Like "Finnish, Estonian employs the "Latin script as the basis for "its alphabet, which adds the letters "ä, "ö, "ü, and "õ, plus the later additions "š and "ž. The letters c, q, w, x and y are limited to "proper names of foreign origin, and f, z, š, and ž appear in loanwords and foreign names only. Ö and ü are pronounced similarly to their equivalents in Swedish and German. Unlike in standard German but like Finnish and Swedish (when followed by 'r'), Ä is pronounced [æ], as in English mat. The vowels Ä, Ö and Ü are clearly separate "phonemes and inherent in Estonian, although the letter shapes come from German. The letter "õ denotes /ɤ/, unrounded /o/, or a "close-mid back unrounded vowel. It is almost identical to the "Bulgarian "ъ /ɤ̞/ and the "Vietnamese "ơ, and is used to transcribe the Russian "ы.
Although the Estonian "orthography is generally guided by phonemic principles, with each "grapheme corresponding to one "phoneme, there are some historical and morphological deviations from this: for example preservation of the morpheme in "declension of the word (writing b, g, d in places where p, k, t is pronounced) and in the use of 'i' and 'j'.["clarification needed] Where it is very impractical or impossible to type š and ž, they are substituted with sh and zh in some written texts, although this is considered incorrect. Otherwise, the h in sh represents a "voiceless glottal fricative, as in Pasha (pas-ha); this also applies to some foreign names.
Modern Estonian orthography is based on the Newer Orthography created by Eduard Ahrens in the second half of the 19th century based on Finnish orthography. The Older Orthography it replaced was created in the 17th century by "Bengt Gottfried Forselius and Johann Hornung based on "standard German orthography. Earlier writing in Estonian had by and large used an ad hoc orthography based on "Latin and "Middle Low German orthography. Some influences of the standard German orthography – or example, writing 'W'/'w' instead of 'V'/'v' persisted well into the 1930s.
It should be noted that Estonian words and names quoted in international publications from Soviet sources are often back-transliterations from the Russian transliteration. Examples are the use of "ya" for "ä" (e.g. Pyarnu instead of "Pärnu), "y" instead of "õ" (e.g., Pylva instead of "Põlva) and "yu" instead of "ü" (e.g., Pyussi instead of "Püssi). Even in the "Encyclopædia Britannica one can find "ostrov Khiuma", where "ostrov" means "island" in Russian and "Khiuma" is back-transliteration from Russian instead of ""Hiiumaa" (Hiiumaa > Хийума(а) > Khiuma).
||This article should include a summary of "Estonian phonology. See "Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into this article's main text. (March 2015)|
There are 9 vowels and 36 diphthongs, 28 of which are native to Estonian." All nine vowels can appear as the first component of a diphthong, but only /ɑ e i o u/ occur as the second component. A vowel characteristic of Estonian is the unrounded back vowel /ɤ/, which may be "mid back, "close back, or "mid central.
Typologically, Estonian represents a transitional form from an "agglutinating language to a "fusional language. The canonical word order is "SVO (subject–verb–object).
In Estonian, nouns and pronouns do not have "grammatical gender, but nouns and adjectives decline in fourteen cases: "nominative, "genitive, "partitive, "illative, "inessive, "elative, "allative, "adessive, "ablative, "translative, "terminative, "essive, "abessive, and "comitative, with the case and number of the adjective(s) always agreeing with that of the noun (except in the terminative, essive, abessive and comitative, where there is agreement only for the number, the adjective being in the genitive form). Thus the illative for kollane maja ("a yellow house") is kollasesse majja ("into a yellow house"), but the terminative is kollase majani ("as far as a yellow house"). With respect to the Proto-Finnic language, elision has occurred; thus, the actual case marker may be absent, but the stem is changed, cf. maja – majja and the Ostrobothnia dialect of Finnish maja – majahan.
The direct object of the verb appears either in the "accusative (for total objects) or in the partitive (for partial objects). The accusative coincides with the genitive in the singular and with nominative in the plural. Accusative vs. partitive case opposition of the "object used with transitive verbs creates a "telicity contrast, just as in Finnish. This is a rough equivalent of the perfective vs. imperfective aspect opposition.
The verbal system lacks a distinctive future tense (the present tense serves here) and features special forms to express an action performed by an undetermined "subject (the "impersonal").
Although the Estonian and "Germanic languages are of very different origins, one can identify many similar words in Estonian and English, for example. This is primarily because the Estonian language has borrowed nearly one third of its vocabulary from "Germanic languages, mainly from Low Saxon ("Middle Low German) during the period of "German rule, and "High German (including "standard German). The percentage of Low Saxon and High German loanwords can be estimated at 22–25 percent, with Low Saxon making up about 15 percent.["citation needed]
Often 'b' & 'p' are interchangeable, for example 'baggage' becomes 'pagas', 'lob' (to throw) becomes 'loopima'. The initial letter 's' before another consonant is often dropped, for example 'skool' becomes 'kool', 'stool' becomes 'tool'.
Ex nihilo lexical enrichment
Estonian "language planners such as "Ado Grenzstein (a journalist active in Estonia in the 1870s–90s) tried to use formation "ex nihilo, Urschöpfung; i.e. they created new words out of nothing.
The most famous reformer of Estonian, "Johannes Aavik (1880–1973), used creations ex nihilo (cf. ‘free constructions’, Tauli 1977), along with other sources of lexical enrichment such as derivations, compositions and loanwords (often from Finnish; cf. Saareste and Raun 1965: 76). In Aavik’s dictionary (1921), which lists approximately 4000 words, there are many words which were (allegedly) created ex nihilo, many of which are in common use today. Examples are
- ese ‘object’,
- kolp ‘skull’,
- liibuma ‘to cling’,
- naasma ‘to return, come back’,
- nõme 'stupid, dull.'
Many of the coinages that have been considered (often by Aavik himself) as words concocted ex nihilo could well have been influenced by foreign lexical items, for example words from "Russian, "German, "French, "Finnish, "English and "Swedish. Aavik had a broad classical education and knew "Ancient Greek, "Latin and "French. Consider roim ‘crime’ versus "English crime or taunima ‘to condemn, disapprove’ versus "Finnish tuomita ‘to condemn, to judge’ (these Aavikisms appear in Aavik’s 1921 dictionary). These words might be better regarded as a peculiar manifestation of morpho-phonemic adaptation of a foreign lexical item.
Article 1 of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Estonian:
Kõik inimesed sünnivad vabadena ja võrdsetena oma väärikuselt ja õigustelt. Neile on antud mõistus ja südametunnistus ja nende suhtumist üksteisesse peab kandma vendluse vaim.
(All people are born free and equal in their dignity and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they shall create their relationships to one another according to the spirit of brotherhood.)
- Estonian at "Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Standard Estonian at "Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
"Võro at "Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
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- Pérez, Efrén O.; Tavits, Margit (January 24, 2017). "Language Shapes People's Time Perspective and Support for Future-Oriented Policies". "American Journal of Political Science. "Midwest Political Science Association. "doi:10.1111/ajps.12290.
- Zuckermann (2003:149)
- Zuckermann (2003:150)
- "Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003), Jones, Charles, ed., Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Change, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, "ISBN "1-4039-1723-X
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- Ross, Jaan; Lehiste, Ilse (2001), The temporal structure of Estonian runic songs, The Hague: Walter de Gruyter
|""||Estonian edition of "Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|""||Estonian edition of "Wikisource, the free library|