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Main articles: "List of diplomatic missions of the European Union and "Foreign relations of the European Union § Diplomatic representation
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The delegation in Washington, D.C., the first to be upgraded to an EU embassy.

The former "Commission's representations abroad fall under the EEAS as EU "embassies (although representing the whole of the EU under Lisbon, the Commission had wanted to retain management).[1] The delegations would also support visits from MEPs, delegation heads would have hearings in Parliament (though no veto) and they are at the disposal of Parliament for questions concerning the country they dealt with.[8] There are EU delegations in nearly every UN member state[32] and each head of delegation is the "EU ambassador (appointed by the High Representative).

On 1 January 2010 all former European Commission delegations were renamed European Union delegations and were gradually upgraded into embassy-type missions that employ greater powers than the regular delegations. These upgraded delegations have taken on the role previously carried out by the national embassies of the member state holding the rotating "Presidency of the Council of the European Union and merged with the independent Council delegations around the world. Through this the EU delegations take on the role of co-ordinating national embassies and speaking for the EU as a whole, not just the Commission.[33]

The first delegation to be upgraded was the one in Washington D.C., the new "joint ambassador was Joao Vale de Almeida who outlined his new powers as speaking for both the Commission and Council presidents, and member states. He would be in charge where there was a common position but otherwise, on bilateral matters, he would not take over from national ambassadors. All delegations are expected to be converted by the end of 2010.[34] Some states may choose to operate through the new EU delegations and close down some of their smaller national embassies, however France has indicated that it will maintain its own network around the world for now.[35]

Budget[edit]

The EEAS's budget is proposed and managed by the "HR[1] and be signed off every year by Parliament. Parliament would also review the budget of each EU mission; Parliament's oversight would put an end to a long-standing "gentlemen's agreement whereby Parliament and Council do not look at each other's budget details.[8]

Parliamentary oversight[edit]

Parliament has fought to gain oversight over the EEAS and under final plans the budget, though independent, would be scrutinised by MEPs who can approve or reject it. Parliament would also be consulted on overseas missions and have stronger budgetary oversight over those too. They would also informally vet appointments to prominent foreign embassies and have access to some classified EEAS documents.[3][13]

Intelligence and security[edit]

As part of the merger, the intelligence gathering services in the Commission and Council will be merged. These services are the Council's "Joint Situation Centre (SitCen) and Watch-Keeping Capability and the Commission's Crisis Room. The Situation Centre has 110 staff and has a cell of "intelligence analysts from member states who pool classified information to produce concise reports on important topics. It also runs a 24/7 alert desk based on public sources which then updates EU diplomats via SMS on current events. The Watch-Keeping Capability is composed of 12 police and military officers who gather news from the EU's overseas missions.[36]

The Commission's Crisis Room is run by six commission officials who run a restricted website reporting breaking news on the 118 active conflicts in the world based on open sources and news from EU embassies. It uses scientific tools including statistical analysis and software which scans global TV broadcasts for names and key words. Details on the plans for the new merged intelligence service are still sketchy as of early 2010 but it will not run undercover operations along the lines of national "intelligence agencies despite proposals from Belgium and Austria after the "2004 Madrid train bombings.[36]

The Situation Centre and Crisis Room would be merged and headed by the "HR. It would be located near the HR's office headed by a director-general with a staff of around 160 people and a budget of 10 to 20 million euro a year. It would have IT experts, scientists, tacticians and seconded intelligence operatives. It would send people into crisis zones to gather information and have 24/7 hotlines to EU delegations around the world. It would give the HR an immediate and powerful asset in an emergency without having to go via the Council's Political and Security committee first.[37] However it is unclear if the Council's "Clearing House (or Working Group CP 931 which deals with the EU's terrorism blacklist[38]) would be merged into the EEAS along with these other bodies.[39]

Meanwhile, Ashton appointed a Polish security operative to head a working group designing the security architecture of the EEAS; particularly the physical security of the EEAS building and its communication network with its embassies. It is seen as particularly important due to the EEAS handling sensitive, as discussed above, amid espionage concerns from China and Russia.[39]

