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( => ( => ( => European Parliament election, 2009 (United Kingdom) [pageid] => 8739635 ) =>
United Kingdom European Parliament election, 2009
"United Kingdom
← "2004 4 June 2009 "2014 →

All 72 of the United Kingdom's seats
in the "European Parliament
Turnout 34.7%[1] Decrease 3.5%
  First party Second party
  ""David Cameron ""Nigel Farage
Leader "David Cameron "Nigel Farage
Party "Conservative "UKIP
Alliance "ECR "EFD
Leader since "6 December 2005 "12 September 2006
Last election 27 seats, 25.9% 12 seats, 15.6%
Seats before 25 12
Seats won 26 13
Seat change Increase1* Increase1*
Popular vote 4,281,286 2,498,226
Percentage 27.4% 16.0%
Swing Increase1.0% Increase0.4%

  Third party Fourth party
  ""Gordon Brown ""Nick Clegg
Leader "Gordon Brown "Nick Clegg
Party "Labour "Liberal Democrat
Alliance "S&D "ALDE
Leader since "24 June 2007 "18 December 2007
Last election 19 seats, 21.9% 12 seats, 14.4%
Seats before 18 10
Seats won 13 11
Seat change Decrease5* Increase1*
Popular vote 2,381,760 2,080,613
Percentage 15.2% 13.3%
Swing Decrease6.6% Decrease1.1%

""2009 Euro ElectionMap.png
Colours indicate winning party. *Seat change has been adjusted to allow for direct comparison with the results from the 2004 election.[2]

(including 1 "UCUNF)

Notional results

Leader of largest party before election

"David Cameron
"Conservative

Subsequent leader of largest party

"David Cameron
"Conservative

The European Parliament election was the "United Kingdom's component of the "2009 European Parliament election, the voting for which was held on Thursday 4 June 2009. The election was held concurrently with the "2009 local elections in England. In total, 72 "Members of the European Parliament were elected from the United Kingdom using "proportional representation.

Notable outcomes were the significant drop in support for the "Labour Party, who came third, and the "UK Independence Party (UKIP) finishing second in a major election for the first time in its history, coming level with Labour in terms of seats but ahead of them in terms of votes. This was the first time in British electoral history that a party in government had been outpolled in a national election by a party with no representation in the "House of Commons. The BNP also won two seats, its first ever in a nationwide election.[3] It also marked the first time the "Scottish National Party (SNP) won the largest share of the European election vote in Scotland,[4] and it was the first time since 1918 Labour had failed to come first in a Welsh election.[5] It was the "Democratic Unionist Party's (DUP) worst ever European election result, and also the first time an "Irish Republican party, "Sinn Féin, topped the poll in Northern Ireland.[6]

Contents

Background[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

The United Kingdom elected 72 "Members of the European Parliament using "proportional representation. The United Kingdom was divided into twelve multi-member constituencies. The eleven of these regions which form "Great Britain used a closed-list "party list system method of "proportional representation, calculated using the "D'Hondt method. "Northern Ireland used the "Single Transferable Vote (STV).

The experimental use of all-postal ballots in four regions in "2004 was not repeated, resulting in a sharp reduction in turnout in those regions.[7]

Constituencies and representation[edit]

As has been the case since 1999, the electoral constituencies were based on the "government's nine "English regions, "Scotland, "Northern Ireland and "Wales, creating a total of 12 constituencies. The "Treaty of Nice fixed the number of MEPs for the whole European Parliament at 736; as a consequence of the "accession of Romania and Bulgaria in 2007, the number of "seats allocated to the United Kingdom was reduced from 78 to 72. If the "Lisbon Treaty had entered into force by June 2009 this figure would have been 73. On 31 July 2007, in line with the required reduction in representation from the United Kingdom the number of members elected from each region was modified by the "Boundary Commission and "Electoral Commission, based on the size of the electorate in each region. The recommended changes were approved by the "Parliament of the United Kingdom in 2008.[8]

