Many Christian denominations classify the Eucharist as a "sacrament. Some "Protestants (though not all) prefer to instead call it an "ordinance, viewing it not as a specific channel of "divine grace but as an expression of faith and of obedience to Christ.
Most Christians, even those who deny that there is any real change in the elements used, recognize a special presence of "Christ in this rite. But Christians differ about exactly how, where and how long Christ is present in it. "Catholicism, "Eastern Orthodoxy, "Oriental Orthodoxy, and the "Church of the East teach that the reality (the "substance") of the elements of bread and wine is wholly changed into the body and blood of Jesus Christ, while the appearances (the "species") remain. "Transubstantiation (change of the reality) is the term used by Catholics to denote what is changed, not to explain how the change occurs, since the Catholic Church teaches that "the signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ". "Lutherans and Reformed Christians believe that the whole Christ, including the body and blood of Jesus, are present in the supper, a concept known as the "sacramental union. Lutherans specify that Christ is "in, with and under" the forms of bread and wine. "Anglicans adhere to "a range of views although the teaching in the "Articles of Religion holds that body of Christ is present, yet only in a heavenly and spiritual manner. Some Christians reject the concept of the real presence, believing that the Eucharist is only a ceremonial remembrance or "memorial of the death of Christ.
The Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry document of the "World Council of Churches, attempting to present the common understanding of the Eucharist on the part of the generality of Christians, describes it as "essentially the sacrament of the gift which God makes to us in Christ through the power of the Holy Spirit", "Thanksgiving to the Father", "Anamnesis or Memorial of Christ", "the sacrament of the unique sacrifice of Christ, who ever lives to make intercession for us", "the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, the sacrament of his "real presence", "Invocation of the Spirit", "Communion of the Faithful", and "Meal of the Kingdom".
Ritual and liturgy
The "Catholic Church teaches that once consecrated in the Eucharist, the elements cease to be bread and wine and become the ""Body, "Blood, Soul and Divinity" of Christ, "whole and entire" indeed under the species of bread, and of wine, via a conversion called "transubstantiation. Each of which is accompanied by the other and by Christ's soul and divinity, as long as the Eucharistic species subsist, that is, until the Eucharist is digested, physically destroyed, or decays by some natural process (at which point Aquinas argued that the substance of the bread and wine cannot return). The empirical appearance and physical properties (called the species or "accidents) are not changed, but in the view of Catholics, the reality (called the "substance) indeed is; hence the term transubstantiation to describe the phenomenon. The consecration of the bread (known as the "Host) and wine represents the separation of Jesus' Body from his Blood at "Calvary. However, since he has risen, the Church teaches that his Body and Blood can no longer be truly separated. Where one is, the other must be. Therefore, although the priest (or "extraordinary minister of Holy Communion) says "The Body of Christ" when administering the Host and "The Blood of Christ" when presenting the chalice, the communicant who receives either one receives Christ, whole and entire.
The Catholic Church sees as the main basis for this belief the words of Jesus himself at his Last Supper: the "Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20) and "Saint Paul's 1 Cor. 11:23-25) recount that in that context Jesus said of what to all appearances were bread and wine: "This is my body … this is my blood." The Catholic understanding of these words, from the Patristic authors onward, has emphasized their roots in the covenantal history of the Old Testament. The interpretation of Christ's words against this Old Testament background coheres with and supports belief in the "Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
In 1551, the "Council of Trent definitively declared, "Because Christ our Redeemer said that it was truly his body that he was offering under the species of bread,[Jn. 6:51] it has always been the conviction of the Church of God, and this holy Council now declares again that by the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly called "transubstantiation." The "Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215 had spoken of "Jesus Christ, whose body and blood are truly contained in the sacrament of the altar under the forms of bread and wine, the bread being changed (transsubstantiatis) by divine power into the body and the wine into the blood."[note 6] The attempt by some twentieth-century Catholic theologians to present the Eucharistic change as an alteration of significance ("transignification rather than transubstantiation) was rejected by "Pope Paul VI in his 1965 encyclical letter "Mysterium fidei. In his 1968 "Credo of the People of God, he reiterated that any theological explanation of the doctrine must hold to the twofold claim that, after the consecration, 1) Christ's body and blood are really present; and 2) bread and wine are really absent; and this presence and absence is real and not merely something in the mind of the believer.
On entering a church, "Latin Church Catholics "genuflect to the "tabernacle that holds the consecrated host in order to respectfully acknowledge the presence of Jesus in the "Blessed Sacrament, a presence to which a "votive candle or "sanctuary lamp kept burning close to such a tabernacle draws attention.
Within "Eastern Christianity, the Eucharistic service is called the Divine Liturgy ("Byzantine Rite) or similar names in other rites. It comprises two main divisions: the first is the Liturgy of the Catechumens which consists of introductory litanies, antiphons and scripture readings, culminating in a reading from one of the "Gospels and, often, a "homily; the second is the Liturgy of the Faithful in which the Eucharist is offered, consecrated, and received as Holy Communion. Within the latter, the actual Eucharistic prayer is called the "anaphora, literally: "offering" or "carrying up" (ἀνα- + φέρω). In the "Rite of Constantinople, two different anaphoras are currently used: one is attributed to Saint "John Chrysostom, the other to "Saint Basil the Great. In the "Oriental Orthodox Church, a variety of anaphoras are used, but all are similar in structure to those of the Constantinopolitan Rite, in which the Anaphora of Saint John Chrysostom is used most days of the year; Saint Basil's is offered on the Sundays of "Great Lent, the eves of "Christmas and "Theophany, "Holy Thursday, "Holy Saturday, and upon his feast day (1 January). At the conclusion of the Anaphora the bread and wine are held to be the Body and Blood of Christ. Unlike the Latin Church, the "Byzantine Rite uses leavened bread, with the leaven symbolizing the presence of the Holy Spirit. The "Armenian Apostolic Church, like the Latin Church, uses unleavened bread.