In September 2010, job adverts went out to EU institutions and national embassies for three junior posts at the EEAS. One for foreign deployment, one for a multi-lingual internet researcher and one to follow up on open and confidential information sources. The adverts expressed more about the future department's work, in particular at the new director would be expected to travel to global hotspots.[40] The director of the Joint Situation Centre was appointed in December 2010, Finnish security chief Ilkka Salmi.[28]

The High Representative also has authority over the "European Defence Agency, "EU Institute for Security Studies and the "EU Satellite Centre, though these remain autonomous from the EEAS itself.[41][42][43][44]

Commission's responsibilities[edit]

The European Commission managed to retain control over its competencies in aid (and its €6 billion a year budget), development, energy and enlargement. This gives the relevant Commissioners the lead in those areas[3] and deputise for the "HR when necessary.[13] Although the service will have cells for the Commission's areas, decisions will have to be made jointly by the HR and the "College of Commissioners.[1]

However Ashton's draft plan for the EEAS included proposals for the EEAS to take responsibility for Neighbourhood Policy (currently assigned to the Enlargement Commissioner) and international development at least.[45] Under a compromise with the Commission, it was agreed development would be split, with the EEAS taking on three of the five planning cycles from the Commission.[46] How this division of labour will work in practice only began being tested in 2012 as the 2014–2020 programming exercise began.[47]

The following Directorates-General (DGs) and Commissioners are not being merged and decisions in these areas require approval from the college of Commissioners:

Location[edit]

The EEAS is based in the "Triangle building (also known as the Capital, or Axa building) on "Schuman roundabout in the heart of "Brussels' EU Quarter. The building is leased at €12 million-a-year. Prior to moving in, future EEAS staff were located in eight separate buildings at a cost of €25 million each year.[48] The EEAS lease most of the building, with Commission departments filling the remaining space.[49] The "European Personnel Selection Office (Epso) was already occupying part of the building since July 2010.[49]