Changes in regional seat allocations[9]

Constituency Representation
in 2004
Representation
in 2009
Net Gain/Loss
"East Midlands 6 5 -1
"East of England 7 7 0
"London 9 8 -1
"North East England 3 3 0
"North West England 9 8 -1
"Northern Ireland 3 3 0
"Scotland 7 6 -1
"South East England 10 10 0
"South West England1 7 6 -1
"Wales 4 4 0
"West Midlands 7 6 -1
"Yorkshire and the Humber 6 6 0
Overall 78 72 -6

1Includes "Gibraltar, the only "British overseas territory which is part of the EU.

MEPs retiring[edit]

Conservative

Labour

UKIP

Liberal Democrat

Independents

Opinion polls[edit]

In the run up to the election, several polling organisations carried out "public opinion polling in regards to voting intentions in Great Britain. Results of such polls are displayed below.

"ComRes, "ICM, "Populus and "YouGov are members of the "British Polling Council, and abide by its disclosure rules. BPIX is not a member of the BPC, and does not publish detailed methodology and findings.

Summary of the polling for the United Kingdom's portion of the European elections 2009[13]

Date(s)
conducted
Polling organisation/client "Cons "Lab "UKIP "Lib Dem "Others first party lead
4 June 2009 European Parliament Election Result, 2009 (GB Results only) 27.7% 15.7% 16.5% 13.7% 26.4% 11.2% over UKIP
03/06/09 YouGov/Daily Telegraph 26% 16% 18% 15% 25% 8% over UKIP
31/05/09 ComRes/Green Party
of England and Wales
["permanent dead link]
24% 22% 17% 14% 24% 2% over Lab
29/05/09 YouGov/Daily Telegraph 27% 17% 16% 15% 26% 10% over Lab
28/05/09 ICM/Sunday Telegraph["permanent dead link] 29% 17% 10% 20% 24% 9% over LD
28/05/09 Populus/Times 30% 16% 19% 12% 22% 11% over UKIP
21/05/09 ICM/Guardian 30% 24% 10% 18% 17% 6% over Lab
16/05/09 YouGov/Daily Telegraph 28% 22% 15% 17% 17% 6% over Lab
16/05/09 BPIX/Mail on Sunday 30% 17% 17% 15% 5% 13% over Lab & UKIP
14/05/09 ComRes/UKIP["permanent dead link] 28% 23% 15% 14% 20% 5% over Lab
14/05/09 YouGov/Sun 29% 20% 15% 19% 14% 9% over Lab
10/05/09 Populus/Times 34% 25% 6% 20% 14% 9% over Lab
09/05/09 BPIX/Mail on Sunday[13] 36% 23% 10% 16% 15% 13% over Lab
08/05/09 YouGov/Sunday Times 36% 25% 7% 20% 13% 11% over Lab
04/05/09 ICM/TPA["permanent dead link] 32% 28% 9% 22% 8% 4% over Lab
08/01/09 YouGov/TPA 35% 29% 7% 15% 15% 6% over Lab
10 June 2004 "European Parliament Election Result, 2004 (GB results only) 26.7% 22.6% 16.1% 14.9% 19.7% 4.1% over Lab

Results (UK-wide)[edit]