Conventionally this change in the elements is understood to be accomplished at the "Epiclesis ("Greek: "invocation") by which the "Holy Spirit is invoked and the "consecration of the bread and wine as the true and genuine Body and Blood of Christ is specifically requested, but since the anaphora as a whole is considered a unitary (albeit lengthy) prayer, no one moment within it can be readily singled out.
Anglican eucharistic theology, unlike in many Protestant traditions, is not "memorialist (the belief that nothing special happens at the Lord's Supper other than devotional reflection on Christ's death). Rejection of doctrines of change in the bread and wine does not imply that Anglicanism rejected the doctrine of the real presence which is repeatedly asserted and referred to in various ways in the editions of the "Book of Common Prayer from 1559. It is assumed that the Christ is present, either as the real presence, truly and essentially present, pneumatically present, or that the bread and wine are outward symbols of an inward grace conferred on the faithful, all of which can in typical Anglican fashion be subscribed to at the same time as having something to offer: partaking of Christ by faith takes precedence over any theory of presence.
In most parishes of the "Anglican Communion, the Eucharist is celebrated every Sunday, having replaced Morning Prayer as the principal service. The rites for the Eucharist are found in the various prayer books of the Anglican churches. Wine and unleavened wafers or leavened bread is used. Daily celebrations are the norm in many "cathedrals and parish churches typically offer one or more Eucharists during the week. Only a small percentage of parishes with a priest do not celebrate the Eucharist at least once each Sunday. The nature of the liturgy, however, varies according to the theological tradition of the priests, parishes, "dioceses and regional churches.
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The bread and "fruit of the vine" indicated in Matthew, Mark and Luke as the elements of the Lord's Supper are interpreted by many "Baptists as unleavened bread (although leavened bread is often used) and, in line with the historical stance of some Baptist groups (since the mid-19th century) against partaking of alcoholic beverages, "grape juice, which they commonly refer to simply as "the Cup". The unleavened bread also underscores the symbolic belief attributed to Christ's breaking the bread and saying that it was his body. A "soda cracker is often used.
Most Baptists do not consider the Communion or its elements to be sacramental; rather, it is considered to be an act of remembrance of Christ's atonement, and a time of renewal of personal commitment.
However, with the rise of "confessionalism, many Baptists have denied memorialism as a 19th-century doctrinal novelty, and have taken up a Reformed view of Communion.["citation needed] Confessional Baptists believe in pneumatic presence, which is expressed in the "Second London Baptist Confession, specifically in Chapter 30, Articles 3 and 7. This view is prevalent among "Southern Baptists, those in the Founders movement (a Calvinistic movement within the some "Independent Baptists, "Freewill Baptists, and several individuals in other Baptist associations.
Communion practices and frequency vary among congregations. A typical practice is to have small cups of juice and plates of broken bread distributed to the seated congregation. In other congregations, communicants may proceed to the altar to receive the elements, then return to their seats. A widely accepted practice is for all to receive and hold the elements until everyone is served, then consume the bread and cup in unison. Usually, music is performed and Scripture is read during the receiving of the elements.
Some Baptist churches are closed-Communionists (even requiring full membership in the church before partaking), with others being partially or fully open-Communionists. It is rare to find a Baptist church where The Lord's Supper is observed every Sunday; most observe monthly or quarterly, with some holding Communion only during a designated Communion service or following a worship service. Adults and children in attendance, who have not made a profession of faith in Christ, are expected to not participate.
"Lutherans believe that the body and blood of Christ are "truly and substantially present in, with, and under the forms" of the consecrated bread and wine (the elements), so that communicants eat and drink the body and blood of Christ himself as well as the bread and wine in this "sacrament. The Lutheran doctrine of the Real Presence is more accurately and formally known as the ""sacramental union". It has been inaccurately called ""consubstantiation". This term is specifically rejected by Lutheran churches and theologians since it creates confusion about the actual doctrine and subjects the doctrine to the control of a non-biblical philosophical concept in the same manner as, in their view, does the term ""transubstantiation".
While an official movement exists in Lutheran congregations to celebrate Eucharist weekly, using formal rites very similar to the Catholic and "high" Anglican services, it was historically common for congregations to celebrate monthly or even quarterly. Even in congregations where Eucharist is offered weekly, there is not a requirement that every church service be a Eucharistic service, nor that all members of a congregation must receive it weekly.
Mennonites and Anabaptists
Traditional "Mennonite and German Baptist Brethren Churches such as the "Church of the Brethren churches and congregations have the Agape Meal, footwashing and the serving of the bread and wine two parts to the Communion service in the "Lovefeast. In the more modern groups, Communion is only the serving of the Lord's Supper. In the communion meal, the members of the Mennonite churches renew their covenant with God and with each other.
Open Brethren and Exclusive Brethren
Among "Open assemblies, also termed "Plymouth Brethren, the Eucharist is more commonly called the Breaking of Bread or the Lord's Supper. It is seen as a symbolic memorial and entirely non-sacramental and central to the worship of both individual and assembly. In principle, the service is open to all "baptized Christians, but an individual's eligibility to participate depends on the views of each particular assembly. The service takes the form of non-liturgical, open worship with all male participants allowed to pray audibly and select hymns or readings. The breaking of bread itself typically consists of one leavened loaf, which is prayed over and broken by a participant in the meeting and then shared around. The wine is poured from a single container into one or several vessels, and these are again shared around.
The "Exclusive Brethren follow a similar practice to the "Open Brethren. They also call the Eucharist the Breaking of Bread or the Lord's Supper.
In the "Reformed Churches the Eucharist is variously administered. The Calvinist view of the Sacrament sees a real presence of Christ in the supper which differs both from the objective ontological presence of the Catholic view, and from the real absence of Christ and the mental recollection of the memorialism of the Zwinglians and their successors.
The bread and wine become the means by which the believer has real communion with Christ in his death and Christ's body and blood are present to the faith of the believer as really as the bread and wine are present to their senses but this presence is "spiritual", that is the work of the Holy Spirit. There is no standard frequency; John Calvin desired weekly communion, but the city council only approved monthly, and monthly celebration has become the most common practice in Reformed churches today.
