7 – "2016 election: In "Washington, Democratic party electors gave three presidential votes to "Colin Powell and one to "Faith Spotted Eagle and these electors cast vice-presidential votes for "Elizabeth Warren, "Maria Cantwell, "Susan Collins, and "Winona LaDuke. In Hawaii, "Bernie Sanders received one presidential vote and Elizabeth Warren received one vice-presidential vote. In Texas, "John Kasich and "Ron Paul received one presidential vote each, and one of these electors gave "Carly Fiorina a vice-presidential vote.
In addition, three other electors attempted to vote against their pledge, but had their votes invalidated. In Colorado, Kasich received one vote for president, which was invalidated. Two additional electors, one in Maine and one in Minnesota, cast votes for Sanders for president but had their votes invalidated and their replacement electors cast for Clinton. The same Minnesota elector voted for "Tulsi Gabbard for vice president, but had that vote invalidated and given to "Tim Kaine.
2000 to 2004
1 – "2004 election: An anonymous "Minnesota elector, pledged for Democrats "John Kerry and "John Edwards, cast his or her presidential vote for "John Ewards" ["sic], rather than Kerry, presumably by accident. (All of Minnesota's electors cast their vice presidential ballots for "John Edwards.) Minnesota's electors cast secret ballots, so the identity of the faithless elector is not known. As a result of this incident, Minnesota statutes were amended to provide for public balloting of the electors' votes and invalidation of a vote cast for someone other than the candidate to whom the elector is pledged.
1 – "2000 election: "Washington, D.C. elector "Barbara Lett-Simmons, pledged for Democrats "Al Gore and "Joe Lieberman, cast no electoral votes as a protest of "Washington D.C.'s lack of voting congressional representation. Lett-Simmons's electoral college abstention, the first since "1864, was intended to protest what Lett-Simmons referred to as the federal district's "colonial status". Lett-Simmons described her blank ballot as an act of "civil disobedience, not an act of a faithless elector; Lett-Simmons supported Gore and would have voted for Gore if she had thought he had a chance to win. This did not affect the outcome of the election.
1968 to 1996
1 – "1988 election: "West Virginia Elector "Margarette Leach, pledged for Democrats "Michael Dukakis and "Lloyd Bentsen, but as a form of protest against the winner-take-all custom of the Electoral College, instead cast her votes for the candidates in the reverse of their positions on the national ticket; her presidential vote went to Bentsen and her vice presidential vote to Dukakis.
1 – "1976 election: "Washington Elector "Mike Padden, pledged for Republicans "Gerald Ford and "Bob Dole, cast his presidential electoral vote for "Ronald Reagan, who had challenged Ford for the Republican nomination. He cast his vice presidential vote, as pledged, for Dole.
1 – "1972 election: "Virginia Elector "Roger MacBride, pledged for Republicans "Richard Nixon and "Spiro Agnew, cast his electoral votes for "Libertarian candidates "John Hospers and "Tonie Nathan. MacBride's VP vote for Nathan was the first electoral vote cast for a woman in U.S. history.
1 – "1968 election: "North Carolina Elector "Lloyd W. Bailey, pledged for Republicans "Richard Nixon and "Spiro Agnew, cast his votes for "American Independent Party candidates "George Wallace and "Curtis LeMay. Bailey later stated at a Senate hearing that he would have voted for Nixon if his vote would have altered the outcome of the election.
1912 to 1960
1 – "1960 election: "Oklahoma Elector "Henry D. Irwin, pledged for Republicans "Richard Nixon and "Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., contacted the other 218 Republican electors to convince them to cast presidential electoral votes for Democratic non-candidate "Harry F. Byrd and vice presidential electoral votes for Republican "Barry Goldwater, though most replied they had a moral obligation to vote for Nixon; Irwin voted for Byrd and Goldwater and fourteen "unpledged electors (eight from Mississippi and six from Alabama) also voted for Byrd for president, but supported "Strom Thurmond for vice president; this action by the 14 was not faithless.