It was originally expected that the EEAS would take over the Commission's "Charlemagne building[50] on the "Rue de la Loi which housed the now defunct "Directorate-General for External Relations (RELEX). However that building was thought to be too small,[49] would be too closely associated with RELEX (going against the image of the EEAS as a unique independent institution)[51] and would take too long to overhaul.[48] It was also proposed that the EEAS take over the "Lex building.[49] Due to cost and security considerations, Ashton had preferred to take over the Lex building which could be rented from the Council at a lower rate and already has a higher security rating with underground tunnels to the main Commission and Council buildings. However, in order to take over the building, the council staff would have to be willing to leave and the Council's budget increased so they could find new accommodation.[51] Due to the staff in Lex unwilling to move, the triangle building was chosen by Ashton in October 2010.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Rettman, Andrew (23 October 2009) EU states envisage new foreign policy giant, EU Observer
  2. ^ a b c Rettman, Andrew (2 December 2010) Ashton names EU foreign-service priorities at low-key launch event, EU Observer
  3. ^ a b c d e Rettman, Andrew (8 July 2010) EU takes 'historic' step on new diplomatic service, EU Observer
  4. ^ Grant, Charles (19 June 2007). "Constitutional fudge". Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  5. ^ "Treaty amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty Establishing the European Community" (PDF). 17 December 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  6. ^ Rettman, Andrew (14 January 2009) EU foreign relations chief tests new powers in earthquake response, EU Observer
  7. ^ Gaspers, Jan (January 2010). "Putting Europe First". Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  8. ^ a b c Mahony, Honor (24 March 2010) Ashton makes concessions to parliament on diplomatic service, "EU Observer, accessed 24 March 2010
  9. ^ a b c d COUNCIL DECISION establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service PDF, Council of the European Union, 20 July 2010
  10. ^ Lewis, Aidan (December 7, 2012). "EU diplomatic service cautious on tough global stage". BBC. BBC. Retrieved July 6, 2014. 
  11. ^ Rettman, Andrew (1 March 2010) Germany attacks UK over EU diplomatic service, EU Observer
  12. ^ a b EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE Provisional organisational chart, EEAS
  13. ^ a b c d Mahony, Honor (22 June 2010) Details emerge on final set-up of EU diplomatic corps, EU Observer
  14. ^ Rettman, Andrew (4 June 2010) EU ponders creation of new diplomatic breed, EU Observer
  15. ^ A new step in the setting-up of the EEAS: Transfer of staff on 1 January 2011, Council of the European Union 21 December 2010
  16. ^ a b c Rettman, Andrew (11 March 2010) France and Germany eye top job in EU diplomatic corps, EU Observer
  17. ^ a b c Rettman, Andrew (29 October 2010) German and Pole join roll-call of Ashton lieutenants, EU Observer
  18. ^ "European Union - EEAS (European External Action Service) | High Representative Federica Mogherini announces adoption of a modified organisational chart of the EEAS". eeas.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-08-17. 
  19. ^ Structure and Organisation, European External Action Service
  20. ^ a b http://euobserver.com/9/31120
  21. ^ EU High Representative Catherine Ashton appoints EEAS Managing Director for Crisis Response CoEU 2 December 2010
  22. ^ a b EU High Representative Catherine Ashton appoints two new Managing Directors for the External Action Service CoEU 21 December 2010
  23. ^ a b Catherine Ashton appoints Managing Director for Africa, welcomes appointment of EDA Chief Executive, CoEU 6 January 2011
  24. ^ a b EU High Representative Catherine Ashton appoints two Managing Directors for the External Action Service, CoEU 14 December 2010
  25. ^ Vogel, Toby (1 April 2011) Ashton completes EEAS leadership, European Voice
  26. ^ Belgian Walter Stevens appointed Head of Crisis Management and Planning Department of EEAS, Belgian Foreign Ministry
  27. ^ High Representative Catherine Ashton makes three senior appointments in European External Action Service CoEU 28 March 2011
  28. ^ a b Ashton picks Fin to be EU 'spymaster'
  29. ^ EU High Representative Catherine Ashton appoints Director of the European Union Situation Centre (SITCEN) for the External Action Service, CoEU
  30. ^ Ambassador Olof Skoog to chair the EU Political and Security Committee (PSC), Swedish Foreign Ministry 18 November 2010
  31. ^ Catherine Ashton appoints Robert Cooper as Counsellor in the EEAS (PDF), EEAS 2 December 2010
  32. ^ External Service – delegations' websites, Europa.eu website
  33. ^ EU commission 'embassies' granted new powers
  34. ^ EU envoy to US flaunts new powers, EU Observer 11 August 2010
  35. ^ EU foreign ministers approve diplomatic service, EU Observer 27 July 2010
  36. ^ a b Rettman, Andrew (22 February 2010) EU diplomats to benefit from new intelligence hub, EU Observer
  37. ^ Rettman, Andrew (27 June 2010) Ashton to take command of US-type situation room, EU Observer
  38. ^ Fight against the financing of terrorism – implementation of Common Position 2001/931/CFSP, Council of the European Union
  39. ^ a b Rettman, Andrew (1 July 2010) Ashton hires Polish agent to beef up security, EU Observer
  40. ^ http://euobserver.com/9/30843
  41. ^ EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE Graphic representation (PDF), EEAS
  42. ^ Supervision, EUSC
  43. ^ About Us, EUISS
  44. ^ Organisation, EDA
  45. ^ http://www.europeanvoice.com/article/2010/03/ashton-to-present-plans-for-diplomatic-service/67342.aspx
  46. ^ Mahony, Honor (25 March 2010) Ashton secures deal on new diplomatic service, EU Observer
  47. ^ Görtz, S. and N. Keijzer. 2012. Reprogramming EU development cooperation for 2014–2020 – Key moments for partner countries, EU Delegations, member states and headquarters in 2012. (ECDPM Discussion Paper 129), http://www.ecdpm.org/dp129
  48. ^ a b c Rettman, Andrew (27 October 2010) Ashton chooses €12-million-a-year EU headquarters, EU Observer
  49. ^ a b c d Rettman, Andrew (27 October 2010) Ashton chooses €12-million-a-year EU headquarters, EU Observer
  50. ^ Rankin, Jennifer and Toby Vogel (12 November 2009) Smoothing the road from Nice to Lisbon, European Voice
  51. ^ a b Rettman, Andrew (20 September 2010) Ashton favours 'Lex' building for new headquarters, EU Observer

External links[edit]

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