Many, on the other hand, follow "John Knox in celebration of the Lord's supper on a quarterly basis, to give proper time for reflection and inward consideration of one's own state and sin. Recently, Presbyterian and Reformed Churches have been considering whether to restore more frequent communion, including weekly communion in more churches, considering that infrequent communion was derived from a memorialist view of the Lord's Supper, rather than Calvin's view of the sacrament as a means of grace. Some churches use bread without any raising agent (whether "leaven or "yeast), in view of the use of "unleavened bread at "Jewish Passover meals, while others use any bread available.
The "Presbyterian Church (USA), for instance, prescribes "bread common to the culture". Harking back to the "regulative principle of worship, the Reformed tradition had long eschewed coming forward to receive communion, preferring to have the elements distributed throughout the congregation by the presbyters (elders) more in the style of a shared meal. Over the last half a century it is much more common in Presbyterian churches to have Holy Communion monthly or on a weekly basis. It is also becoming common to receive the elements by intinction (receiving a piece of consecrated bread or wafer, dipping it in the blessed wine, and consuming it) Wine and grape juice are both used, depending on the congregation.["citation needed]
Most Reformed churches practice open communion" , i.e., all believers who are united to a church of like faith and practice, and who are not living in sin, would be allowed to join in the Sacrament.
The Catechism for the use of the people called Methodists states that, "[in the Eucharist] Jesus Christ is "present with his worshipping people and gives himself to them as their Lord and Saviour". Methodist theology of this sacrament is reflected in one of the fathers of the movement, "Charles Wesley, who wrote a Eucharistic hymn with the following stanza:
- We need not now go up to Heaven,
- To bring the long sought Saviour down;
- Thou art to all already given,
- Thou dost e’en now Thy banquet crown:
- To every faithful soul appear,
- And show Thy real presence here!
In the "United Methodist Church grape juice is used instead of wine to include those who do not take alcohol for any reason, as well as a commitment to the Church's historical support of "temperance. Variations of the "Eucharistic Prayer are provided for various occasions, including communion of the sick and brief forms for occasions that call for greater brevity. Though the ritual is standardized, there is great variation amongst United Methodist churches, from typically high-church to low-church, in the enactment and style of celebration. Methodist clergy are not required to be vested when celebrating the Eucharist, though the "alb and "stole is common.
"John Wesley, a founder of Methodism, said that it was the duty of Christians to receive the sacrament as often as possible. Methodists in the United States are encouraged to celebrate the Eucharist every Sunday, though it is typically celebrated on the first Sunday of each month, while a few go as long as celebrating quarterly (a tradition dating back to the days of "circuit riders that served multiple churches). Communicants may receive standing, kneeling, or while seated. Gaining more wide acceptance is the practice of receiving by intinction (receiving a piece of consecrated bread or wafer, dipping it in the blessed wine, and consuming it). The most common alternative to intinction is for the communicants to receive the consecrated juice using small, individual, specially made glass or plastic cups known as communion cups. United Methodists practice open communion, inviting "all who intend a Christian life, together with their children" to receive Communion.
Many non-denominational Christians, including the "Churches of Christ, receive communion every Sunday. Others, including "Evangelical churches such as the "Church of God, "Calvary Chapel, and many forms of "Baptist, typically receive communion on a monthly or periodic basis. Many non-denominational Christians hold to the Biblical "autonomy of local churches and have no universal requirement among congregations.
The "Churches of Christ, among others, use "grape juice and unleavened wafers or unleavened bread and practice open communion.
Other Christian churches
Holy Qurbana or Qurbana Qadisha, the "Holy Offering" or "Holy Sacrifice", refers to the Eucharist as celebrated according to the "East Syrian and "West Syrian traditions of "Syriac Christianity. The main "Anaphora of the East Syrian tradition is the "Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari, while that of the West Syrian tradition is the "Liturgy of Saint James. Both are extremely old, going back at least to the third century, and are the oldest extant liturgies continually in use.
In the "Seventh-day Adventist Church the Holy Communion service customarily is celebrated once per quarter. The service includes the ordinance of "footwashing and the Lord's Supper. Unleavened bread and unfermented (non-alcoholic) grape juice is used. "Open communion is practised: all who have committed their lives to the Saviour may participate. The communion service must be conducted by an ordained pastor, minister or church elder.
"Jehovah's Witnesses commemorate Christ's death as a "ransom or "propitiatory sacrifice by observing a Memorial annually on the evening that corresponds to the Passover, "Nisan 14, according to the ancient Jewish calendar. They believe that this is the only annual religious observance commanded for Christians in the Bible.
Of those who attend the Memorial a small minority worldwide partake of the wine and unleavened bread. Jehovah's Witnesses believe that "only 144,000 people will receive heavenly salvation and immortal life and thus spend eternity with God and Christ in heaven, as under-priests and co-rulers under "Christ the King and "High Priest, in "Jehovah's Kingdom. Paralleling the "anointing of kings and priests, they are referred to as the "anointed" class and are the only ones who should partake of the bread and wine. They believe that the ""other sheep" of Christ's flock also benefit from the "ransom sacrifice, and are respectful observers of the Lord's Supper Remembrance, with hope of receiving everlasting life in Paradise restored on a "New Earth".
The Memorial, held after sundown, includes a sermon on the meaning and importance of the celebration and gathering, and includes the circulation and viewing among the audience of unadulterated red wine and unleavened bread (matzo). Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the bread symbolizes and represents Jesus Christ's perfect body which he gave on behalf of mankind, and that the wine represents his perfect blood which redeems fallen man from inherited sin and death. The wine and the bread (sometimes referred to as "emblems") are viewed as symbolic and commemorative; the Witnesses do not believe in "transubstantiation or "consubstantiation; so not a literal presence of flesh and blood in the emblems, but that the emblems are simply symbolisms denoting spiritual realities.