1 – "1956 election: "Alabama Elector "W. F. Turner, pledged for Democrats "Adlai Stevenson and "Estes Kefauver, cast his votes for circuit judge "Walter Burgwyn Jones and "Herman Talmadge.
1 – "1948 election: "Tennessee elector "Preston Parks was on both the Democratic Party for "Harry S. Truman and the "States' Rights Democratic Party for "Strom Thurmond. When the Democratic Party slate won, Parks voted for Thurmond and "Fielding L. Wright.
8 – "1912 election: "Republican vice presidential candidate "James S. Sherman died before the popular election. Eight Republican electors voted for "Nicholas M. Butler, who had been designated to receive the electoral votes that would have gone to Sherman.
1872 to 1896
27 – "1896 election: The Democratic Party and the "People's Party both ran "William Jennings Bryan as their presidential candidate, but ran different candidates for Vice President. The Democratic Party nominated "Arthur Sewall and the People’s Party nominated "Thomas E. Watson. Although the Populist ticket did not win the popular vote in any state, 27 Democratic electors for Bryan cast their vice-presidential vote for Watson instead of Sewall.
1 – "1892 election: In Oregon, the electors were pledged to vote for "Benjamin Harrison; three electors voted for Harrison and one faithless elector voted for the third-party Populist candidate, "James B. Weaver.
63 – "1872 election: "Horace Greeley was alive during the November election but died before the electoral vote. 63 out of 66 electors refused to vote for a deceased candidate, and out of those, 43 cast their presidential votes for four non-candidates, and 17 abstained. Greeley received three posthumous electoral votes, but these votes were disallowed by Congress.
1812 to 1836
23 – "1836 election: The 23 electors from "Virginia were pledged to vote for "Democratic candidates "Martin Van Buren (for President) and "Richard M. Johnson (for Vice President). However, they abstained from voting for Johnson, because of his open (and therefore scandalous) liaison with a slave mistress. This left Johnson with one fewer than a majority of electoral votes. Johnson was subsequently elected Vice President by the "Senate.
32 – "1832 election: Two National Republican Party electors from the state of "Maryland refused to vote for presidential candidate "Henry Clay and did not cast a vote for him or for his running mate, "John Sergeant. All 30 electors from "Pennsylvania refused to support the Democratic vice presidential candidate "Martin Van Buren, voting instead for "William Wilkins.
7 – "1828 election: Seven of nine electors from "Georgia refused to vote for vice presidential candidate "John C. Calhoun. All seven cast their vice presidential votes for "William Smith instead.
1 – "1820 election: "William Plumer was pledged to vote for "Democratic-Republican candidate "James Monroe, but he cast his vote for "John Quincy Adams, who was not a candidate in the election. Some historians contend Plumer wanted George Washington to be the only unanimous selection and that he further wanted to draw attention to his friend Adams as a potential candidate. These claims are disputed. (Plumer cast his vice presidential vote for Richard Rush, not Daniel D. Tompkins.)
4 – "1812 election: Three electors pledged to vote for "Federalist vice presidential candidate "Jared Ingersoll voted for "Democratic-Republican "Elbridge Gerry. One "Ohio elector did not vote.
6 – "1808 election: Six electors from "New York were pledged to vote for "Democratic-Republican "James Madison for President and "George Clinton for Vice President. Instead, they voted for Clinton to be President, with three voting for Madison for Vice President and the other three voting for "James Monroe for Vice President.
19 – "1796 election: "Samuel Miles, an elector from "Pennsylvania, was pledged to vote for "Federalist presidential candidate "John Adams, but voted for "Democratic-Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson. He cast his other presidential vote as pledged for "Thomas Pinckney; there was no provision at the time for specifying president or vice president. An additional 18 electors voted for Adams as pledged, but refused to vote for Pinckney. This was an attempt to foil Alexander Hamilton's rumored plan to elect Pinckney as President, and this resulted in the unintended outcome that Adams's opponent, Jefferson, was elected Vice President instead of Adams's running mate Pinckney. This was the only time that the president and vice president have been from different parties. After the 1800 election also resulted in confusion, the "12th Amendment was ratified in 1804. It changed the election procedure so that instead of casting two votes of the same type, electors would now make an explicit choice for president and vice president.
