, Oxford University Press. p540–542
- Kardas, Saban (13 May 2009) Merkel and Sarkozy Call for Privileged Partnership Angers Turkey, Jamestown Foundation
- Schauble, Wolfgang (2004) Talking Turkey, "Foreign Affairs
- "EU candidate status for Albania". "European Commission. 2014-06-24. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
- "Bosnia and Herzegovina applied for EU membership today". The Netherlands EU Presidency 2016. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- On 3 October 1990, "East Germany joined "West Germany through the process of "German reunification; since then, the reunited "Germany has been a single member state.
- "RÚV, Application not formally withdrawn
- "Iceland withdraws EU accession bid". "Deutsche Welle. 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2015-03-12.
- Iceland's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2013-06-13). "Minister Sveinsson meets with Stefan Füle". Retrieved 2013-06-19.
- Referred to as "Kosovo*" by the EU
- "European Commission- Enlargement- Kosovo*". European Commission. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Referred to as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" by the EU
- "Chronology". "European Commission. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- Staff writer (2006-03-22). "EU Mulls Deeper Policy Cooperation with Morocco". Defense News. Retrieved 2006-07-04.
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- European Commission (2005-11-10). "1994". The History of the European Union. Retrieved 2006-01-18.
- The European Offensive. - Government of Castile and Leon. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "EU membership application not to be withdrawn". "swissinfo. 2005-10-26. Retrieved 2015-03-12.
- British "Embassy, "Bern (2006-07-04). "EU and Switzerland". The UK & Switzerland. Retrieved 2006-07-04.
- "Retirer la demande d'adhésion à l'UE et dire les choses telles qu'elles sont". Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Retrait de la demande d'adhesion de la Suisse a l'UE" (PDF). "Swiss Federal Council. 2016-07-27. Retrieved 2016-09-13.
- European Commission (12 January 2015). "The Schuman Declaration – 9 May 1950". Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- ARTEHISTORIA. "La ofensiva europea". ARTEHISTORIA. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014.
- Spain towards the European Integration, Heidy Cristina Senante Berendes, page 456 - University of Alicante (Spanish)
- European Economic Community Treaty, Art"7
- "1971 Year in Review Archived 12 February 2009 at the "Wayback Machine., UPI.com"
- For more on Ireland's attempts at membership see Michael J. Geary, An Inconvenient Wait: Ireland's Quest for Membership of the EEC, 1957–73 (Institute of Public Administration, 2009) ("ISBN 9781904541837)
- "Turkey Secretariat General for EU affairs – Current situation in accession negotiations". Abgs.gov.tr. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- Bache, Ian and Stephen George (2006) Politics in the European Union, Oxford University Press. p543–547
- Bache, Ian and Stephen George (2006) Politics in the European Union, Oxford University Press. p549–550
- Giuseppe D'Amato, Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica. L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est Travel to the Baltic Hansa. Greco&Greco, Milano, 2004 "ISBN 88-7980-355-7
- Giuseppe D'Amato, L'EuroSogno ed i nuovi Muri ad Est. L'Unione europea e la dimensione orientale The EuroDream and the New Walls to the East. Greco&Greco, Milano, 2008 "ISBN 978-88-7980-456-1
- THE NEXT ENLARGEMENT: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIESSPEECH BY SIR LEON BRITTAN QC TO EUROPAPOLITISCHER KONGRESS ORGANISED BYTHE CDU/CSU GROUP IN THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT – BERLIN 11 September 1995 and Günter Verheugen Member of the Commission responsible for Enlargement « Enlargement is irreversible » Debate on Enlargement in the European Parliament Strasbourg, 3 October 2000
- Schimmelfennig, F., Börzel, T. A., Kortenska, E., Langbein, J., & Toshkov, D. Enlargement and the Integration Capacity of the EU Interim Scientific Results.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Paris, 18 April 1951) - CVCE Website". Cvce.eu. 1951-04-18. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- "EUR-Lex - 11972B/AFI/DCL/06 - EN - EUR-Lex". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- "Vanuatu was a "condominium between the United Kingdom and France until its independence in 1980, and was generally considered to be an overseas territory of both countries
- "The provisions of Part Four of the Treaty were applied to Surinam, by virtue of a Supplementary Act of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to complete its instrument of ratification, from 1 September 1962 to 16 July 1976.", in: eur-lex.europa.eu – Treaty establishing the European Community (consolidated version) – Text of the Treaty
- "CONVENTION portant révision du traité instituant la Communauté économique européenne en vue de rendre applicable aux Antilles néerlandaises le régime spécial d' association défini dans la quatrième partie de se traité". Euro-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- Although Aruba was only added to the OCT list with the entry into force of the "Treaty of Amsterdam in 1999, it was considered an OCT by the European Communities since leaving the Netherlands Antilles: "De eilandgebieden zullen dus de rechten en plichten van de LGO-status van het Land de Nederlandse Antillen overnemen, wanneer dat opgeheven wordt. Hetzelfde gebeurde in 1986 toen Aruba van eilandgebied van de Nederlandse Antillen een apart Land binnen het Koninkrijk werd. Hoewel de LGO-bijlage pas in 1999 aan deze situatie werd aangepast, heeft de Europese Gemeenschap Aruba van het begin af aan als LGO behandeld." in: Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Grondwettelijke aspecten: Territoriale werking / Antillen
- The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on 10 October 2010 and contained the islands of Aruba (which left the Netherlands Antilles in 1986), Bonaire, Curacao, Sint Maarten, Saba and Sint Eustatius. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten are autonomous countries in the Kingdom of Netherlands, and remain overseas territories of the European Union. Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba, also known as the "BES islands, are special municipalities of the Netherlands, and will remain legally overseas territories until at least 2015.