In "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the "Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper", more simply referred to as the Sacrament, is administered every Sunday (except General Conference or other special Sunday meeting) in each "LDS Ward or branch worldwide at the beginning of "Sacrament meeting. The Sacrament, which consists of both ordinary bread and water (rather than wine or grape juice), is prepared by "priesthood holders prior to the beginning of the meeting. At the beginning of the Sacrament, "priests say specific prayers to bless the bread and water. The Sacrament is passed row-by-row to the congregation by priesthood holders (typically "deacons).
The prayer recited for the bread and the water is found in the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants.
While the "Salvation Army does not reject the Eucharistic practices of other churches or deny that their members truly receive grace through this sacrament, it does not practice the sacraments of Communion or "baptism. This is because they believe that these are unnecessary for the living of a Christian life, and because in the opinion of Salvation Army founders William and Catherine Booth, the sacrament placed too much stress on outward ritual and too little on inward spiritual conversion.
Emphasizing the inward spiritual experience of their adherents over any outward ritual, "Quakers (members of the Religious Society of Friends) generally do not baptize or observe Communion.
Practice and customs
Open and closed communion
"Christian denominations differ in their understanding of whether they may receive the Eucharist with those with whom they are not in "full communion. The famed apologist "St. "Justin Martyr (c. 150) wrote: "No one else is permitted to partake of it, except one who believes our teaching to be true...." For the first several hundred years, non-members were forbidden even to be present at the sacramental ritual; visitors and "catechumens (those still undergoing instruction) were dismissed halfway through the Liturgy, after the Bible readings and sermon but before the Eucharistic rite. This ancient custom is still evident in the "extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, where the Mass is divided into two parts; the Mass of the Catechumens, and the Mass of the Faithful. The "Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, used in the "Byzantine Rite, still has a formula of dismissal of catechumens (not usually followed by any action) at this point.
Churches such as the "Catholic and the "Eastern Orthodox Churches practice "closed communion under normal circumstances. However, the Catholic Church allows administration of the Eucharist, at their spontaneous request, to properly disposed members of the eastern churches ("Eastern Orthodox, "Oriental Orthodox and "Church of the East) not in full communion with it and of other churches that the "Holy See judges to be sacramentally in the same position as these churches; and in grave and pressing need, such as danger of death, it allows the Eucharist to be administered also to individuals who do not belong to these churches but who share the Catholic Church's faith in the reality of the Eucharist and have no access to a minister of their own community. Some "Protestant communities exclude non-members from Communion.
The "Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) practices open communion, provided those who receive are baptized, but the "Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod and the "Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) practice closed communion, excluding non-members and requiring communicants to have been given "catechetical instruction. The "Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, the "Evangelical Church in Germany, the "Church of Sweden, and many other "Lutheran churches outside of the US also practice open communion. Some use the term "close communion" for restriction to members of the same denomination, and "closed communion" for restriction to members of the local congregation alone.
Most "Protestant communities (including "Congregational churches, the "Church of the Nazarene, the "Assemblies of God, "Methodists, most "Presbyterians, "Anglicans, and "Churches of Christ and other "non-denominational churches practice various forms of "open communion. Some churches do not limit it to only members of the congregation, but to any person in attendance (regardless of Christian affiliation) who considers himself/herself to be a Christian. Others require that the communicant be a baptized person, or a member of a church of that denomination or a denomination of "like faith and practice". Some Progressive Christian congregations offer communion to any individual who wishes to commemorate the life and teachings of Christ, regardless of religious affiliation.
In the "Episcopal Church (United States), those who do not receive Holy Communion may enter the communion line with their arms crossed over their chest, in order to receive a "blessing from the priest, instead of receiving Holy Communion. This practice is also used in the Roman Catholic church at funeral masses, where attendees frequently include non-Catholics.
Most Latter-Day Saint churches practice closed communion; one notable exception is the "Community of Christ, the second-largest denomination in this movement. While The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the largest of the LDS denominations) technically practice a closed communion, their official direction to local Church leaders (in Handbook 2, section 20.4.1, last paragraph) is as follows: "Although the sacrament is for Church members, the bishopric should not announce that it will be passed to members only, and nothing should be done to prevent nonmembers from partaking of it."
The Catholic Church requires its members to receive the "sacrament of "Penance or Reconciliation before taking Communion if they are aware of having committed a "mortal sin and to prepare by fasting, prayer, and other works of piety.
Traditionally, the Eastern Orthodox church has required its members to have observed all church-appointed fasts (most weeks, this will be at least Wednesday and Friday) for the week prior to partaking of communion, and to fast from all food and water from midnight the night before. In addition, Orthodox Christians are to have made a recent confession to their priest (the frequency varying with one's particular priest), and they must be at peace with all others, meaning that they hold no grudges or anger against anyone. In addition, one is expected to attend "Vespers or the "All-Night Vigil, if offered, on the night before receiving communion. Furthermore, various pre-communion prayers have been composed, which many (but not all) Orthodox churches require or at least strongly encourage members to say privately before coming to the Eucharist.
Many Protestant congregations generally reserve a period of time for self-examination and private, silent confession just before partaking in the Lord's Supper.
Seventh-day Adventists, "Mennonites, and some other groups participate in ""foot washing" (cf. John 13:3-17) as a preparation for partaking in the Lord's Supper. At that time they are to individually examine themselves, and confess any sins they may have between one and another.
Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic, Anglo-Catholic and some Lutheran traditions, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. When this exposure and adoration is constant (twenty-four hours a day), it is called Perpetual Adoration. In a parish, this is usually done by volunteer parishioners; in a "monastery or convent, it is done by the resident "monks or "nuns. In the Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, the Eucharist is displayed in a "monstrance, typically placed on an altar, at times with a light focused on it, or with candles flanking it.
The "gluten in wheat bread is dangerous to people with "celiac disease and other "gluten-related disorders, such as "non-celiac gluten sensitivity and "wheat allergy. For the Catholic Church, this issue was addressed in the 24 July 2003 letter of the "Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which summarized and clarified earlier declarations. The Catholic Church believes that the matter for the Eucharist must be wheaten bread and fermented wine from grapes: it holds that, if the gluten has been entirely removed, the result is not true wheaten bread, For celiacs, but not generally, it allows low-gluten bread. It also permits Holy Communion to be received under the form of either bread or wine alone, except by a priest who is celebrating Mass without other priests or as principal celebrant. Many Protestant churches offer communicants gluten-free alternatives to wheaten bread, usually in the form of a rice-based cracker or gluten-free bread.
