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""Flag of Europe of  European Atomic Energy Community(EAEC / Euratom)  Europæiske Atomenergifællesskab  (Danish)    Europese Atoomenergie Gemeenschap  (Dutch)    Communauté européenne de l'énergie atomique  (French)    Europäische Atomgemeinschaft  (German)    Ευρωπαϊκή Κοινότητα Ατομικής Ενέργειας  (Greek)    Comunità europea dell'energia atomica  (Italian)    Comunidade Europeia da Energia Atómica  (Portuguese)    Comunidad Europea de la Energía Atómica  (Spanish)
""Map indicating the members of the European Atomic Energy Community
  Member states
  Participating associated state
Administrative body "European Commission
"Official languages "24 languages
Type "International organisation
Members "28 EU member states
1 associated state
Establishment 1958
1 January 1958
1 July 1967

The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an "international organisation founded in 1957 with the purpose of creating a specialist market for "nuclear power in Europe, developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states. It is legally distinct from the "European Union (EU), but has the same "membership, and is governed by many of the "EU's institutions. Since 2014, "Switzerland has also participated in Euratom programmes as an associated state.[1]

Currently, its main focus is on the construction of the International Fusion Reactor "ITER[2] financed under the nuclear part of "FP7. Euratom also provides a mechanism for providing loans to finance nuclear projects in the EU.

It was established by the "Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 alongside the "European Economic Community (EEC), being taken over by the executive "institutions of the EEC in 1967. Although all other European postwar communities were merged into the EEC and then the EU, Euroatom has maintained its legally distinct nature and is the only remaining community organization that is independent from the European Union and therefore outside the regulatory control of the European Parliament.

Contents

History[edit]

""
""
April 1, 1957, "Konrad Adenauer, "Walter Hallstein and "Antonio Segni, signing the "European customs union and Euratom in Rome

The "Common Assembly proposed extending the powers of the "European Coal and Steel Community to cover other sources of energy. However, "Jean Monnet, ECSC architect and President, wanted a separate community to cover "nuclear power. "Louis Armand was put in charge of a study into the prospects of nuclear energy use in Europe; his report concluded that further nuclear development was needed to fill the deficit left by the exhaustion of coal deposits and to reduce dependence on oil producers. However, the Benelux states and Germany were also keen on creating a general "single market, although it was opposed by France due to its "protectionism, and Jean Monnet thought it too large and difficult a task. In the end, Monnet proposed the creation of separate atomic energy and economic communities to reconcile both groups.[3]

The "Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom at "Val Duchesse in 1956 drew up the essentials of the new treaties. Euratom would foster co-operation in the nuclear field, at the time a very popular area, and would, along with the EEC, share the Common Assembly and "Court of Justice of the ECSC, but not its executives. Euratom would have its own Council and Commission, with fewer powers than the "High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community. On 25 March 1957, the Treaties of Rome (the "Euratom Treaty and the "EEC Treaty) were signed by the "ECSC members and on 1 January 1958 they came into force.[4][5][6]

To save on resources, these separate executives created by the Rome Treaties were merged in 1965 by the "Merger Treaty. The institutions of the EEC would take over responsibilities for the running of the EEC and Euratom, with all three then becoming known as the "European Communities even if each legally existed separately. In 1993, the "Maastricht Treaty created the European Union, which absorbed the Communities into the "European Community pillar, yet Euratom still maintained a distinct legal personality.

The "European Constitution was intended to consolidate all previous treaties and increase democratic accountability in them. The Euratom treaty had not been amended as the other treaties had, so the "European Parliament had been granted few powers over it. However, the reason it had gone unamended was the same reason the Constitution left it to remain separate from the rest of the EU: anti-nuclear sentiment among the European electorate, which may unnecessarily turn voters against the treaty.[7][8][9] The Euratom treaty thus remains in force relatively unamended from its original signing.

