The "People's Movement against the EU only takes part in European Parliament elections and has one member in the European Parliament. The soft Eurosceptic "June Movement, originally a split-off from the People's Movement against the EU, existed from 1992 to 2009.
In the Danish "Parliament, the "Unity List has withdrawal from the EU as a policy. The "Danish People's Party also advocate withdrawal, but has claimed to support some EU structures such as the "internal market, and supported the EU-positive "Liberal-Conservative coalition 2001–2011.
The "Socialist People's Party, minorities within the "Social Liberal Party and "Social Democratic Party, and some smaller parties were against accession to the European Union in 1972. Still in 1986, these parties advocated a no vote in the "Single European Act referendum. Later, the Social Liberal Party changed to a strongly EU-positive party, and EU opposition within the Social Democratic Party faded. The Socialist People's Party were against the "Amsterdam Treaty in 1998 and "Denmark's joining the euro in 2000, but has become increasingly EU positive, for example when MEP "Margrete Auken left the "European United Left–Nordic Green Left and joined the "The Greens–European Free Alliance in 2004.
In the "European Parliament election, 2014, the "Danish People's Party came first by a large margin with 26.6% of the vote, gaining 2 extra seats giving it 4 MEPs. The "People's Movement against the EU also polled 8.1% retaining their single MEP.
The "Independence Party and "Centre Party were against accession to the EU, but only the Independence Party still wants Estonia to withdraw from the European Union. The "Conservative People's Party (EKRE) also carries some Euroscepticist policies.
Distinctively a soft Eurosceptic Finnish party is "The Finns Party, and hard Eurosceptics are supporters of the Independence Party, "Communist Party of Finland and "Workers Party of Finland. In the "European Parliament election, 2014, the "Finns Party increased their vote share by 3.1% to 12.9%, adding a second MEP.
In Eurobarometer 77 (fieldwork in Spring 2012), 41% of Finns trusted the European Union (EU-27 average: 31%), 51% trusted The European Parliament (EU-27average: 40%), and 74% were in favour of the euro currency (EU-27 average: 52%).
In France, many parties are more or less radically Eurosceptic, varying from advocating less EU intervention in national affairs to advocating outright withdrawal from the EU as it is and from the Eurozone. These parties belong to all sides of the political spectrum so the reasons for their Euroscepticism may differ, but they all opposed the ratification of the "Treaty of Lisbon. Many French people are uninterested in such matters: only 40% of the French electorate voted in the "2009 European Parliament elections.
Moderate right-leaning Eurosceptic parties include the "Gaullist "Debout la République, and also the "Mouvement pour la France, and "Chasse, Pêche, Nature & Traditions, both of which joined "Libertas, a pan-European Eurosceptic party. In the "2009 European Parliament elections, Debout la République received 1.77% of the national vote, and Libertas 4.8%. In a similar way to the moderate parties, the French far right in general is naturally opposed to the EU, as they criticise France's loss of political and economic sovereignty to a "supranational entity. The main far right political party is the "Front National (FN). The FN received 6.5% of the votes, making it the largest Eurosceptic party in France.
Left-wing Eurosceptic parties tend to criticise the liberal agenda of the EU, although they usually support a unification of countries (albeit under a socialist system) and the abolition of national borders. They include the "Parti de Gauche and the "French Communist Party, which formed the "Front de Gauche for the 2009 European Parliament elections and received 6.3% of the votes. The leader of the "Left Front defends a complete reform of the Monetary Union rather than the withdrawal of France from the "Eurozone. The other major far-left Eurosceptic parties are the "New Anticapitalist Party which received 4.8% and "Lutte Ouvrière which received 1.2%. The "Citizen and Republican Movement, a left-wing Eurosceptic and "souverainist party, did not participate in the 2009 elections.
"Popular Republican Union, led by "François Asselineau is also a Eurosceptic party.