The Catholic Church believes that grape juice that has not begun even minimally to ferment cannot be accepted as wine, which it sees as essential for celebration of the Eucharist. For alcoholics, but not generally, it allows the use of "mustum (grape juice in which fermentation has begun but has been suspended without altering the nature of the juice), and it holds that "since Christ is sacramentally present under each of the species, communion under the species of bread alone makes it possible to receive all the fruit of Eucharistic grace. For pastoral reasons, this manner of receiving communion has been legitimately established as the most common form in the Latin rite."
As already indicated, the one exception is in the case of a priest celebrating Mass without other priests or as principal celebrant. The water that in the "Latin Church is prescribed to be mixed with the wine must be only a relatively small quantity. The practice of the "Coptic Church is that the mixture should be two parts wine to one part water.
Many Protestant churches allow clergy and communicants to take "mustum instead of wine. In addition to, or in replacement of wine, some churches offer grape juice which has been "pasteurized to stop the fermentation process the juice naturally undergoes; de-alcoholized wine from which most of the alcohol has been removed (between 0.5% and 2% remains); or water. Exclusive use of unfermented grape juice is common in "Baptist churches, the "United Methodist Church, "Seventh-day Adventists, "Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, "Churches of Christ, "Church of God (Anderson, Indiana) some "Lutherans, "Assemblies of God, "Pentecostals, "Evangelicals, the "Christian Missionary Alliance, and other American "independent Protestant churches.,
Fear of transmission of diseases
Risk of infectious disease transmission related to use of a common communion cup is low, to the point of being undetectable. No case of transmission of an infectious disease related to a common communion cup has ever been documented. The most likely diseases to be transmitted would be common viral illnesses such as the "common cold, but a study of 681 individuals found that taking communion up to daily from a common cup did not increase the risk of infection beyond that of those who did not attend services at all.
In influenza epidemics, some churches suspend the giving of communion under the form of wine, for fear of spreading the disease. This is in full accord with Catholic Church belief that communion under the form of bread alone makes it possible to receive all the fruit of Eucharistic grace. However, the same measure has also been taken by churches that normally insist on the importance of receiving communion under both forms. This was done in 2009 by the "Church of England.
Some fear contagion through the handling involved in distributing the hosts to the communicants, even if they are placed on the hand rather than on the tongue. Accordingly, some churches use mechanical wafer dispensers or "pillow packs" (communion wafers with wine inside them). While these methods of distributing communion are not accepted in Catholic Church parishes, one such church provides a mechanical dispenser to allow those intending to communicate to place in a bowl, without touching them by hand, the hosts for use in the celebration.
- Eucharistic theology
- "Eucharistic theology, "Eucharistic theologies summarised
- "Eucharistic miracle
- "Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
- Liturgical worship
- Eucharistic practice
- "Closed communion
- "Communion under both kinds
- "First Communion
- "Fraction (religion)
- "Open communion
- "Sacramental wine
- "Thanksgiving after Communion
- Views of different churches
- "Anglican Eucharistic theology
- "Sacrament (Latter Day Saints)
- "Sacramental Union (Lutheran)
- "Transubstantiation (Catholicism)
- Sacramental theology
- "Origin of the Eucharist ("The Last Supper)
- "Marburg Colloquy (1529)
- "Sacramentarians ("Protestant Reformation period, approx. 16th Century)
- "The Adoration of the Sacrament by Martin Luther (1523)
- "Confession Concerning Christ's Supper by Martin Luther (1528)
- "Ubiquitarians (1530 and 1540)
- "Receptionism (16th and 17th-century Anglicans)
- "Year of the Eucharist (2004–2005)
- "Host desecration
- Within "Oriental Orthodoxy, the "Oblation" is the term used in the "Syrian, "Coptic and "Armenian churches, while "Consecration" is used in the "Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. "Oblation" and "Consecration" are of course used also by the Eastern Catholic Churches that are of the same liturgical tradition as these churches. Likewise, in the "Gaelic language of Ireland and Scotland the word "Aifreann", usually translated into English as "Mass", is derived from "Late Latin "Offerendum", meaning "oblation", "offering".
- 9.1 Concerning the thanksgiving (tēs eucharistias) give thanks thus: 9.2 First, concerning the cup: "We give thanks to you, our Father, For the holy vine of David your servant which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant. To you be glory for ever". 9.3 And concerning the fragment: "We give thanks to you, our Father, For the life and knowledge, which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant". But let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist, unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this also the Lord has said, "Give not that which is holy to the dogs". 10.1 After you have had your fill, give thanks thus: 10.2 We give thanks to you holy Father for your holy Name which you have made to dwell in our hearts and for the knowledge, faith and immortality which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant. To you be glory for ever. 10.3 You Lord almighty have created everything for the sake of your Name; you have given human beings food and drink to partake with enjoyment so that they might give thanks; but to us you have given the grace of spiritual food and drink and of eternal life through Jesus your servant. 10.4 Above all we give you thanks because you are mighty. To you be glory for ever. 10.5 Remember Lord your Church, to preserve it from all evil and to make it perfect in your love. And, sanctified, gather it from the four winds into your kingdom which you have prepared for it. Because yours is the power and the glory for ever. ...
- 14.1 But every Lord's day do ye gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure. 14.2. But let no one that is at variance with his fellow come together with you, until they be reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be profaned. 14.3. For this is that which was spoken by the Lord: In every place and time offer to me a pure sacrifice; for I am a great King, saith the Lord, and my name is wonderful among the nations.
- The tradition that Ignatius was a direct disciple of the "Apostle John is consistent with the content of his letters (Introduction to the Roberts-Donaldson translation of his writings at the "Wayback Machine (archived 29 December 2007).)
