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Main article: "List of European Commission portfolios Juncker Commission.

The make up and distribution of portfolios are determined by the Commission President and do not always correspond with the Commission's "departments (Directorates-General). While some have been fairly consistent in make up between each Commission, some have only just been created or are paired with others. With a record number of Members in 2007, the portfolios have become very thin even though the responsibilities of the commission have increased.[14]

Nominee Portrait "Portfolio "State "Party
Juncker, Jean-Claude"Jean-Claude Juncker ""Ioannes Claudius Juncker die 7 Martis 2014.jpg "President "Luxembourg "Luxembourg "EPP
National: "CSV
Timmermans, Frans"Frans Timmermans ""Frans Timmermans 2013.jpg "First Vice President "Netherlands "Netherlands "PES
National: "PvdA
"Better Regulation, Inter-Institutional Relations, "Rule of Law and Charter of Fundamental Rights
Mogherini, Federica"Federica Mogherini ""Federica Mogherini Official.jpg "Vice President "Italy "Italy "PES
National: "PD
"Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
Georgieva, Kristalina"Kristalina Georgieva ""Kristalina Georgieva (7).jpg "Vice President "Bulgaria "Bulgaria "EPP
National: "GERB
"Budget and Human Resources
Šefčovič, Maroš"Maroš Šefčovič ""Maroš Šefčovič Senate of Poland 01.JPG "Vice President "Slovakia "Slovakia "PES
National: "Smer-SD
"Energy Union
Katainen, Jyrki"Jyrki Katainen ""Jyrki Katainen in June 2013 (cropped).jpg "Vice President "Finland "Finland "EPP
National: "KOK
"Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness
Dombrovskis, Valdis"Valdis Dombrovskis ""Valdis Dombrovskis 2009.jpg "Vice President "Latvia "Latvia "EPP
National: "Unity
"Euro and Social Dialogue "Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union
Ansip, Andrus"Andrus Ansip ""Portrait Andrus Ansip.jpg "Vice President "Estonia "Estonia "ALDE
National: "Reform
"Digital Single Market
Jourová, Věra"Věra Jourová ""Věra Jourová.jpg "Justice, "Consumers and Gender Equality "Czech Republic "Czech Republic "ALDE
National: "ANO
Oettinger, Günther"Günther Oettinger ""Guenther h oettinger 2007.jpg "Digital Economy and Society "Germany "Germany "EPP
National: "CDU
Moscovici, Pierre"Pierre Moscovici ""Pierre Moscovici en mai 2010.png "Economic and Financial Affairs, "Taxation and Customs "France "France "PES
National: "PS
Thyssen, Marianne"Marianne Thyssen ""MarianeThyssen.jpg "Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility "Belgium "Belgium "EPP
National: "CD&V
Crețu, Corina"Corina Crețu ""Corina Cretu.jpg "Regional Policy "Romania "Romania "PES
National: "PSD
Hahn, Johannes"Johannes Hahn ""JohannesHahnPortrait.jpg "European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations "Austria "Austria "EPP
National: "ÖVP
Avramopoulos, Dimitris"Dimitris Avramopoulos ""D Avramopoulos at the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs.jpg "Migration, Home Affairs and "Citizenship "Greece "Greece "EPP
National: "ND
Andriukaitis, Vytenis"Vytenis Andriukaitis ""Vytenis Povilas Andriukaitis.jpg "Health and Food Safety "Lithuania "Lithuania "PES
National: "SDP
Hill, Jonathan"Jonathan Hill ""Jonathan Hopkin Hill, Baron Hill of Oareford.jpg Resigned [15] "United Kingdom "United Kingdom "AECR
National: "Conservative
Bieńkowska, Elżbieta"Elżbieta Bieńkowska ""Elżbieta Bieńkowska Kancelaria Senatu.jpg "Internal Market, "Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs "Poland "Poland "EPP
National: "PO
Cañete, Miguel Arias"Miguel Arias Cañete ""Miguel Arias Cañete (cropped) (2).jpg "Climate Action and "Energy "Spain "Spain "EPP
National: "PP
Mimica, Neven"Neven Mimica ""N mimica.jpg "International Cooperation and Development "Croatia "Croatia "PES
National: "SDP
Vestager, Margrethe"Margrethe Vestager ""Margrethe Vestager (2011).jpg "Competition "Denmark "Denmark "ALDE
National: "RV
Bulc, Violeta"Violeta Bulc ""Violeta Bulc 2014-11.jpg "Transport "Slovenia "Slovenia "ALDE
National: "SMC
Malmström, Cecilia"Cecilia Malmström ""Cecilia Malmström (cropped).jpg "Trade "Sweden "Sweden "ALDE
National: "FP
Vella, Karmenu"Karmenu Vella ""KarmenuVellaPolitician.jpg "Environment, "Maritime Affairs and Fisheries "Malta "Malta "PES
National: "PL
Navracsics, Tibor"Tibor Navracsics ""Navracsics Tibor Portrait.jpg "Education, Culture, Youth and Sport "Hungary "Hungary "EPP
National: "Fidesz
Moedas, Carlos"Carlos Moedas ""Carlos Moedas (cropped).JPG "Research, Science and Innovation "Portugal "Portugal "EPP
National: "PSD
Hogan, Phil"Phil Hogan ""Phil Hogan.jpg "Agriculture and Rural Development "Republic of Ireland "Ireland "EPP
National: "FG
Stylianides, Christos"Christos Stylianides ""Stylianides.JPG "Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management "Cyprus "Cyprus "EPP
National: "DISY

Breakdown of commissioners party affiliations:

14
8
5
1

Civil service[edit]

A Commissioner can come under a great deal of influence from the staff under their control. The "European Civil Service is permanent whereas a Commissioner is in office usually for just five years. Hence it is the service which know the workings of the Commission and have longer term interests. Strong leadership from a Commissioner, who knows the workings of their portfolio, can overcome the power of the service. An example would be "Pascal Lamy, however the best people are usually kept by their national governments leading to less solid candidates getting the job.[16]

Politicisation[edit]

""
""
"Margot Wallström has said that the EU has to get more political and controversial.