Summary of the election results for the UK[14]
Party Votes won  % of vote  % Plus/
Minus
Seats Plus/Minus
vs actual
'04 result
Plus/Minus
vs notional
'04 result
Seats %
"Conservative 4,281,286 27.4% +1.0 26 -2 +1 36.1
"UKIP 2,498,226 16.0% +0.4 13 +1 +1 18.1
"Labour 2,381,760 15.2% -6.6 13 -6 -5 18.1
"Liberal Democrat 2,080,613 13.3% -1.1 11 -1 +1 15.3
"Green 1,223,303 7.8% +2.2 2 0 0 2.8
"BNP 943,598 6.0% +1.3 2 +2 +2 2.8
"SNP 321,007 2.1% +0.7 2 0 0 2.8
"English Democrat 279,801 1.8% +1.0 0 0 0 0
"Christian/"Christian People's Alliance1 249,493 1.6% +1.3 0 0 0 0
"Socialist Labour 173,115 1.1% New 0 0 0 0
"NO2EU 153,236 1.0% New 0 0 0 0
"Plaid Cymru 126,702 0.8% -0.1 1 0 0 1.4
"Sinn Féin 126,184 0.8% ±0.0 1 0 0 1.4
"DUP 88,346 0.6% -0.5 1 0 0 1.4
"Scottish Green 80,442 0.5% ±0.0 0 0 0 0
"Jury Team 78,569 0.5% New 0 0 0 0
"SDLP 78,489 0.5% ±0.0 0 0 0 0
"UK First 74,007 0.5% New 0 0 0 0
"Libertas 73,544 0.5% New 0 0 0 0
"TUV 66,197 0.4% New 0 0 0 0
"Jan Jananayagam ("Independent) 50,014 0.3% New 0 0 0 0
"Pensioners 37,785 0.2% ±0.0 0 0 0 0
"Alliance 26,699 0.2% New 0 0 0 0
"Green (NI) 15,764 0.1% +0.1 0 0 0 0
"Mebyon Kernow 14,922 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
"Animals Count 13,201 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
"Scottish Socialist 10,404 0.1% -0.3 0 0 0 0
Duncan Robertson ("Independent) 10,189 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
Peter Rigby ("Independent) 9,916 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
"Peace 9,534 0.1% ±0.0 0 0 0 0
"Katie Hopkins ("Independent) 8,971 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
Fair Play Fair Trade Party 7,151 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
"Roman Party 5,450 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Steven Cheung ("Independent) 4,918 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
"Socialist (GB) 4,050 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Francis Apaloo ("Independent) 3,621 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Yes 2 Europe 3,384 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Sohale Rahman ("Independent) 3,248 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Gene Alcantara ("Independent) 1,972 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Haroon Saad ("Independent) 1,603 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Wai D 789 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Total 15,621,503 72 -6 0 100

Includes "Ulster Conservatives and Unionists (82,892 votes, 1 MEP).

Seat change has been adjusted to allow for direct comparison with the results from the 2004 election

1Joint ticket, ran in England as: The Christian Party - Christian Peoples Alliance.


Vote share
Conservative
  
27.4%
UK Independence
  
16.0%
Labour
  
15.2%
Liberal Democrat
  
13.3%
Green
  
7.8%
British National
  
6.0%
Scottish National
  
2.1%
English Democrats
  
1.8%
Christian Peoples
  
1.6%
Socialist Labour
  
1.1%
No2EU
  
1.0%
Plaid Cymru
  
0.8%
Sinn Féin
  
0.8%
Democratic Unionist
  
0.6%
Others
  
4.5%
Seats
Conservative
  
36.1%
UK Independence
  
18.1%
Labour
  
18.1%
Liberal Democrat
  
15.3%
Green
  
2.8%
British National
  
2.8%
Scottish National
  
2.8%
Plaid Cymru
  
1.4%
Sinn Féin
  
1.4%
Democratic Unionist
  
1.4%

Results Breakdown[edit]

Great Britain[edit]

""
""
Map showing most popular party by counting area (in Great Britain).

Turnout In Great Britain was 34.3%, with 15,137,202 votes out of a total electorate of 44,171,778.[7] Most of the results of the election were announced on Sunday 7 June, after similar elections were held in the other 26 member states of the European Union. Scotland declared its result on Monday 8 June, as counting in the "Western Isles was delayed due to "observance of the Sabbath.