- " ... (t)he eucharist is the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which flesh suffered for our sins, and which in His loving-kindness the Father raised up. ... Let that eucharist alone be considered valid which is under the bishop or him to whom he commits it. ... It is not lawful apart from the bishop either to baptize, or to hold a love-feast. But whatsoever he approves, that also is well-pleasing to God, that everything which you do may be secure and valid". Letter to the Smyrnaeans, 6, 8 "Give heed to keep one Eucharist. For there is one flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ, and one cup unto union with His blood. There is one altar, as there is one bishop, together with the presbytery and deacons, my fellow-servants; that whatsoever you do, you may do according unto God. "Letter to the Philadelphians, 4
- Canon 1. A misprint in this source gives "transubstantiatio" in place of "transubstantiatis" of the original: "Iesus Christus, cuius corpus et sanguis in sacramento altaris sub speciebus panis et vini veraciter continentur, transsubstantiatis pane in corpus, et vino in sanguinem potestate divina" (Denzinger 8020.
- Encyclopædia Britannica, s.v. Eucharist
- Ignazio Silone, Bread and Wine (1937).
- A Catechism for the use of people called Methodists. Peterborough, England: Methodist Publishing House. 2000. p. 26. "ISBN "9781858521824.
- Gospel Figures in Art by Stefano Zuffi 2003 "ISBN 978-0-89236-727-6 p. 252
- Eugene LaVerdiere (1996), The Eucharist in the New Testament and the Early Church, Liturgical Press, pp. 1–2, "ISBN "978-0-8146-6152-9
- "Thomas R. Schreiner, Matthew R. Crawford, The Lord's Supper (B&H Publishing Group 2011 "ISBN 978-0-8054-4757-6), p. 156
- John H. Armstrong, Understanding Four Views on the Lord's Supper (Zondervan 2009 "ISBN 978-0-310-54275-9)
- Robert Benedetto, James O. Duke, The New Westminister Dictionary of Church History (Westminster John Knox Press 2008 "ISBN 978-0-664-22416-5), vol. 2, p. 231
- Eucharist in the New Testament by Jerome Kodell 1988 "ISBN 0-8146-5663-3 p. 51
- Introducing Early Christianity by Laurie Guy "ISBN 0-8308-3942-9 p. 196
- Didache 9:1 (pp. 22-23)
- Theological Dictionary of the New Testament by Gerhard Kittel, Gerhard Friedrich and Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1985 "ISBN 0-8028-2404-8 p. 437
- Stanley E. Porter, Dictionary of Biblical Criticism and Interpretation (Taylor & Francis 2007 "ISBN 978-0-415-20100-1), p. 207
- Eph 13:1; Philad 4; Smyrn 7:1,, 8:1
- Apology, 66
- Richardson, Alan. Introduction to the Theology of the New Testament. London: SCM. p. 364.
- Bayne, Brian L. (1974). "Plymouth Brethren". In Cross, F. L.; Livingstone, E. A. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church; Nature. 329. Oxford University Press. p. 578. "Bibcode:1987Natur.329..578B. "doi:10.1038/329578b0. "PMID 3309679.
- Catholic Church (2006). Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. p. 275., and Catholic Church (1997). Catechism of the Catholic Church. pp. 1328–1332. "ISBN "978-1-57455-110-5.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Liturgy of the Mass". "Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Tyndale Bible Dictionary / editors, Philip W. Comfort, Walter A. Elwell, 2001 "ISBN 0-8423-7089-7, article: Lord's Supper, The
- Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church / editors, F. L. Cross & E. A. Livingstone 2005 "ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3, article Eucharist
- Moloney, Francis (2001). "A Hard Saying" : The Gospel and Culture. The Liturgical Press. pp. 109–130.
- Heron, Alisdair >I.C. Table and Tradition Westminster Press, Philadelphia (1983) p. 3
- Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the New Testament UBS (1971) pp.173f
- Heron, Alisdair >I.C. Table and Tradition Westminster Press, Philadelphia (1983) p. 5
- Caird, G.B. The Gospel of Luke Pelican (1963) p. 237
- see paragraph 2837 at http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p4s2a3.htm
- "Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
- Tyndale Bible Dictionary / editors, Philip W. Comfort, Walter A. Elwell, 2001 "ISBN 0-8423-7089-7, article: "John, Gospel of"
- Hoskyns, Sir Edwyn, The Fourth Gospel, Faber and Faber, 1940, p. 304
- Lambert, J.C. (1978). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (reprint ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. "ISBN "0-8028-8045-2.
- "Bruce Metzger. The canon of the New Testament. 1997
- "There are now two quite separate Eucharistic celebrations given in Didache 9-10, with the earlier one now put in second place". Crossan. The historical Jesus. Citing Riggs, John W. 1984
- See First Apology, 65-67
- For example, Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, "Anglo-Catholic" Anglicans, Old Catholics; and cf. the presentation of the Eucharist as a sacrament in the html#c10499 Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry document of the "World Council of Churches
- "Most Christian traditions also teach that Jesus is present in the Eucharist in some special way, though they disagree about the mode, the locus, and the time of that presence" (Encyclopædia Britannica Online).
- Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1333 (emphasis added)
- "Horton, Michael S. (2008). People and Place: A Covenant Ecclesiology. Louisville, KY: "Westminster John Knox Press. p. 126. "ISBN "978-0-664-23071-5.
- Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry (Faith and Order Paper no. 111, the "Lima Text")
- "The Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Sacrament of the Eucharist: Basic Questions and Answers". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- Aquinas, Thomas. "Summa Theologiæ Article 2". New Advent. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- Council of Trent, Decree concerning the Most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist, chapter IV and canon II
- Council of Trent, Decree concerning the Most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist, canon III
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church". The Holy See. The Catholic Church. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- Mulcahy, O.P., Bernard. "The Holy Eucharist" (PDF). kofc.org. Knights of Columbus. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- Aquinas, Thomas. "Summa Theologiae, Question 77". New Advent. Kevin Knight. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- "Abrahamic, Mosaic, and Prophetic Foundations of the Eucharist". Inside the Vatican 16, no. 4 (2008): 102-105.
