|Es erhub sich ein Streit
|"Church cantata by "J. S. Bach|
|Occasion||"Feast of Saint Michael|
|Performed||29 September 1726"Leipzig:|
|Chorale||by "Christoph Demantius|
Es erhub sich ein Streit (There arose a war), BWV 19,[a] is a "church cantata by "Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in "Leipzig in 1726 for the "Feast of Saint Michael and first performed it on 29 September 1726.
The prescribed readings for the Sunday were from the "Book of Revelation, Michael fighting the dragon (Revelation 12:7–12), and from the "Gospel of Matthew, heaven belongs to the children, the angels see the face of God (Matthew 18:1–11). The text of the cantata was written by Christian Friedrich Henrici, better known as "Picander, who includes as the closing chorale a stanza from a "hymn by "Christoph Demantius.
The "chorale theme is Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele, which was codified by "Louis Bourgeois when setting the Geneva Psalm 42 in his collection of Pseaumes octante trios de David ("Geneva, 1551). Bourgeois seems to have been influenced by the secular song "Ne l'oseray je dire" contained in the Manuscrit de Bayeux published around 1510.
The piece is scored for three vocal soloists ("soprano, "tenor, and "bass) and "four-part choir, and a "Baroque instrumental ensemble of three "trumpets, "timpani, two "oboes, "oboe da caccia, two "oboes d'amore, two "violins, "viola, and "basso continuo. Traditionally in Leipzig during Bach's time the Feast of St Michael celebrations used the largest orchestra available. All known complete Bach cantatas for this occasion include trumpet and timpani.
It is in seven "movements:
As with other Bach cantatas written for the Feast of St. Michael, this work opens with an "imposing" chorus. The opening and closing section of this "da capo movement focuses on a single line of text describing the battle against the forces of evil. The middle section sets the remaining five lines of the text. The movement includes no instrumental introduction, creating an "immediate dramatic effect". "Craig Smith suggests that the "vaulting high-energy fugue theme is the perfect illustration of the heroic struggle".
The third movement is a soprano aria with "obbligato oboes, "an oasis of protective tranquillity" in the major mode. However, elements of the music disturb the peace conveyed by the text: the extended "ritornello begins with an "odd three-bar phrasing", leading into a passage of constant momentum between the two oboes.
The tenor recitative is again in the "minor mode, this time to describe the fragility of man. This movement moves into a striking tenor aria, describing a personal response to the text. The aria is the longest movement of the cantata, representing a third of the total length of the work. The trumpet plays the full chorale melody of ""Herzlich lieb hab ich dich, o Herr", probably with the third stanza mentioning angels in mind, over a "siciliano rhythm in the strings and continuo.
The penultimate movement is a brief "secco soprano recitative that returns to the "major mode to prepare the closing chorale. The chorale has the feel of a "minuet, although there is some tension because of the changing phrase lengths employed by the melody.