Great Britain kept to the European wide trend towards the right.[3] The "Labour Party, which was in its twelfth year as government of the United Kingdom, suffered a significant drop in support polling third, and "UKIP finishing second in a major election for the first time in its history, coming level with Labour in terms of seats but ahead of them in terms of votes. This was the first time in British electoral history that a party in government had been out polled in a national election by a party with no representation in the "House of Commons.

The Conservatives won in every region in Great Britain except the North East, where Labour won, and Scotland, where the SNP won.[7] Labour suffered most notably in Cornwall, where it came sixth behind "Mebyon Kernow, and in the wider South West region and South East where it polled fifth behind the "Green Party.[15] The BNP won two seats, their first ever in a national election. The share of the vote achieved by the "English Democrats doubled.[16]

The turnout in Scotland was the lowest in the United Kingdom at 28.8%, with 1,104,512 votes out of a total electorate of 3,872,975.[7] In Scotland it was the first time the "SNP won the largest share of the European election vote.[17] The SNP share of the vote rose by 9.4% points compared to 2004, this was the biggest positive swing for any party in any region in Great Britain.[7]

In Wales it was the first time since 1918 that Labour had failed to come first in a Welsh election, dropping 12.2%. In Wales, the Conservative Party topped the poll with the nationalist "Plaid Cymru coming a close third. UKIP took the fourth Welsh seat, the first time Wales had elected a UKIP MEP.[18] Both the Liberal Democrat and the Green Party polled their lowest regional shares in Wales, though Wales was the only region where the Liberal Democrat share of the vote rose compared with 2004.[7]

Summary of the election results for Great Britain[19]

Party Votes won  % of vote  % Plus/
Minus
Seats Plus/Minus
vs actual
'04 result
Plus/Minus
vs notional
'04 result†
Seats %
"Conservative 4,198,394 27.7% +1.0 25 -2 +1 37.7
"UKIP 2,498,226 16.5% +0.4 13 +1 +1 18.8
"Labour 2,381,760 15.7% -6.9 13 -6 -5 18.8
"Liberal Democrat 2,080,613 13.7% -1.2 11 -1 +1 15.9
"Green 1,223,303 8.1% +2.3 2 0 0 2.9
"BNP 943,598 6.2% +1.3 2 +2 +2 2.9
"SNP 321,007 2.1% +0.7 2 0 0 2.9
"English Democrat 279,801 1.8% +1.1 0 0 0 0
"Christian/"Christian People's Alliance1 249,493 1.6% +1.3 0 0 0 0
"Socialist Labour 173,115 1.1% New 0 0 0 0
"NO2EU 153,236 1.0% New 0 0 0 0
"Plaid Cymru 126,702 0.8% -0.1 1 0 0 1.4
"Scottish Green 80,442 0.5% ±0.0 0 0 0 0
"Jury Team 78,569 0.5% New 0 0 0 0
"UK First 74,007 0.5% New 0 0 0 0
"Libertas 73,544 0.5% New 0 0 0 0
"Jan Jananayagam ("Independent) 50,014 0.3% New 0 0 0 0
"Pensioners 37,785 0.2% ±0.0 0 0 0 0
"Mebyon Kernow 14,922 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
"Animals Count 13,201 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
"Scottish Socialist 10,404 0.1% -0.3 0 0 0 0
Duncan Robertson ("Independent) 10,189 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
Peter Rigby ("Independent) 9,916 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
"Peace 9,534 0.1% ±0.0 0 0 0 0
"Katie Hopkins ("Independent) 8,971 0.1% New 0 0 0 0
Fair Play Fair Trade Party 7,151 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
"Roman Party 5,450 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Steven Cheung ("Independent) 4,918 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
"Socialist (GB) 4,050 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Francis Apaloo ("Independent) 3,621 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Yes 2 Europe 3,384 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Sohale Rahman ("Independent) 3,248 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Gene Alcantara ("Independent) 1,972 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Haroon Saad ("Independent) 1,603 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Wai D 789 0.0% New 0 0 0 0
Total 15,072,325 69 -6 0 100

†Seat change has been adjusted to allow for direct comparison with the results from the 2004 election

1Joint ticket, ran in England as: The Christian Party - Christian Peoples Alliance.

