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Evolutionary linguistics is a subfield of "psycholinguistics that studies the psychosocial and cultural factors involved in the "origin of language and the development of "linguistic universals.[1] The main challenge in this research is the lack of empirical data: spoken "language leaves practically no traces. This led to the abandonment of the field for more than a century, despite the common origins of language hinted at by the relationships among individual languages established by the field of "historical linguistics. Since the late 1980s, the field has been revived in the wake of progress["citation needed] made in the related fields of "Biolinguistics, "psycholinguistics, "neurolinguistics, "evolutionary anthropology, "evolutionary psychology, "universal grammar, and "cognitive science.

Contents

History[edit]

Inspired by the natural sciences, especially by "biology, "August Schleicher (1821–1868) became the first to compare changing languages to evolving "species.[2] He introduced the representation of language families as an evolutionary tree (Stammbaumtheorie) in articles published in 1853.[3] Stammbaumtheorie proved very productive for "comparative linguistics, but did not solve the major problem of studying the "origin of language: the lack of "fossil records. Some scholars abandoned the question of the origin of language as unsolvable. Famously, the "Société Linguistique de Paris in 1866 refused to admit any further papers on the subject. "Joseph Jastrow published a gestural theory of the evolution of language in the seventh volume of "Science, 1886.[4]

The field re-appeared in 1988 in the "Linguistic Bibliography as a subfield of "psycholinguistics. In 1990, "Steven Pinker and "Paul Bloom published their paper "Natural Language and Natural Selection"[5] which strongly argued for an "adaptationist approach to language origins. Development strengthened further with the establishment (in 1996) of a series of conferences on the Evolution of Language (subsequently known as "Evolang"), promoting a scientific, multi-disciplinary approach to the issue, and interest from major academic publishers (e.g., the Studies in the Evolution of Language series has appeared with "Oxford University Press since 2001)[6] and from scientific journals.

Recent developments[edit]

Evolutionary linguistics as a field is rapidly emerging as a result of developments in neighboring disciplines. To what extent language's features are determined by genes, a hotly debated dichotomy in linguistics, has had new light shed upon it by the discovery of the "FOXP2 "gene.[7][8] An "English family with a severe, heritable "language dysfunction was found to have a defective copy of this gene.[9][10] Mutations of the corresponding gene in mice (FOXP2 is fairly well conserved; modern humans share the same allele as "Neanderthals)[11][12] cause reductions in size and vocalization rate. If both copies are damaged, the "Purkinje layer (a part of the "cerebellum that contains better-connected neurons than any other) develops abnormally, "runting is more common, and pups die within weeks due to inadequate lung development.[13] Additionally, higher presence of FOXP2 in songbirds is correlated to song changes, with "downregulation causing incomplete and inaccurate song imitation in "zebra finches. In general, evidence suggests that the protein is vital to neuroplasticity. There is little support, however, for the idea that FOXP2 is 'the grammar gene' or that it had much to do with the relatively recent emergence of syntactical speech.[14]

Another controversial dichotomy is the question of whether human language is solely human or on a continuum with (admittedly far removed) "animal communication systems. Studies in "ethology have forced researchers to reassess many claims of uniquely human abilities for language and speech. For instance, "Tecumseh Fitch has argued that the "descended larynx is not unique to humans. Similarly, once held uniquely human traits such as formant perception, combinatorial phonology and compositional semantics are now thought to be shared with at least some nonhuman animal species. Conversely, "Derek Bickerton and others argue that the advent of abstract words provided a mental basis for analyzing higher-order relations, and that any communication system that remotely resembles human language utterly relies on cognitive architecture that co-evolved alongside language.

As it leaves no fossils, language's form and even its presence are extremely hard or impossible to deduce from physical evidence. Computational modeling is now widely accepted as an approach to assure the internal consistency of language-evolution scenarios. Approximately one-third of all papers presented at the 2010 Evolution of Language conference[15] rely at least in part on computer simulations.

