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European United Left-Nordic Green Left
"European parliamentary group
""GUE-NGL logo.svg
GUE/NGL logo
Name European United Left-Nordic Green Left
English abbr. GUE-NGL[1]
French abbr. GUE-NGL[2][3]
Formal name Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left[2][4][5]
Ideology "Democratic socialism[6] (majority)
"Communism[6] (minority)
"Soft Euroscepticism[7]
"European parties "Party of the European Left, "European Anti-Capitalist Left
Associated organisations "Nordic Green Left Alliance
From 6 January 1995[8]
Preceded by "European United Left
Chaired by "Alonso José Puerta (1999–2004),[5]
"Francis Wurtz (2004–09)
"Lothar Bisky (2009–12)
"Gabriele Zimmer (2012–present)
"MEP(s)
52 / 751
Website http://www.guengl.eu

European United Left–Nordic Green Left (Gauche unitaire européenne, GUE-NGL) is a "left-wing "political group in the "European Parliament,[9] established in 1995. The group comprises political parties of "socialist and "communist orientation.[10][11]

Contents

Position[edit]

According to its 1994 constituent declaration, the group is opposed to the present "European Union political structure, but committed to integration.[12] That declaration sets out three aims for the construction of another European Union: the total change of institutions to make them "fully democratic"; breaking with "neo-liberal monetarist policies"; and a policy of co-development and equitable cooperation. The group wants to disband the "North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and "strengthen the "Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe" (OSCE).

The group is ambiguous between reformism and revolution, leaving it up to each party to decide on the manner they deem best suited to achieve these aims. As such, it has simultaneously positioned itself as "insiders" within the European institutions, enabling it to influence the decisions made by co-decision, and as "outsiders" by its willingness to seek "another Union" which would abolish the "Maastricht Treaty.["citation needed]

Organisation[edit]

The GUE/NGL is a confederal group: it is composed of "MEPs from national parties. Those national parties must share common political objectives with the group, as specified in the group's constituent declaration. Nevertheless, those national parties, not the group, retain control of their MEPs. Thus, the Group may be divided on certain issues.

Members of the group meet regularly to prepare for meetings, debate on policies and vote on resolutions. The group also publishes reports on various topics.

Member parties[edit]

""
""
Member states with one MEP in GUE/NGL in pink, with two or more members in red

MEPs may be full or associate members.

National parties may be full or associate members.

Member parties[edit]

Country National Electoral Alliance National Party European Party MEPs
 "Cyprus "Progressive Party of Working People "PEL (observer)
2 / 6
 "Czech Republic "Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia "PEL (observer)
3 / 21
 "Denmark "People's Movement against the EU "EUD
1 / 13
 "Finland "Left Alliance "PEL
1 / 13
 "France "Left Front "French Communist Party "PEL
2 / 74
"Left Party "PEL
1 / 74
"Alliance of the Overseas "Communist Party of Réunion
1 / 74
 "Germany "The Left "PEL
7 / 96
"Stefan Eck (independent)
1 / 96
 "Greece "Syriza (Coalition of the Radical Left) "PEL
5 / 21
"Popular Unity
1 / 21
 "Ireland "Sinn Féin
3 / 11
"Luke 'Ming' Flanagan (independent)
1 / 11
 "Italy "The Other Europe "Italian Left
1 / 73
"Communist Refoundation Party "PEL
1 / 73
"Barbara Spinelli (independent)
1 / 73
 "Netherlands "Socialist Party
2 / 26
"Party for the Animals (Partij voor de Dieren)
1 / 26
 "Portugal "Left Bloc "PEL
"EACL
1 / 21
"Unitary Democratic Coalition "Portuguese Communist Party
3 / 21
 "Spain "Plural Left "United Left "PEL
4 / 54
"Anova-Nationalist Brotherhood
1 / 54
"Podemos (We Can)[13]
5 / 54
"The Peoples Decide (Los Pueblos Deciden)
1 / 54
 "Sweden "Left Party "NGLA
1 / 20
 "United Kingdom "Sinn Féin
1 / 73

History[edit]

In 1995, the enlargement of the "European Union led to the creation of the "Nordic Green Left group of parties. The Nordic Green Left merged with the "Confederal Group of the European United Left (GUE) on 6 January 1995,[8] forming the Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left.[2][4][5] The NGL suffix was added to the name of the expanded group on insistence of Swedish and Finnish MEPs.[14] The group initially consisted of MEPs from the Finnish "Left Alliance, Swedish "Left Party, the Danish "Socialist People's Party, "United Left of Spain (including the "Spanish Communist Party), "Synaspismós of Greece, the "French Communist Party, "Portuguese Communist Party, the "Communist Party of Greece, and the "Communist Refoundation Party of Italy.

In 1999, the German "Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) and the Greek "Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI) joined as full members, while the five MEPs elected from the list of the French Trotskyist alliance "LO-"LCR joined as associate members.

In 2002, four MEPs from the French "Citizen and Republican Movement also joined the group.

In 2004, no MEPs were elected from LO-LCR, and DIKKI—which was undergoing a dispute with its leader over the party constitution—did not put forward candidates. MEPs from the Portuguese "Left Bloc, "Sinn Féin both from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, the "Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL) of Cyprus, and the "Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia joined the group.

European Parliament results[edit]

Election year # of
overall seats won
+/–
1995
34 / 567
"1999
42 / 626
8 Increase
"2004
41 / 732
1 Decrease
"2009
35 / 766
6 Decrease
"2014
52 / 751
17 Increase

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Democracy in the European Parliament" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Political Groups Annual Accounts 2001-2006". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  3. ^ a b "Political Groups of the European Parliament". "Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Archived from the original on May 17, 2011. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  4. ^ a b c "Group names 1999". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  5. ^ a b c d "European Parliament profile of Alonso José Puerta". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  6. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram. "Parties and Elections in Europe". www.parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  7. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-28107633
  8. ^ a b c "EUL/NGL on Europe Politique". Europe-politique.eu. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  9. ^ Andreas Staab (24 June 2011). The European Union Explained, Second Edition: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact. Indiana University Press. p. 67. "ISBN "978-0-253-00164-1. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  10. ^ Alexander H. Trechsel (13 September 2013). Towards a Federal Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 72. "ISBN "978-1-317-99818-1. 
  11. ^ Marlies Casier; Joost Jongerden (9 August 2010). Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey: Political Islam, Kemalism and the Kurdish Issue. Taylor & Francis. p. 203. "ISBN "978-0-203-84706-0. 
  12. ^ a b "GUE/NGL Site". Guengl.eu. 1994-07-14. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  13. ^ http://www.publico.es/politica/523095/podemos-acuerda-con-tsipras-entrar-en-el-grupo-de-la-izquierda-unitaria-de-la-eurocamara
  14. ^ Tapio Raunio; Teija Tiilikainen (5 September 2013). Finland in the European Union. Routledge. p. 59. "ISBN "978-1-135-76204-9. 
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