Gibraltar[edit]

Gibraltar is a "British overseas territory (BOT) and therefore is under the "jurisdiction and "sovereignty of the "United Kingdom but does not form part of it.[20] Gibraltar is however, part of the EU, the only BOT to be so, and participated as part of the "South West England constituency.

Turnout was 35% in Gibraltar, below the 39% for the South West England electoral region as a whole and significantly lower than the turnout in Gibraltar in "2004.[21]

The Conservatives won with 53.3% of the votes. Labour narrowly retained second place achieving 19% to the Liberal Democrats' 18.2%.[21]

Party Votes won Vote share (%) Change (%)
"Conservative 3,721 53.3 -16.2
"Labour 1,328 19.0 +9.6
"Liberal Democrat 1,269 18.2 +10.6
"Green 224 3.2 -5.5
"UKIP 100 1.4 +0.3
"BNP 94 1.4 +0.5
"Christian 70 1.0 New
"Socialist Labour 56 0.8 New
"English Democrat 37 0.5 New
"Pensioners 26 0.4 New
"Independent - "Katie Hopkins 15 0.2 New
"NO2EU 12 0.2 New
"Mebyon Kernow 8 0.1 New
Fair Pay Fair Trade 8 0.1 New
"Jury Team 6 0.1 New
Wai D Your Decision 4 0.1 New
"Libertas 3 0.0 New

Northern Ireland[edit]

""
""
Map of Northern Irish results

It was the "DUP's worst ever European election result: the party had previously topped the poll in every European election in Northern Ireland since the "first one in 1979.[6] It was also the first time an "Irish Republican topped the poll with "Bairbre de Brun of "Sinn Féin coming first with 125,000 votes. The share of the votes for most parties in Northern Ireland remained essentially unchanged, the main exceptions were the DUP where their share of the vote fell by 13.8%, and the TUV, a party created by former DUP MEP "Jim Allister whose share of the vote rose 13.7%.[7] The DUP's decreased vote share was largely blamed on the TUV splitting the vote.

Summary of the election results for Northern Ireland[22]

Party Candidate Seats Loss/Gain First Preference Votes
Number  % of vote
"Sinn Féin "Bairbre de Brún 1 0 126,184 25.8
"DUP "Diane Dodds 1 0 88,346 18.1
"UCU-NF "Jim Nicholson 1 0 82,892 17.0
"SDLP "Alban Maginness 0 0 78,489 16.1
"TUV "Jim Allister 0 0 66,197 13.5
"Alliance "Ian Parsley 0 0 26,699 5.5
"Green (NI) "Steven Agnew 0 0 15,764 3.2
Turnout[23] 488,891 42.8

Incumbents defeated[edit]

Labour

Traditional Unionist Voice

Aftermath[edit]

"Gordon Brown faced calls for him to resign as "Prime Minister after Labour's defeat.[15]

During the "2005 Conservative Party leadership election "David Cameron argued for withdrawal of the Conservatives from "EPP-ED and the formation of a new group. After the European election it was announced that the Conservatives were leaving the EPP-ED and forming a new group the "European Conservatives and Reformists.[25] On 22 June 2009, the first official list of the new group's members was released.[26] On 24 June, the group held its inaugural meeting, in which Conservative MEP "Timothy Kirkhope was named interim leader.[27] The first election for the group leadership was also scheduled for 14 July, pitting interim leader Kirkhope against fellow Briton "Geoffrey Van Orden.[28] However, both Conservative leadership candidates were forced to forfeit the leadership in order to prevent it from falling apart, when then-Conservative MEP "Edward McMillan-Scott defied his party whip and stood for one of the vice-presidency posts despite pledges the previous week that Polish MEP "Michal Kaminski would be backed for it. Kaminski's bid for "Vice-President of the European Parliament subsequently failed, and the Poles threatened to abandon the new caucus unless Kaminski was made the group leader in the parliament.[29]