In the "European Parliament election, 2014, the "National Front won the elections with 24.85% of the vote, a swing of 18.55%, winning 24 seats, up from 3 previously. The French President "François Hollande has since called for the EU to be reformed and to scale back its power.
The "Alternative for Germany (AfD) is Germany's largest Eurosceptic party. It has no seats in the national parliament, but 35 seats in state parliaments. AfD received 4.7% of the vote in the 2013 federal parliamentary elections.
Initially AfD was a soft Eurosceptic party, that considered itself pro-Europe and pro-EU, but opposed the euro, which it believed had undermined European integration.
In the "European Parliament election, 2014, the Alternative for Germany came 5th with 7% of the vote, winning 7 seats and is a member of the Eurosceptic European Conservatives and Reformists. The Alternative for Germany went on to take seats in three state legislatures in the Autumn of 2014.
The party became purely Eurosceptic in 2015, when a split occurred in the party, leading to "Frauke Petry's leadership and a more hard line approach to the European Union.
In July 2015 a split from AfD created a new Eurosceptic party called "Alliance for Progress and Renewal.
"Golden Dawn, "Communist Party of Greece (KKE), "ANEL, "Course of Freedom, "Popular Unity, "Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow, "I Don't Pay Movement, and "LAOS are the main Eurosceptic parties in Greece. According to the "London School of Economics, Greece is the 2nd most Eurosceptic country in the European Union, with 50% (only behind UK) of the Greeks thinking that their country has not benefited at all from the EU. Meanwhile, 33% of the Greeks views Greek membership in EU as a good thing, marginally ahead of UK. 81% of the Greeks say that the EU is going in the wrong direction. These figures represent a major increase in Euroscepticism in Greece since 2009.
In June 2012, the Eurosceptic parties in Greece that were represented in the parliament before the Election in January 2015 (ANEL, Golden Dawn, KKE) got 45.8% of the votes and 40.3% of the seats in the parliament. In the "legislative election of January 2015 the "pro-European (left and right-wing) parties ("ND, "PASOK, "POTAMI, "KIDISO, "EK and "Prasinoi-"DIMAR) got 43.28% of the votes. The Eurosceptic parties got 54.64%. The Eurosceptic left ("KKE, "ANTARSYA-MARS and "KKE (M–L)/"M–L KKE) got 42.58% of the votes and the Eurosceptic right ("Golden Dawn, "ANEL and "LAOS) got 12.06% of the votes, with SYRIZA ahead with 36.34%. The eurosceptic parties got 194 seats in the new parliament and the pro-EU parties got 106 seats. According to the "polls conducted in June and July 2015 (12 polls), the Eurosceptic left would get on average 48.03% (excluding extraparliamentary parties as ANTARSYA-MARS and KKE (m–l)/ML-KKE), the parliamentary pro-EU parties (Potami, New Democracy and PASOK) would get 33.82%, the extra-parliamentary (not represented in the Hellenic Parliament) pro-EU parties (KIDISO and EK) would get 4.44% and the Eurosceptic right would get 10.2% (excluding extraparliamentary parties, such as "LAOS, not displayed on recent opinion polls). The soft Eurosceptic parties would get 42.31%, the hard Eurosceptic parties (including "KKE, "ANEL and "Golden Dawn) would get 15.85%, and the pro-EU parties (including extra-parliamentary parties displayed on opinion polls) would get 38.27% of the votes.
In the "European Parliament election, 2014, "SYRIZA won the election with 26.58% of the vote (a swing of 21.88%) taking 6 seats (up 5), with "Golden Dawn coming 3rd taking 3 seats, the "Communist Party taking 2 seats and the "Independent Greeks gaining their first ever seat. SYRIZA 's leader Tsipras said he's not anti-European and does not want to leave the euro. According to the "The Economist, Tsipras is willing to negotiate with Greece's European partners, and it is believed a Syriza victory could encourage radical leftist parties across Europe. Alexis Tsipras vowed to reverse many of the austerity measures adopted by Greece since a series of bailouts began in 2010, at odds with the Eurogroup's positions. The current government coalition in Greece is composed by SYRIZA and "ANEL (right-wing hard Eurosceptic party, led by "Panos Kammenos, who is the current Minister of Defence).