Approaches[edit]

One original researcher in the field is "Luc Steels, head of the research units of Sony CSL in "Paris and the AI Lab at the "Vrije Universiteit Brussel. He and his team are currently investigating ways in which artificial agents self-organize languages with natural-like properties and how meaning can co-evolve with language. Their research is based on the hypothesis that language is a "complex adaptive system that emerges through adaptive interactions between agents and continues to evolve in order to remain adapted to the needs and capabilities of the agents. This research has been implemented in "fluid construction grammar (FCG), a formalism for construction grammars that has been specially designed for the origins and evolution of language. The approach of computational modeling and the use of robotic agents grounded in real life is claimed to be theory independent. It enables the researcher to find out exactly what cognitive capacities are needed for certain language phenomena to emerge. It also focuses the researcher in formulating hypotheses in a precise and exact manner, whereas theoretical models often stay very vague.

Some linguists, such as "John McWhorter, have analyzed the evolution and construction of basic "communication methods such as "pidginization and "creolization.[16]

"Nativist" models of ""universal grammar" are informed by "linguistic universals such as the existence of "pronouns and "demonstratives, and the similarities in each language's process of "nominalization (the process of "verbs becoming "nouns) as well as the reverse, the process of turning nouns into verbs.[17] This is a purely descriptive approach to what we mean by ""natural language" without attempting to address its emergence.

Finally there are those archaeologists and evolutionary anthropologists—among them Ian Watts,[18] Camilla Power[19] and "Chris Knight (co-founder with "James Hurford of the EVOLANG series of conferences)—who argue that 'the origin of language' is probably an insoluble problem. In agreement with "Amotz Zahavi,[20] Knight argues that language—being a realm of patent fictions—is a theoretical impossibility in a Darwinian world, where signals must be intrinsically reliable. If we are going to explain language's evolution, according to this view, we must tackle it as part of a wider one—the evolutionary emergence of "symbolic culture as such.[21]

EVOLANG Conference[edit]

The Evolution of Language International Conferences[22] have been held biennially since 1996.