- "THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE". National Conference of State Legislatures.
- Sabato, Larry J.; Ernst, Howard R. (May 14, 2014). Encyclopedia of American Political Parties and Elections. Infobase Publishing. p. 133. "ISBN "978-1-4381-0994-7. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
in 1836...the Virginia electors abstained rather than vote for Democratic vice presidential nominee Richard Johnson
- "Faithless Electors". FairVote.org. FairVote. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
- "U. S. Electoral College: Who Are the Electors? How Do They Vote?".
- "Michigan Election Law Section 168.47". Legislature.mi.gov. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Minnesota electors align for Clinton; one replaced after voting for Sanders".
- "208.08, 2008 Minnesota Statutes". Revisor.leg.state.mn.us. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "Ray v. Blair "343 "U.S. 214 (1952)
- Ray vs Blair
- Sheppard, Stephen M. (May 21, 2015). "A Case For The Electoral College And For Its Faithless Elector" (PDF). Wisconsin Law Review. 2015 (1).
- Stout, David (December 19, 2000). "The 43rd President: The Electoral College; The Electors Vote, and the Surprises Are Few". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
But it was Mr. Gore who suffered an erosion today. Lett-Simmons, a Gore elector from the District of Columbia, left her ballot blank to protest what she called the capital's "colonial status" – its lack of a voting representative in Congress.
- "Four Washington state electors break ranks and don't vote for Clinton". The Seattle Times. 2016-12-19. Retrieved 2016-12-19.
- Walsh, Sean Collins (2016-12-19). "All but 2 Texas members of the Electoral College choose Donald Trump". Statesman. Retrieved 2016-12-24.
- Neff, Blake. "Faithless Electors In Texas Vote For Ron Paul, John Kasich". DailyCaller. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- Detrow, Scott. "Donald Trump Secures Electoral College Win, With Few Surprises". NPR. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- "Vote for Edwards instead of Kerry shocks Minnesota electors". December 17, 2004. Archived from the original on December 17, 2004.
- "MPR: Minnesota elector gives Edwards a vote; Kerry gets other nine". News.minnesota.publicradio.org. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Johnson, Sharen Shaw (January 5, 1989). "CAPITAL LINE: [FINAL Edition]". USA Today. Retrieved February 11, 2016. (subscription required (. ))
Even though Bensten sought the vice presidency, Margarette Leach of West Virginia voted for him to protest the Electoral College's winner-take-all custom.
- Edwards, George C. (2011). Why the Electoral College Is Bad for America: Second Edition.
- "Boaz, David (2008). "Nathan, Toni (1923– )". In "Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: "SAGE; "Cato Institute. p. 347. "doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n212. "ISBN "978-1-4129-6580-4. "LCCN 2008009151. "OCLC 750831024.
- "Tales of the Unfaithful Electors: Dr. Lloyd W. Bailey". EC: The US Electoral College Web Zine. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
- Edwards, George (2004). Why the Electoral College Is Bad for America. Yale University Press.
- "Senate and House Secured; Republican control in the next Conress assured. The House of Representatives Repub- lican by More than Two – thirds Ma- jority – Possible Loss of a Repub- lican Senator from the State of Washington – Republicans and Pop- ulists Will Organize the Senate and Divide the Patronage". The New York Times. November 9, 1894. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". "National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005.
- Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin, 2004. p. 514.
- List of Electors Bound by State Law and Pledges, as of November 2000
- "The Electoral College – "Faithless Electors"". Official website of the "Center for Voting and Democracy. 2002. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- "Faithless Electors". Website of FairVote, formerly the "Center for Voting and Democracy. Retrieved June 11, 2008.