As of 2016, EAEC had co-operation agreements of various scopes with eight countries: U.S., Japan, Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and South Africa.[10]

The United Kingdom announced its intention to withdraw from the EAEC on 26 January 2017, following on from its decision to "withdraw from the European Union.[10][11][12][13] Formal notice to withdraw from the EAEC was provided in March 2017.[14] Withdrawal will only become effective following negotiations on the terms of the exit, which are scheduled to last two years.

EU evolution timeline[edit]

Signed:
In force:
"Document:
1948
1948
"Brussels
Treaty
1951
1952
"Paris
Treaty
1954
1955
"Modified
Brussels
Treaty
1957
1958
"Rome
Treaty
&
"EURATOM
1965
1967
"Merger
Treaty
1975
1976
"Council
Agreement
on TREVI
1986
1987
"Single
European
Act
1985+90
1995
"Schengen
Treaty
&
"Convention
1992
1993
"Maastricht Treaty (TEU)
1997
1999
"Amsterdam
Treaty
2001
2003
"Nice
Treaty
"2007
2009
"Lisbon
Treaty
 
Content: (founded WUDO) (founded ECSC) (protocol amending WUDO to become WEU) (founded EEC and EURATOM) (merging the legislative & administrative bodies of the 3 European communities) (founded TREVI) (amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EEC)+
(founded EPC)
(founded Schengen)
(implemented Schengen)
(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, and EEC to transform it into EC)+
(founded: JHA+CFSP)
(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EC to also contain Schengen, and TEU where PJCC replaced JHA) (amended with focus on institutional changes: EURATOM, ECSC, EC and TEU) (abolished the 3 pillars and WEU by amending: EURATOM, EC=>TFEU, and TEU)
(founded EU as an overall legal unit with "bill of rights, and reformed governance structures & decision procedures)
 
                         
"Three pillars of the European Union:  
"European Communities
(with a single Commission & Council)
 
European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)   
"European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty expired in 2002 "European Union (EU)
    "European Economic Community (EEC)   "European Community (EC)
        "Schengen Rules  
    "Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism and Violence Internationally (TREVI) "Justice and Home Affairs
(JHA)
  "Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)
  "European Political Cooperation (EPC) "Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
"Western Union Defence Organization (WUDO) "Western European Union (WEU)    
Treaty terminated in 2011    
                     
"European Union
Flag of the European Union

This article is part of a series on the
"politics and government
of the European Union

Achievements[edit]

In the history of European regulation, Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty represents pioneering legislation concerning binding transfrontier obligations with respect to environmental impact and protection of humans.[15]

Presidents of the EAEC[edit]

The five member Commission was led by only three presidents while it had independent executives (1958–1967), all from France:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Document 32014D0954, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  2. ^ Fusion for Energy
  3. ^ 1957–1968 Successes and crises CVCE
  4. ^ A European Atomic Energy Community CVCE
  5. ^ The signing of the Rome Treaties CVCE
  6. ^ Drafting of the Rome Treaties CVCE
  7. ^ Euratom: nuking Europe's future Greenpeace International, 9 July 2003
  8. ^ One hundred civil society groups say abolish Euratom! Friends of the Earth Europe, 3 March 2003
  9. ^ Euratom reform
  10. ^ a b Alex Barker, Arthur Beesley (26 January 2017). "UK confirms plan to leave European atomic energy community". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  11. ^ Britain quits European nuclear body
  12. ^ Adam Vaughan (27 January 2017). "UK exit from EU atomic treaty under Brexit 'will delay power stations'". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  13. ^ http://www.nature.com/news/researchers-shocked-at-uk-s-plan-to-exit-eu-nuclear-agency-1.21388
  14. ^ "Prime Minister May's letter to EU" (PDF). "Government of the United Kingdom. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-04-01. 
  15. ^ Heuel-Fabianek, B., Kümmerle, E., Möllmann-Coers, M., Lennartz, R. (2008): The relevance of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty for the dismantling of nuclear reactors. atw – International Journal for Nuclear Power 6/2008

External links[edit]

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