- "Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean are listed in the OCT Annex as Madagascar dependencies 1958–1999. After "Madagascar independence in 1960 they are transferred to "Réunion administration until 2005, when they are transferred to the "French Southern and Antarctic Lands, which they joined in 2007
- "361 - An evaluation of the EU's Fifth Enlargement With special focus on Bulgaria and Romania - Fritz Breuss - Fritz Breuss, Research Institute for European Affairs (Europainstitut)and Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration - European Commission". Ec.europa.eu. 3 June 2009. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- "PROTOCOL No 1 : ON AMENDMENTS TO THE STATUTE OF THE EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK" (DOC). Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- Due to reorganisation in the French overseas territories Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin leave Guadeloupe (with France retaing EU law application in the new territories) and Clipperton is moved from French Polynesia administration to direct Government of France administration
- "EUROPEAN COUNCIL DECISION of 29 October 2010 amending the status with regard to the European Union of the island of Saint-Barthélemy" (PDF). Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- "Home". Oami.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "RECENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN EU CANDIDATE COUNTRIES" (PDF). Ecb.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- "EU welcomes Croatia's 'historic moment' on eve of entry". Eubusiness.com. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- "EUROPEAN COUNCIL DECISION of 11 July 2012 amending the status of Mayotte with regard to the European Union" (PDF). Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- "Enlargement - Check current status". "European Commission. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
- "Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the "Republic of Kosovo and the "Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo "unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but "Serbia continues to claim it as part of its "own sovereign territory. The two governments "began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the "Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from "111 out of 193 "United Nations "member states.
- "Better Together accused in Juncker row". Herald Scotland.
- "Forever on the Periphery? The Return of Geopolitics to EU Enlargement to the Balkans". International Crisis Monitoring Group.
- "Enlargement - Check current status". "European Commission. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "European Parliament resolution of 17 July 2014 on Ukraine (2014/2717(RSP))". "European Parliament. 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2015-07-20.
pursuant to Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine – like any other European state - have a European perspective and may apply to become members of the Union provided that they adhere to the principles of democracy, respect fundamental freedoms and human and minority rights and ensure the rule of law;
- "European Union - EEAS (European External Action Service) - Homepage" (PDF). Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-21."Armenia Drops Visas For EU Citizens". Asbarez.com."EU forges closer ties with Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova". "European External Action Service. 2014-06-27. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
- Richard Balmforth and Natalia Zinets. Ukraine president sets 2020 as EU target date, defends peace plan. "Reuters. Published on Sep 25, 2014.
- Juncker Says Ukraine Not Likely To Join EU, NATO For 20-25 Years. "Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Published on March 4, 2016.
- (PDF) http://www.libertas-institut.com/de/PDF/Armenia%20ante%20portas.pdf Missing or empty
- "Armenia president and European Commission official discuss EU-Armenia talks". 2017-02-03.
- "EU membership application not to be withdrawn". "swissinfo. 2005-10-26. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- British "Embassy, "Bern (4 July 2006). "EU and Switzerland". The UK & Switzerland. Archived from the original on 28 April 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-04.
- "Retirer la demande d'adhésion à l'UE et dire les choses telles qu'elles sont". Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Retrait de la demande d'adhesion de la Suisse a l'UE" (PDF). "Swiss Federal Council. 2016-07-27. Retrieved 2016-09-13.
- Lawless, Jill (2017-01-11). "Iceland gets new govt, could restart talks on entering EU". Associated Press. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Enlargement of the European Union.|
- Enlargement – "Europa
- European Union Member States and applicant countries – "CVCE
- Archival material concerning the enlargement of the European Union can be consulted at the Historical Archives of the European Union in Florence