"Viktor Orbán is the soft Eurosceptic "Prime Minister of Hungary for the national-conservative "Fidesz Party. A hardline Eurosceptic party in Hungary is "Jobbik, a "radical, "xenophobic and "Far-right party.
In Hungary 39% of the population have a positive image of the EU, 20% have a negative image, and 40% neutral (1% "Don't know").
In the "Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014, Fidesz got 44.54% of the votes, Jobbik got 20.54% of the votes and the communist "Hungarian Workers' Party got 0.58% of the votes, turning Hungary into one of the most Eurosceptic countries in Europe (total: 65.66% of the votes).
The green-liberal "Politics Can Be Different classifies as a soft or reformist Eurosceptic party given its self-professed euro-critical stance. During the "European parliamentary campaign of 2014 party Co-President "András Schiffer described LMP as having a pronounced pro-integration position on "environmental, wage and "labour policy however, as supporting member state autonomy on the self-determination of local communities concerning land resources. So as to combat the differentiated integration of the "multi-speed Europe which discriminates against Eastern and Southern member states, LMP would like to initiate an "eco-social market economy within the union.
Euroscepticism is a minority view in the "Republic of Ireland, with opinion polls in 2016 indicating around 80% support for the membership of the "European Union (EU).
The "Irish people initially voted against ratifying the Nice and Lisbon Treaties, however following renegotiations, second referendums on both were passed with about 2:1 majorities in both cases. Some commentators and smaller political groups questioned the validity of the Irish Government's decision to call second referendums.
The left-wing "Irish republican party "Sinn Féin is one party which expresses "soft Eurosceptic positions on the current structure of the European Union and the direction in which it is moving. The party expresses, "support for Europe-wide measures that promote and enhance human rights, equality and "the all-Ireland agenda", but has a "principled opposition" to a "European superstate. However, in its manifesto for the "2015 UK general election, Sinn Féin pledged that the party would campaign for the UK to stay within the EU. In "the last European Parliament election in 2014, "Sinn Féin won 3 seats coming second with 19.5% of the vote up 8.3%.
The "Trotskyist organisation, the "Socialist Party, which won 3 seats in Dáil Eireann in the 2016 General Elections, supports breaking the EU's rules and supported the "Brexit result. It argues that the European Union is institutionally capitalist and neoliberal. The Socialist Party campaigned against the Lisbon and Nice Treaties and favours the foundation of an alternative Socialist European Union.
The "Five Star Movement (M5S), an "anti-establishment movement founded by the former comedian "Beppe Grillo, can be considered a soft Eurosceptic party.["citation needed] The M5S gained 25.5% of vote in the "2013 general election, becoming the largest anti-establishment and Eurosceptic party in Europe. The party also advocates a non-binding referendum on the withdrawal of Italy from the "Eurozone (but not from the European Union) and the return to the "lira. The M5S's popular support is evenly distributed all across Italy, but in 2013 the party was particularly strong in "Sicily, Liguria and "Marche, where it gained more than 30% of the vote.
Another Eurosceptic party is "Lega Nord, a "regionalist movement led by "Matteo Salvini favouring Italy's exit from the Eurozone and the re-introduction of the lira. When in government, LN however approved the "Treaty of Lisbon. The party won 6.2% of the vote in the "2014 European Parliament elections, but two of its leading members are presidents of "Lombardy and "Veneto (where LN gained 40.9% of the vote in "2015).
Minor Eurosceptic parties include the "Brothers of Italy, "New Force, "Tricolour Flame, "I Change and the "No Euro Movement. Defunct eurosceptic parties include "The Right.
In the "European Parliament election, 2014 the "Five Star Movement came 2nd gaining 17 seats and 21.2% of the vote in its first time contesting this election. "Lega Nord took 5 seats and "The Other Europe with Tsipras gained 3 seats.