- CCC 1376
- Session XIII, chapter IV; cf. canon II)
- Runciman, Steven (1968). The Great Church in Captivity. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. "ISBN "0-521-31310-4.
- Matthew 26:26–29, Mark 14:22–25, Luke 22:19
- See, e.g., Graves, J. R. (1928). What is It to Eat and Drink Unworthily. Baptist Sunday School Committee. "OCLC 6323560.
- "Augsburg Confession, Article 10
- F. L. Cross, ed., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, second edition, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974), 340 sub loco.
- J. T. Mueller, Christian Dogmatics: A Handbook of Doctrinal Theology, (St. Louis: CPH, 1934), 519; cf. also Erwin L. Lueker, Christian Cyclopedia, (St. Louis: CPH, 1975), under the entry "consubstantiation".
- What Lutherans Believe About Holy Communion Archived 20 March 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2011–04–25.
- How Lutherans Worship at LutheransOnline.com. Retrieved 2011–04–24.
- How do we move to weekly Communion? at elca.org Retrieved 2011-09-18
- "Ordinances". GAMEO. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Darby, J.N., quoted in Bradshaw, P.F. The new SCM dictionary of liturgy and worship, p.375
- Muller, G. (1860) A Narrative of some of the Lords dealings with George Muller, pp.279-281
- Bradshaw, P.F. The new SCM dictionary of liturgy and worship, p.375
- Brethren Online FAQs
- McGrath, Alister E. Reformation Thought Oxford: Blackwell (2003) p.189
- Hendry, George S. The Westminster Confession for Today SCM (1960) p.232
- D. G. Hart and John R. Muether (October 1997). "The Lord's Supper: How Often?". Ordained Servant. 6 (4).
- Abraham, William J.; Watson, David F. (2013). Key United Methodist Beliefs. Abingdon Press. pp. 103–104. "ISBN "9781426756610.
Charles Wesley wrote a marvelous collection of hymns that offer an amazing vision of Christ's mysterious, yet real, presence in the bread and the wine. Here is a stanza from one of them: We need not now go up to Heaven, To bring the long sought Saviour down; Thou art to all already given, Thou dost e’en now Thy banquet crown: To every faithful soul appear, And show Thy real presence here!
- "... the use of unfermented grape juice by The United Methodist Church ... expresses pastoral concern for recovering alcoholics, enables the participation of children and youth, and supports the church's witness of abstinence.".
- Communion Cups, 1000 from Broadman / Holman Church Supply. Christianbook.com. Accessed 5 July 2009.
- UMC 1992, 29.
- Seventh-day Adventist Church Manual, 17th edition, 2005, pp. 81-86. Published by the secretariat, "General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists.
- Seventh-day Adventists Believe: An exposition of the fundamental beliefs of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. 2nd edition, 2005. Copyright Ministeral Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. Chapter 16: The Lord's Supper
- Reasoning From The Scriptures, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1989, p. 265.
- Insight On The Scriptures, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, p. 392.
- "Jehovah is a God of Covenants", The Watchtower, February 1, 1998, page 8, "Jesus instituted the only annual religious observance commanded for Christians—the Memorial of his death."
- What Does the Bible Really Teach?. Watch Tower Society. p. 207.
- "Discerning What We Are — At Memorial Time", The Watchtower, February 15, 1990, p. 16.
- See, e.g., Roberts, B. H. (1938). "Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Deseret News Press. "OCLC 0842503005.
- "Doctrine and Covenants 20:75". LDS Church. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- "Handbook 2: Administering the Church, Chapter 20.4.3". Retrieved 2011-10-30.
- Why Does the Salvation Army Not Baptize or Hold Communion Services?
- How do Quakers Practice Baptism and Communion?
- Code of Canon Law, canon 844
- Evangelical Lutheran. Retrieved 2013–03–23.
- ELCA Full Communion Partners
- "Close communion and membership".
- "Guidelines for Congregational, District, and Synodical Communion Statements" www.lcms.org. Retrieved 2016–12–28.
- In most United Church of Christ local churches, the Communion Table is "open to all Christians who wish to know the presence of Christ and to share in the community of God's people". (Book of Worship). Holy Communion: A Practice of Faith in the United Church of Christ
- The Episcopal Handbook. Church Publishing, Inc. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
Pastoral blessings are often available for children or adults who are not communing. Simply cross your arms over your chest if you wish to receive a blessing.
- Community of Christ: Communion
- Code of Canon Law, canon 916 Archived 28 June 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 711 Archived 30 November 2012 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 713 Archived 30 November 2012 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Code of Canon Law, canon 919 Archived 28 June 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Preparing to Receive Holy Communion
- How to Prepare for the Eucharist
- Preparation for Holy Communion
- Mulder CJ, van Wanrooij RL, Bakker SF, Wierdsma N, Bouma G (2013). "Gluten-free diet in gluten-related disorders". Dig Dis. (Review). 31 (1): 57–62. "doi:10.1159/000347180. "PMID 23797124.
The only treatment for "CD, "dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and "gluten ataxia is lifelong adherence to a "GFD.
- Hischenhuber C, Crevel R, Jarry B, Mäki M, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Romano A, Troncone R, Ward R (Mar 1, 2006). "Review article: safe amounts of gluten for patients with wheat allergy or coeliac disease". Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 23 (5): 559–75. "doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02768.x. "PMID 16480395.
For both "wheat allergy and coeliac disease the dietary avoidance of wheat and other gluten-containing cereals is the only effective treatment.
- Volta U, Caio G, De Giorgio R, Henriksen C, Skodje G, Lundin KE (Jun 2015). "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a work-in-progress entity in the spectrum of wheat-related disorders". Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 29 (3): 477–91. "doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2015.04.006. "PMID 26060112.
A recently proposed approach to "NCGS diagnosis is an objective improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal manifestations assessed through a rating scale before and after "GFD. Although a standardized symptom rating scale is not yet applied worldwide, a recent study indicated that a decrease of the global symptom score higher than 50% after GFD can be regarded as confirmatory of NCGS (Table 1) . (…) After the confirmation of NCGS diagnosis, according to the previously mentioned work-up, patients are advized to start with a GFD .