  1. 1996 "Edinburgh:[23][24]
  2. 1998 "London:[25][26]
  3. 2000 "Paris:[27][28]
  4. 2002 "Boston:[29][30]
  5. 2004 "Leipzig[31]
  6. 2006 "Rome:[32][33]
  7. 2008 "Barcelona:[34][35]
  8. 2010 "Utrecht:[36][37]
  9. 2012 "Kyoto:[38][39]
  10. 2014 "Vienna[40][41]
  11. 2016 "New Orleans[42][43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Croft, William (October 2008). "Evolutionary Linguistics". Annual Review of Anthropology. Annual Reviews. 37: 219–234. "doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.37.081407.085156. 
  2. ^ Taub, Liba. Evolutionary Ideas and "Empirical" Methods: The Analogy Between Language and Species in the Works of Lyell and Schleicher. British Journal for the History of Science 26, pages 171–193 (1993)
  3. ^ Schleicher, August (1869). "Darwinism tested by the science of language : Free Download". Internet Archive. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  4. ^ Jastrow J (1886). "The Evolution of Language". Science. 7 (176S): 555–557. "doi:10.1126/science.ns-7.176S.555. "JSTOR 1761264. "PMID 17778380. 
  5. ^ Pinker, Steven; Bloom, Paul (2011). "Natural language and natural selection" (PDF). Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 13 (4): 707–727. "doi:10.1017/S0140525X00081061. 
  6. ^ "Oxford Studies in the Evolution of Language". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  7. ^ Scharff C, Haesler S; Haesler (December 2005). "An evolutionary perspective on FoxP2: strictly for the birds?". Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 15 (6): 694–703. "doi:10.1016/j.conb.2005.10.004. "PMID 16266802. 
  8. ^ Scharff C, Petri J; Petri (July 2011). "Evo-devo, deep homology and FoxP2: implications for the evolution of speech and language". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 366 (1574): 2124–40. "doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0001. "PMC 3130369Freely accessible. "PMID 21690130. 
  9. ^ Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Liegeois, Frederique (2007). Stein Braten, eds. From speech to gene: The KE family and the FOXP2. On Being Moved : From Mirror Neurons to Empathy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 137–146. "ISBN "9789027252043. "OCLC 643718628. 
  10. ^ Vargha-Khadem F, Watkins K, Alcock K, Fletcher P, Passingham R; Watkins; Alcock; Fletcher; Passingham (January 1995). "Praxic and nonverbal cognitive deficits in a large family with a genetically transmitted speech and language disorder". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (3): 930–3. "doi:10.1073/pnas.92.3.930. "PMC 42734Freely accessible. "PMID 7846081. 
  11. ^ Krause J, Lalueza-Fox C, Orlando L, et al. (November 2007). "The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with Neandertals". Curr. Biol. 17 (21): 1908–12. "doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.10.008. "PMID 17949978. 
  12. ^ Rizzi E, Lari M, Gigli E, De Bellis G, Caramelli D; Lari; Gigli; De Bellis; Caramelli (2012). "Ancient DNA studies: new perspectives on old samples". Genet. Sel. Evol. 44: 21. "doi:10.1186/1297-9686-44-21. "PMC 3390907Freely accessible. "PMID 22697611. 
  13. ^ Shu W, Lu MM, Zhang Y, Tucker PW, Zhou D, Morrisey EE; Lu; Zhang; Tucker; Zhou; Morrisey (May 2007). "Foxp2 and Foxp1 cooperatively regulate lung and esophagus development". Development. 134 (10): 1991–2000. "doi:10.1242/dev.02846. "PMID 17428829. 
  14. ^ Diller, Karl C.; Cann, Rebecca L. (2009). Rudolf Botha and Chris Knight, eds. Evidence Against a Genetic-Based Revolution in Language 50,000 Years Ago. The Cradle of Language. Oxford Series in the Evolution of Language. Oxford.: Oxford University Press. pp. 135–149. "ISBN "978-0-19-954586-5. "OCLC 804498749. 
  15. ^ "Evolang8 - Program". 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  16. ^ McWhorter, John H. (2001). The power of Babel : a natural history of language. New York: Times Books. "ISBN "978-0-7167-4473-3. "OCLC 46564796. 
  17. ^ Deutscher, Guy (2005). The unfolding of language : an evolutionary tour of mankind's greatest invention. New York: Metropolitan Books. "ISBN "978-0-8050-7907-4. "OCLC 57311730. 
  18. ^ Watts, Ian (2009). Rudolf Botha and Chris Knight, eds. Red Ochre, Body Painting, and Language: Interpreting the Blombos Ochre. The Cradle of Language. Oxford Series in the Evolution of Language. Oxford.: Oxford University Press. pp. 62–92. "ISBN "978-0-19-954586-5. "OCLC 804498749. 
  19. ^ Power, Camilla (2009). Rudolf Botha and Chris Knight, eds. Sexual Selection Models for the Emergence of Symbolic Communication: Why They Should be Reversed. The Cradle of Language. Oxford Series in the Evolution of Language. Oxford.: Oxford University Press. pp. 257–280. "ISBN "978-0-19-954586-5. "OCLC 804498749. 