According to 18 "opinion polls conducted in July 2015, the pro-EU parties that were polled ("Democratic Party, "Forza Italia, "Civic Choice, "Union of the Centre and "New Centre-Right) would get, on average, 49.5% of the votes, while the Eurosceptic parties ("Five Star Movement, "Lega Nord, "Us with Salvini, "Left Ecology Freedom and "Brothers of Italy) would get 47.05% of the votes.
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are "National Alliance ("For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK/"All for Latvia!) and "Union of Greens and Farmers.
Party with mainly Eurosceptic views is "Order and Justice.
The "Alternative Democratic Reform Party is a soft Eurosceptic party. It is a member of the "Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists.
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views were "Labour Party and "Libertas Malta.
The Labour Party was not in favour of Malta entering the European Union. They, however were in favour of a partnership with the EU. After a long battle the Nationalist Party led by Eddie Fenech Adami won the referendum and the following election, making Malta one of the states to enter the European Union on 1 May 2004. The party is now pro-European.
The Libertas Party is inactive, as of 2016.
Historically, the Netherlands have been a very pro-European country, being one of the six founding members of the "European Coal and Steel Community in 1952, and campaigning with much effort to include the United Kingdom into the Community in the 1970s and others after that. It has become slightly more Eurosceptic in the 2000s, "rejecting the European Constitution in 2005 and complaining about the relatively high financial investment into the Union or the democratic deficit amongst other issues.
- The nationalist "Party for Freedom (founded in 2006) wants the Netherlands to leave the EU in its entirety, because it believes the EU is undemocratic, costs money and cannot close the borders for immigrants.
- The "Socialist Party believes the European Union has already brought Europe 50 years of peace and prosperity, and argues that European co-operation is essential for tackling global problems like climate change and international crime. However, the SP opines that the current Union is dominated by the big businesses and the big countries, while the labour movement, consumer organisations and smaller companies are often left behind. "Neoliberal" measures have supposedly increased social inequality, and perhaps the Union is expanding too fast and taking on too much power in issues that should be dealt with on a national level.
- The conservative Protestant "Reformed Political Party and the "Christian Union favour co-operation within Europe, but reject a superstate, especially one that is dominated by Catholics, or that infringes on religious rights and/or privileges.
- The ecologist "Party for the Animals favours European co-operation, but believes the current EU does not respect animal rights enough and should have a more active policy on environment protection.
Despite these concerns, in 2014 the majority of the Dutch electorate continued to support parties that favour ongoing European integration: the "Social Democrats, the "Christian Democrats, the "Liberals, but most of all the "(Liberal) Democrats.
In 2016, a substantial majority in a low-turnout referendum rejected the ratification of an EU trade and association treaty with "Ukraine.
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are "KORWiN, "Congress of the New Right, "National Movement (together with "Real Politics Union) and "Law and Justice, a "Right-wing populist "social conservative party which is currently one of the two main parties in Poland, among with pro-European liberal "Civic Platform.
The former president of Poland "Lech Kaczyński resisted the signature of the "Treaty of Lisbon, namely in what concerned to the "Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Subsequently, Poland got an "opt-out from this charter. As Polish President, Kaczyński also slammed the Polish government's intentions to join the eurozone.
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are "National Renovator Party, "MRPP, "Portuguese Communist Party, and "Left Bloc.["citation needed] The "Democratic Republican Party is a new centrist soft Eurosceptic party. The "People's Party, once a Eurosceptic party is now a soft pro-European party member of the "EPP. As of 2015[update], in Portugal, 48 per cent tended not to trust the EU, while 79 per cent tended not to trust the Portuguese government. The Eurosceptic parties currently hold 36 out of 230 seats in the parliament. The Euroscepticism of the left-wing prevails in Portugal.
In the "European Parliament election, 2014, the "Portuguese Communist Party took 3 seats and the "Left Bloc took one seat.