Similarly, UKIP helped found a new European Parliament Group: "Europe of Freedom and Democracy after the other parties in UKIP's pre-election European parliamentary grouping, "Independence/Democracy had polled badly.[30]

Summary of the post-election European Parliament Groupings of each party

EP Group MEPs UK Party MEPs
"European Conservatives and Reformists 26 "Conservative 25
"Conservatives and Unionists "1
"Europe of Freedom and Democracy 13 "UKIP 13
"Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats 13 "Labour 13
"Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe 11 "Liberal Democrats 11
"The Greens–European Free Alliance 5 "Green Party of England and Wales 2
"Scottish National Party 2
"Plaid Cymru "1
"European United Left-Nordic Green Left 1 "Sinn Féin "1
"Non-Inscrits 3 "British National Party 2
"Democratic Unionist "1

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Turnout at the European elections (1979-2009)". European Parliament. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "European Election: United Kingdom Result". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Voters steer Europe to the right". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  4. ^ "Salmond hails 'historic' Euro win". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  5. ^ "Tories top European poll in Wales". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  6. ^ a b "DUP's worst ever Euro poll result". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Research Paper 09/53 European Parliament elections 2009, House of Commons Library, 17 June 2009 
  8. ^ "The European Parliament (Number of MEPs and Distribution between Electoral Regions) (United Kingdom and Gibraltar) Order 2008 No. 1954". Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 May 2009. 
  9. ^ "Distribution between electoral regions of UK MEPs (PDF)" (PDF). 
  10. ^ "Kilroy-Silk to leave European Parliament", This Is Nottingham
  11. ^ Staff reporter (9 May 2009). "Euro MP to stand down". "The News. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-19. MEP Ashley Mote is giving up his South East seat, but says he will continue to fight against the European Union.  (Archived by WebCite at )
  12. ^ Lewis, Alex (22 April 2009). "MEP facing criminal charges will not stand again". Watford Observer. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  13. ^ a b "European Elections polling data". UK Polling Report. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  14. ^ "European Election: United Kingdom Result". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "David Cameron renews general election call after Labour's European flop". the Guardian. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  16. ^ "English Democrats votes doubled". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  17. ^ "Salmond hails 'historic' Euro win". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009. 
  18. ^ "Tories top European poll in Wales". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009. 
  19. ^ "European Election: United Kingdom Result". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  20. ^ The 14 Territories
  21. ^ a b Reyes, Brian (8 June 2009). "Landslide for Tories, Disappointment for Labour". Gibraltar Chronicle. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-08. Reyes, Brian (2009-06-08). "Landslide for Tories, Disappointment for Labour". Gibraltar Chronicle. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-08.  (Archived by WebCite at )
  22. ^ "European election 2009". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  23. ^ "Electoral Office for Northern Ireland – Turnout" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. 
  24. ^ "New unionist group to be launched". BBC News. 2007-12-07. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  25. ^ Charter, David (2009-05-15). "David Cameron's new European allies set to include odd bedfellows". London: The Times. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
  26. ^ "Conservative MEPs form new group". BBC. 2009-06-22. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  27. ^ Banks, Martin (25 March 2009). "Tory MEP voices 'real concern' over new European grouping". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  28. ^ Banks, Martin (9 July 2009). "British Tories fight it out for leadership of new Eurosceptic group". Theparliament.com. Archived from the original on 24 July 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2009. 
  29. ^ Ian Traynor in Strasbourg (2009-07-15). "Tories give up EU parliamentary leadership of Eurosceptic group | Politics". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
  30. ^ Phillips, Leigh (30 June 2009). "Ukip, Lega Nord form hard-right bloc in EU Parliament". EU Observer. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 

External links[edit]

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