  20. ^ Zahavi A (May 1993). "The fallacy of conventional signalling". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 340 (1292): 227–30. "doi:10.1098/rstb.1993.0061. "PMID 8101657. 
  21. ^ Knight, Chris (2010). Ulrich J Frey; Charlotte Störmer; Kai P Willführ, eds. The origins of symbolic culture (PDF). Homo novus : a human without illusion. Berlin ; New York: Springer. pp. 193–211. "ISBN "978-3-642-12141-8. "OCLC 639461749. 
  22. ^ "Evolution of Language International Conferences - Conference Details". evolang. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  23. ^ "Volume issued after the Edinburgh Conference (1996)". Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  24. ^ Hurford, James R.; Studdert-Kennedy, Michael.; Knight, Chris (1998). Approaches to the evolution of language : social and cognitive base. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "978-0-521-63964-4. "OCLC 37742390. 
  25. ^ "Volume issued after the London Conference (1998)". Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  26. ^ Knight, Chris; Studdert-Kennedy, Michael.; Hurford, James R. (2000). The Evolutionary emergence of language : social function and the origins of linguistic form. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "978-0-521-78157-2. "OCLC 807262339. 
  27. ^ "3rd International Conference on the Evolution of Language - Paris - France". Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  28. ^ Wray, Alison (2002). The transition to language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-925066-0. "OCLC 48532303. 
  29. ^ "Evolution of Language: Fourth International Conference, 2002". Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  30. ^ Tallerman, Maggie (2005). Language Origins: Perspectives on Evolution. Oxford, UK; New York, NY: Oxford University Press. "ISBN "0-19-927904-7. "OCLC 60607214. 
  31. ^ "Evolution of Language: Fifth International Conference". 200. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  32. ^ "The Sixth International Conference on the Evolution of Language (Evolang6)". Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  33. ^ Cangelosi, Angelo.; Smith, Andrew D. M.; Smith, Kenny. (2006). The evolution of language : proceedings of the 6th international conference (EVOLANG6) , Rome, Italy, 12–15 April 200. New Jersey: World Scientific. "ISBN "9789812566560. "OCLC 70797781. 
  34. ^ "Evolang Barcelona". 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  35. ^ Smith, Andrew D. M.; Smith, Kenny; Ferrer i Cancho, Ramon. (2008). The evolution of language : proceedings of the 7th International Conference (EVOLANG7), Barcelona, Spain, 12–15 March 200. [Hacksensack], N.J.: World Scientific. "ISBN "978-981-277-611-2. "OCLC 804269343. 
  36. ^ "History - Evolang8". The Utrecht Institute of Linguistics OTS (UiL OTS) of Utrecht University. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  37. ^ International Conference on the Evolution of Language (8th : 2010 : Utrecht, Netherlands); Smith, Andrew D. M. (2010). The evolution of language : proceedings of the 8th International Conference (EVOLANG8), Utrecht, Netherlands, 14–17 April 201. Singapore ; Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. "ISBN "978-981-4295-21-5. "OCLC 712021789. 
  38. ^ "Evolang IX Kyoto - The 9th Evolution of Language Conference". Evolang IX Kyoto. 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  39. ^ International Conference on the Evolution of Language (9th : 2012 : Kyoto, Japan); Scott-Phillips, Thomas C. (2012). The evolution of language : proceedings of the 9th International Conference (EVOLANG9), Kyoto, Japan, 13–16 March 201. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. "ISBN "978-981-4401-49-4. "OCLC 804806330. 
  40. ^ "Evolang X Vienna - The 10th Evolution of Language Conference". Evolang X Vienna. 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2017. 
  41. ^ Cartmill, Erica A.; Roberts, Sean G.; Lyn, Heidi; Cornish, Hannah (2014). The evolution of language : proceedings of the 10th International Conference (EVOLANG10), Vienna, Austria, 14–17 April 201. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. "ISBN "978-981-4603-62-1. 
  42. ^ "Evolang XI New Orleans - The 11th Evolution of Language Conference: Online proceedings". Evolang XI New Orleans. 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2017. 
  43. ^ Roberts, Sean G.; Cuskley, Christine; McCrohon, Luke; Barceló-Coblijn, Lluis; Feher, Olga; Verhoef, Tessa (2016). The evolution of language : proceedings of the 11th International Conference (EVOLANG11), New Orleans, USA, 21–24 March 201. EvoLang Committee. "doi:10.17617/2.2248195. "ISBN "978-1-326-61450-8. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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