Several parties espousing Eurosceptic views exist on the right, such as the "New Republic the "Greater Romania Party and "Noua Dreaptă, but as of August 2016 none of these parties are represented in European Parliament. Euroscepticism is relatively unpopular in Romania; all mainstream political parties are pro-European and a 2015 survey found 65% of Romanians had a positive view of the country's EU membership.
Parties with primarily hard Eurosceptic views represented in the National Council are "People's Party - Our Slovakia, "We Are Family, and the "Freedom and Solidarity. Prominent Slovak Eurosceptic politicians include "Richard Sulík, "Boris Kollár and "Marian Kotleba. Soft Eurosceptic views are represented in "Slovak National Party, "Direction – Social Democracy, "Ordinary People and Independent Personalities and "New Majority.
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are "Slovenian National Party and "United Left.
"Candidatura d'Unitat Popular, a far-left party with about 1,300 members, advocates independence for "Catalonia outside of the European Union.
Spain was one of the few countries to vote Yes for the European Constitution in a referendum in February 2005, though by a lower margin in "Catalonia and the "Basque Country. However, trust in the EU later declined. As of 2015[update], according to a Eurobarometer public opinion survey, 61 per cent of the Spanish people did not trust the EU, compared to 25% that trust it (14% "don't know").
The "Left Party of Sweden is against accession to the European Union and wants Sweden to leave the European Union.
The "Right-wing populist party "Sweden Democrats are also strongly against the Union and favour withdrawal from the "EEA. The "Centre Party is moderately sceptical towards the EU as well.
The "June List, a Eurosceptic list consisting of members from both the political right and left won three seats in the 2004 Elections to the European Parliament and sat in the EU-critical "IND/DEM group in the European Parliament. The movement Folkrörelsen Nej till EU favours a withdrawal from the EU.
In general, the people are more Eurosceptic than the parties. Around 80% of the "Riksdag members represent parties that officially supports the Sweden membership.
In the "European Parliament election, 2014, the "Sweden Democrats gained 2 seats with 9.67% of the vote, up 6.4%, and the "Left Party took one seat with 6.3% of the vote.
Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom has been a significant element in British politics since the inception of the "European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor to the EU. The European Union strongly divides the British public, political parties, media and civil society.
The "UK Independence Party has backed the idea of the UK's unilaterally leaving the European Union ("Brexit) since its inception. During the 23 June 2016 "referendum on the issue, the Conservatives had no official position on the issue; although its leader "David Cameron was in favour of remaining in the EU, the party was divided on the issue. The "Labour Party officially supported remaining in the EU, although party leader "Jeremy Corbyn did suggest early on in the campaign that he would consider withdrawal. The "Liberal Democrats were the most adamantly pro-EU party, and since the referendum, pro-Europeanism has been their main policy.
The referendum "resulted in an overall vote to leave the EU, as opposed to remaining an EU member, by 51.9% (37.5% of eligible voters) to 48.1% (34.7% of eligible voters), on a turnout of 72.2%. The vote was split between the "constituent countries of the United Kingdom, with a majority in "England and "Wales voting to leave, and a majority in "Scotland and "Northern Ireland, as well as "Gibraltar (a "British Overseas Territory), voting to remain. As a result of the referendum, "We are the 48 percent" has become a pro-EU slogan among those who voted to remain in the EU.
Euroscepticism in other possible members
The three main Eurosceptic parties in Iceland are the "Independence Party, "Left-Green Movement and the "Progressive Party. The Independence Party and the Progressive Party won the "parliamentary election in April 2013 and they have halted the current negotiations with the European Union regarding Icelandic membership and tabled a parliamentary resolution on 21 February 2013 to withdraw the application completely.
