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Extropianism, also referred to as the philosophy of Extropy, is an "evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the "human condition". Extropians believe that advances in science and technology will some day let people live indefinitely. An extropian may wish to contribute to this goal, e.g. by doing research and development or by volunteering to test new technology.
Originated by a set of principles developed by the philosopher "Max More, The Principles of Extropy, extropian thinking places strong emphasis on "rational thinking and on practical "optimism. According to More, these principles "do not specify particular beliefs, technologies, or policies". Extropians share an optimistic view of the "future, expecting considerable advances in computational power, "life extension, "nanotechnology and the like. Many["quantify] extropians foresee the eventual realization of "indefinite lifespans, and the recovery, thanks to future advances in biomedical technology or "mind uploading, of those whose bodies/brains have been preserved by means of "cryonics.["citation needed]
The term 'extropy', as an antonym to '"entropy' was used in a 1967 academic volume discussing "cryogenics and in a 1978 academic volume of "cybernetics. "Diane Duane was the first to use the term "extropy" to signify a potential transhuman destiny for humanity. 'Extropy' as coined by Tom Bell (T.O. Morrow) and defined by "Max More in 1988, is "the extent of a living or organizational system's "intelligence, functional order, vitality, "energy, "life, "experience, and capacity and drive for improvement and growth." Extropy is not a rigorously defined technical term in philosophy or science; in a "metaphorical sense, it simply expresses the opposite of "entropy.["citation needed]
In 1986 More joined "Alcor, a "Cryonics company, and helped establish (along with Michael Price, Garret Smyth and Luigi Warren) the first European cryonics organization, Mizar Limited (later Alcor UK). In 1987, More moved to Los Angeles from "Oxford University in England to work on his Ph.D. in philosophy at the "University of Southern California.
In 1988, Extropy: The Journal of Transhumanist Thought was first published. (For the first few issues, it was "Extropy: Vaccine for Future Shock".) This brought together thinkers with interests in "artificial intelligence, "nanotechnology, "genetic engineering, "life extension, "mind uploading, "idea futures, "robotics, "space exploration, "memetics, and the politics and economics of transhumanism. Alternative media organizations soon began reviewing the magazine, and it attracted interest from like-minded thinkers. Later, More and Bell co-founded the Extropy Institute, a "non-profit "501(c)(3) educational organization. "ExI" was formed as a transhumanist networking and information center to use current scientific understanding along with critical and creative thinking to define a small set of principles or values that could help make sense of new capabilities opening up to humanity.
The Extropy Institute's email list was launched in 1991 (and, as of April 2015, continues to exist as "Extropy-Chat"), and in 1992 the institute began producing the first conferences on transhumanism.["citation needed] Affiliate members throughout the world began organizing their own transhumanist groups. Extro Conferences, meetings, parties, on-line debates, and documentaries continue to spread transhumanism to the public.
In 2006, the board of directors of the Extropy Institute made a decision to close the organisation, stating that its mission was "essentially completed."
Extropism is a modern derivation of the "transhumanist philosophy of Extropianism. It follows the same tradition - hence the similarity in naming - but has been revised to better suit the perceived paradigms of the 21st century. As introduced in The Extropist Manifesto, it promotes an "optimistic "futuristic philosophy that can be summed up in the following five phrases, which "spell out the word "EXTROPISM":
Extropists desire to prolong their life span to a near-"immortal state and exist in a world where "artificial intelligence and "robotics have made work irrelevant. As in utilitarianism, the purpose of one's life should be to increase the overall "happiness of all creatures on Earth through "cooperation.
The Extropist Manifesto was written by web entrepreneur Breki Tomasson and writer "Hank Pellissier - both of whom have had a long transhuman interest - in January, 2010. It details the ways in which Extropism has evolved away from Extropianism, while continuing to building upon its original tenets. For example, it moves away from the original Extropian Principles by placing a significant focus on the need to abolish and/or restrict the current use of "surveillance, "copyright and "patent laws.