Commissioners are also required to remain above national politics while exercising their duties in the Commission to maintain independence. However that requirement has slowly been eroded as the institution has become more politicised. During the "Prodi Commission, "Anna Diamantopoulou ("Employment and Social Affairs) took leave from the Commission to participate in the "2004 Greek elections and resigned when she won a seat despite her party losing. "Romano Prodi campaigned in the "2001 Italian elections while still president.[17]

Recently, "Louis Michel ("Development & Humanitarian Aid) announced that he would go on unpaid leave to take part in the "2007 Belgian elections.[18] Although he positioned himself so as not to be elected, the "European Parliament's development committee asked the "Parliament's legal service to assess if his participation violated the "treaties.[19] Michel claimed that politicisation of this manner is part of reconnecting the Union with its citizens. The Commission revised its code of conduct for Commissioners allowing them to "be active members of political parties or trade unions." To participate in an election campaign they are required to "withdraw from the work of the Commission for the duration of the campaign."

This does throw their independence in doubt, where a politician leaves their national scene for one or two terms and returns to it for a new job.[20] Most in essence owe their positions to nomination and support from national party leaders and parties they have been aligned to; usually seeking to return to the party-political fray.[21]

Politicisation has even gone so far as commissioners backing national candidates, with "Neelie Kroes ("Competition) backing "Angela Merkel in the "2005 German elections and "Margot Wallström ("Institutional Relations & Communication Strategy) backing "Ségolène Royal in the "2007 French elections.[17] Wallström defended this claiming that the EU has to get more political and controversial as being a vital role in communicating the Commission.[22] Wallström has been notable for engaging in debate and politics, she was the first commissioner to start her own blog.

However their political nature can also cause problems in their habit of leaving the job early in the final years of the Commission to take up new national posts. In seeking to secure their post-Commission job, they can undermine the work of the Commission.[23] Following elections in Cyprus, Commissioner Kyprianou left to become Cypriot Foreign Minister.[24] Likewise, Commissioner Frattini left to do the same following elections in Italy.[25] During the previous "Prodi Commission, "Pedro Solbes left to become the Spanish finance minister, "Michel Barnier left to become French foreign minister, "Erkki Liikanen left to become head of a Helsinki bank and "Anna Diamantopoulou also resigned early. Even President Prodi started campaigning in the Italian elections before his term as head of the Commission was over.[23]

Appointment to the Commission has the effect of removing a political figure from a country for a period of years, and this has been compared to the "ancient Athenian practice of "ostracism.[26]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] "BBC: 'Proud' Mandelson back in [UK] cabinet
  2. ^ Mahony, Honor (23 March 2010) EP president suggests election of future EU commissioners, "EU Observer
  3. ^ Reding says member states 'must show' they're applying EU charter
  4. ^ [2] EU commission: Wording of the oath.
  5. ^ See the attached Protocol, Article 4
  6. ^ Smyth, Jamie (5 September 2009). "Rejection may undermine EU's effectiveness, warns Swedish premier". The Irish Times. Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  7. ^ EU divided by plan for ‘second-class’ commissioners ft.com 7 January 2007
  8. ^ 'Big three' strike deal on super commissioner, French VAT cuts, 1% ceiling euractiv.com 19 February 2005
  9. ^ "The Union's institutions: Commission". "Europa (web portal). Retrieved 6 July 2007. 
  10. ^ Council of the European Union (20 June 2007). "Brussels European Council 21/22 June 2007: Presidency Conclusions" (PDF). Retrieved 22 June 2007. 
  11. ^ a b c REGULATION No 422/67/EEC, 5/67/EURATOM OF THE COUNCIL, EurLex
  12. ^ Base salary of grade 16, third step is €17,697.68: European Commission: Officials' salaries – accessed 19 March 2010
  13. ^ Council Decision of 1 December 2009 laying down the conditions of employment of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, EurLex
  14. ^ Prodi to Have Wide, New Powers as Head of the European Commission iht.com 16 April 1999
  15. ^ Brexit: Juncker expresses 'deep regret' at Jonathan Hill resignation "The Parliament Magazine
  16. ^ Former EU Mandarin Spills the Beans on Commission Intrigue "Deutsche Welle
  17. ^ a b EU commissioner backs Royal in French election euobserver.com
  18. ^ Commissioner Louis Michel to stand in the Belgian parliamentary elections europa.eu
  19. ^ [3]
  20. ^ Hix, Simon (1999) "The political system of the European Union” MacMillan, Basingstoke, p5
  21. ^ Hix Simon (1999) "The political system of the European Union". p5
  22. ^ Brussels struggles with communication policy euobserver.com 9 May 2007
  23. ^ a b Mahony, Honor (4 March 2008). "EU commission musical chairs begins in Brussels". EU Observer. Retrieved 5 March 2008. 
  24. ^ Latham, Mark (10 April 2008). "Parliament backs Vassiliou as health commissioner". European Voice. Retrieved 15 April 2008. 
  25. ^ Igra, Daniel (15 April 2008). "Berlusconi victory confirms Frattini's departure". European Voice. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2008. 
  26. ^ Cartledge, Paul (July 2006). "Ostracism: selection and de-selection in ancient Greece". History & Policy. United Kingdom: History & Policy. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
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