The two main Eurosceptic parties in Moldova are the left-wing "Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova, which officially declared its main purpose to be the integration of Moldova in the "Eurasian Economic Union and the "Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, even if nowadays its leader speech became more soft on the issue of Euroscepticism. As of November 2014 both parties are represented in "Moldovan Parliament, with 45 MPs out of a total of 101 MPs.["citation needed]
All "parliamentary parties in Montenegro officially support the country's bid for accession to the European Union. The only party that rejects the European integration and instead publicly advocates a tighter political and economic integration with Russia is the non-parliamentary right-wing party "Serb List.
Norway has rejected EU membership in two referendums, "1972 and "1994. The "Centre Party, "Christian Democratic Party, "the Christians, the "Socialist Left Party, the "Red Party and the "Liberal Party were against EU membership in both referendums. The Centre Party, the Red Party and the Socialist Left Party are also against Norway's current membership of the "European Economic Area. The "Green Party have not taken a stance on the issue.["citation needed]
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are the "Communist Party of the Russian Federation, "United Russia and "Liberal Democratic Party of Russia.
Following the "2014 Crimean crisis, the European Union issued sanctions on the Russian Federation "in response to the illegal annexation of Crimea and deliberate destabilisation of a neighbouring sovereign country". In response to this, Alexey Borodavkin – Russia's permanent representative with the UN – said "The EU is committing a direct violation of human rights by its actions against Russia. The unilateral sanctions introduced against us are not only illegitimate according to international law, they also undermine Russian citizens' freedom of travel, freedom of development, freedom of work and others". In the same year, Russian president "Vladimir Putin said: "What are the so-called European values? Maintaining the coup, the armed seizure of power and the suppression of dissent with the help of the armed forces?"
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are "Serbian Radical Party, "Democratic Party of Serbia, "Dveri, and Serbian People's Party of "Nenad Popović.
"Switzerland has long been known for "its neutrality in international politics. Swiss voters rejected "EEA membership "in 1992, and EU membership "in 2001. Despite the passing of several referendums calling for closer relations between "Switzerland and the European Union such as the adoption of bilateral treaties and the joining of the "Schengen Area, a second referendum of the joining of the EEA or the EU is not expected, and the general public remains opposed to joining.
In February 2014, the Swiss voters narrowly approved a "referendum limiting the freedom of movement of EU citizens to Switzerland.
Eurosceptic political parties include the "Swiss People's Party, which is the largest "political party in Switzerland, with 29.4% of the popular vote as of the "2015 federal election. Smaller Eurosceptic parties include, but are not limited to, the "Federal Democratic Union, the "Ticino League, and the "Geneva Citizens' Movement, all of which are considered right-wing parties.
In addition, the "Campaign for an Independent and Neutral Switzerland is a political organisation in Switzerland that is strongly opposed to the European Union.
Regionally, the German-speaking majority of Switzerland is the most eurosceptic, while the French-speaking Switzerland tends to be more pro-EU. However, in the 2001 referendum, the majority of French-speakers voted against EU membership. According to a 2016 survey conducted by M.I.S Trend and published in "L'Hebdo, 69 percent of the Swiss population supports systematic border controls, and 53 percent want restrictions on the EU accord of the free movements of peoples and 14 percent want it completely abolished. However, 54% of the Swiss population said that if necessary, they would ultimately keep the freedom of movement of people's accord.
The two main Eurosceptic parties are the right wing nationalist "Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), which had 16.29% of the votes, having secured 80 seats in the "Parliament, and the "Felicity Party (Saadet Partisi), a far-right "Sunni Islamist party which has no seats in the Parliament because it had only 2.06% of the votes in the last "general election, far below the 10% threshold necessary to be represented in the Parliament.
Many left-wing nationalist and far-left parties hold no seats at parliament but they control many activist and student movements in Turkey. The "Patriotic Party (formerly called Workers' Party) consider the European Union as a frontrunner of global imperialism.
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are "Party of Regions, "Communist Party of Ukraine and "Right Sector.
The far-right Ukrainian group "Right Sector opposes joining the European Union. It regards the EU as an ""oppressor" of European nations.
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