- McNamara, Father Edward (2004-09-14). "Gluten-free Hosts". ZENIT International News Agency. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- The same 24 July 2003 letter of the "Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
- Jax Peter Lowell, The Gluten-Free Bible, p. 279.
- Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1390 Archived 16 June 2012 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Code of Canon Law, canon 924 §1 Archived 4 December 2010 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Sacrament of the Eucharist: Rite of Sanctification of the Chalice
- Compare John Howard Spahr, I Smell the Cup, Christian Century, 12 March 1974, pp. 257-259.
- Manangan, Lilia P.; Sehulster, Lynne M.; Chiarello, Linda; Simonds, Dawn N.; Jarvis, William R. (October 1998). "Risk of Infectious Disease Transmission from a Common Communion Cup". American Journal of Infection Control. 26 (5): 538–539. "doi:10.1016/s0196-6553(98)70029-x.
- Pellerin, J.; Edmond, M. B. (2013). "Infections associated with religious rituals". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 17 (11): e945–e948. "doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2013.05.001. "PMID 23791225.
- Archbishops advise against sharing chalice during swine flu pandemic
- Reddy, Sumathi (7 January 2011). "Hands Off After Wafer Scare". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Bouyer, Louis. Eucharist: Theology and Spirituality of the Eucharistic Prayer, trans. by Charles Underhill Quinn. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1968. N.B.: Despite what the subtitle may suggest, the book discusses the Christian Eucharist in further aspects than alone the "Canon of the Mass". "ISBN 0-268-00498-6
- "Chemnitz, Martin. The Lord's Supper. J. A. O. Preus, trans. St. Louis: Concordia, 1979. "ISBN 0-570-03275-X
- "Church, Catholic. "The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent" Translated by Rev. H.J. Schroeder, O.P., published by Tan Books and Publishers, Inc., P. O. Box 424, Rockford, IL 61105
- "Dix, Dom Gregory. The Shape of the Liturgy. London: Continuum International, 2005. "ISBN 0-8264-7942-1
- "Cabrera de Armida, Concepcion. "I Am: Eucharistic Meditations on the Gospel, Alba House Publishing 2001 "ISBN 0-8189-0890-4
- Elert, Werner. Eucharist and Church Fellowship in the First Four Centuries. N. E. Nagel, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1966. "ISBN 0-570-04270-4
- Felton, Gayle. This Holy Mystery. Nashville: Discipleship Resources, 2005. "ISBN 0-88177-457-X
- Father Gabriel. Divine Intimacy. London, UK: Baronius Press Ltd, 2013 reprint ed. "ISBN 9781905574438
- Grime, J. H. Close Communion and Baptists
- "Hahn, Scott. The Lamb's Supper: Mass as Heaven on Earth. Darton, Longman, Todd. 1999. "ISBN 0-232-52500-5
- Henke, Frederick Goodrich A Study in the Psychology of Ritualism. University of Chicago Press 1910
- Jurgens, William A. The Faith of the Early Fathers. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1970. "ISBN 0-8146-0432-3
- Kolb, Robert and Timothy J. Wengert, eds. "The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000. ("ISBN 0-8006-2740-7)
- Lefebvre, Gaspar. The Saint Andrew Daily Missal. Reprint. Great Falls, MT: St. Bonaventure Publications, Inc., 1999
- Löhr, Hermut, ed., Abendmahl (Themen der Theologie 3), Tübingen: UTB / Mohr Siebeck 2012. "ISBN 978-3-8252-3499-7
- Macy, Gary. The Banquet's Wisdom: A Short History of the Theologies of the Lord's Supper. (2005, "ISBN 1-878009-50-8)
- Magni, JA The Ethnological Background of the Eucharist. Clark University. American Journal of Religious Psychology and Education, IV (No. 1–2), March, 1910.
- McBride, Alfred, O. Praem. Celebrating the Mass. Our Sunday Visitor, 1999.
- Neal, Gregory. Grace Upon Grace 2000. "ISBN 0-9679074-0-3
- "Nevin, John Williamson. The Mystical Presence: A Vindication of the Reformed or Calvinistic Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist. 1846; Wipf & Stock reprint, 2000. "ISBN 1-57910-348-0.
- "Oden, Thomas C. Corrective Love: The Power of Communion Discipline. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1995. "ISBN 0-570-04803-6
- Piolanti, Antonio, ed. Eucharistia: il mistero dell'altare nel pensiero e nella vita della Chiesa. Roma: Desclée, 1957.
- Rasperger (Raspergero), Christopher (Christophorus, Christoph, Christophoro, Christophe) Two hundred interpretations of the words: This is my Body, Ingolstadt, 1577 Latin text. (Latin title: Ducentae paucorum istorum et quidem clarissimorum Christi verborum: Hoc est Corpus meum; interpretationes,; German title: Zweihundert Auslegungen der Worte das ist mein Leib.)
- "Sasse, Hermann. This Is My Body: Luther's Contention for the Real Presence in the Sacrament of the Altar. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2001. "ISBN 1-57910-766-4
- "Schmemann, Alexander. The Eucharist. St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1997. "ISBN 0-88141-018-7
- Scotland, N. A. D. Eucharistic Consecration in the First Four Centuries and Its Implications for Liturgical Reform, in series, Latimer Studies, 31. Oxford, Eng.: Latimer House, 1989. "ISBN 0-946307-30-X
- Stoffer, Dale R. The Lord's Supper: Believers Church Perspectives
- Stookey, L.H. Eucharist: Christ's Feast with the Church. Nashville: Abingdon, 1993. "ISBN 0-687-12017-9
- Tissot, Very Rev. J. The Interior Life. 1916, pp. 347–9.
- "Wright, N. T. The Meal Jesus Gave Us
- Yarnold, G.D. The Bread Which We Break. London: Oxford University Press, 1960. 119 p.