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See also: "Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership § Environment protection and climate change

A draft of the sustainable development section of "Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between the EU and the US was leaked to "The Guardian in October 2015. Asked to comment on the document, a French environmental attorney described the proposed "environmental safeguards as "virtually non-existent" by comparison with the protection granted to investors, and that environmental cases accounted for 60% of the 127 "ISDS cases already brought against EU countries under bilateral trade agreements in the last two decades, according to "Friends of the Earth Europe.[37] According to "Joseph E. Stiglitz, TTIP could have a "chilling" effect on regulation and thus "undercut urgently needed action on climate that the "Paris Agreement requires".[38]

The draft energy chapter of the TTIP was leaked to "The Guardian in July 2016. This draft could sabotage European efforts to implement mandatory energy savings measures and to favour the switch to renewable electricity generation.[39]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) (2012) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  2. ^ Knill, C. and Liefferink, D. (2012) The Establishment of EU Environmental Policy. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) (2012) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  3. ^ Hildebrand, P.M. (1993) The European Community's environmental policy, 1957 to '1992', in D. Judge (ed) A Green Dimension for the European Community, Frank Cass, London, pp13-44.
  4. ^ Johnson, S.P. and Corcelle, G. (1989) The Environmental Policy of the European Communities, Graham & Trotman, London.
  5. ^ Knill, C. and Liefferink, D. (2012) The Establishment of EU Environmental Policy. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  6. ^ McCormick, J. (2001) Environmental Policy in the European Union. Palgrave: Basingstoke.
  7. ^ Lewis, J. (2010) ‘The Council of European Union’, in M. Cini and N. Pérez-Solórzano Borragán (eds) European Union Politics, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp141-61.
  8. ^ Rüdiger K. and Wurzel, W. (2012) Member States and the Council. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) (2012) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  9. ^ Schön-Quinlivan (2012)The European Commission, In: Jordan, A.J. and Adelle, C. (eds) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  10. ^ Meyer, J.-H. (2011): Green Activism. The European Parliament's Environmental Committee promoting a European Environmental Policy in the 1970s. In: Journal of European Integration History vol. 17, no. 1, S. 73-85, ISSN 0947-9511, S. 73-85, available from: http://www.eu-historians.eu/uploads/Dateien/jeih-33-2011_1.pdf
  11. ^ Burns, C. and Carter, N. (2010a) ‘Is codecision good for the environment?’ Political Studies, vol 58, no 1, pp128-142.
  12. ^ Meyer, J.-H. 2013. Challenging the Atomic Community. The European Environmental Bureau and the Europeanization of Anti-Nuclear Protest. In Societal Actors in European Integration. Polity-Building and Policy-Making 1958-1992, edited by W. Kaiser and J.-H. Meyer. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 197-220.
  13. ^ Adelle, C. and Anderson, J. (2012) Lobby Groups. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  14. ^ Eising, R. and Lehringer, S. (2010) ‘Interest groups and the European Union’, in M. Cini and N. Pérez-Solórzano Borragán (eds) European Union Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp189-206.
  15. ^ Weale, A. (2005) ‘Environmental rules and rule-making in the European Union’, in A. Jordan (ed) Environmental Policy in the European Union, 2nd edition, Earthscan, London, pp125-140.
  16. ^ Mazey, S., Richardson, J. (1992) ‘Environmental groups and the EC: Challenges and opportunities’, Environmental Politics, vol 1, no 4, p110.
  17. ^ Adelle, C., Jordan, A., and Turnpenny, J. (2012) Policy Making. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  18. ^ a b Princen, S. (2012) Agenda Setting. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  19. ^ Lenschow, A. (2002) Environmental Integration. Earthscan: London.
  20. ^ Jordan, A., Schout, A. and Unfried, M. (2012) Policy Coordination. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  21. ^ Jordan, A., and Tosun, J. (2012) Policy Implementation. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  22. ^ Jordan, A. (1999)'The implementation of EU environmental policy: a problem without a political solution?' Environmental and Planning C, vol. 17, no. 1, pp69-90.
  23. ^ Mickwitz, P.(2012) Policy Evaluation. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  24. ^ See Horizon 2020 – the EU's new research and innovation programme http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-1085_en.htm
  25. ^ Rhinard, M. andKaeding, M. (2006) The international bargaining power of the European Union in "mixed" competence negotiations: the case of the 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 923–943.
  26. ^ Delreux, T.(2012) The EU as an Actor in global environmental politics. In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  27. ^ Pallemaerts, M.and Azmanova, A.(eds)(2006) The European Union and Sustainable Development: Internal and external dimensions. VUB Press: Brussels.
  28. ^ a b Pallemaerts, M.(2012) Developing more Sustainably? In: Jordan, A.J. and C. Adelle (ed.) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.
  29. ^ An outline of the European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development, proposed in Helsinki in 1999 can be found in European Commission (2001): A Sustainable Europe for a Better World: A European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development, Report No. COM(2001)264 final [1]
  30. ^ See publication by Ruddy/Hilty under "Regulatory Impact Analysis
  31. ^ See the special issue edited by Clive George, Bernice Goldsmith (2006): Introduction: Impact assessment of trade-related policies and agreements: experience and challenges, Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 254-258, doi:doi:10.3152/147154606781765075
  32. ^ George, Clive (2010): The Truth about Trade: The Real Impact of Liberalization
  33. ^ Integrated sustainability assessment: what is it, why do it and how? P. M. Weaver, J. Rotmans (eds.), International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, Vol. 1, No. 4. (2006), pp. 284-303
  34. ^ a b Dimas, Stavros (23 March 2007). "Celebrating the Environmental Union". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2007. 
  35. ^ Jan-Henrik Meyer 2010. Saving Migrants: a Transnational Network supporting Supranational Bird Protection Policy in the 1970's. In Transnational Networks in Regional Integration. Informal Governance in Europe 1945-83, edited by W. Kaiser, M. Gehler and B. Leucht. Basingstoke. Palgrave, 176-198.
  36. ^ "Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora". Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  37. ^ Nielsen, Arthur (23 October 2015). "TTIP: EU negotiators appear to break environmental pledge in leaked draft". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2016. 
  38. ^ "Stiglitz, Joseph E (23 April 2016). "TTIP and Climate Change: A Tale of Two Cities from Paris to Hannover". "Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  39. ^ Neslen, Arthur (11 July 2016). "Leaked TTIP energy proposal could 'sabotage' EU climate policy". "The Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 

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