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This article is part of "a series on the
"Politics of the
Russian Federation
""Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation 2.svg

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation ("Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation ("Russian: субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the "constituent entities of "Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the "Constitution of Russia.[1] Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects,[2] although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of "Ukraine.[3][4]

According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of "republics, "krais, "oblasts, "cities of federal importance, an "autonomous oblast and "autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.[5] Three "Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns ("Zelenograd, "Troitsk, "Kronstadt, "Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city – keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993 the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008 the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several "mergers. In 2014 "Sevastopol and the "Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.

Every federal subject has its own "head, a "parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution and legislation. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies.[6][7] The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the "Federation Council, the "upper house of the "Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of "autonomy they enjoy ("asymmetric federalism).

Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the "Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the "USSR and didn't change at the time of the "dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992 during so-called "parade of sovereignties", "separatist sentiments and the "War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the "Federation Treaty ("Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny Dogovor),[8] establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the "1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR.["citation needed] The current "Constitution of Russia, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on December 25, 1993 and abolished the model of the "Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by "Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice it["clarification needed] was never allowed), which conflicts with country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and didn't grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the political system became de jure closer to other modern "federal states with a republican form of government in the world.["citation needed] In the 2000s, following the policy of "Vladimir Putin and of the "United Russia party ("dominant party in all federal subjects), the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.

There are several groupings of Russian regions:



An official government translation of the "Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states: "1. The Russian Federation shall consist of "republics, "krays, "oblasts, "cities of federal significance, an "autonomous oblast and "autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."[9]

Another translation of the "Constitution of Russia gives for article 65: "The Russian Federation includes the following subjects of the Russian Federation:".[10]

How to translate the Russian term was discussed during the 49th annual "American Translators Association conference in "Orlando, in which Tom Fennel, a freelance translator, argued that the term "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" should be preferred to "subject".[11] This recommendation is also shared by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department, Goltsblat "BLP, who in her "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" presentation in Paris stated that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".[12]

Rank (as given in constitution and ISO) Russian (Cyrillic) Russian (Latin) English – official translation of the constitution [13] English – unofficial translation of the constitution[10] "ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))
N/A субъект Российской Федерации subʺyekt Rossiyskoy Federatsii constituent entity of the Russian Federation subject of the Russian Federation (not mentioned)
1 республика respublika republic republic republic
2 край kray kray territory administrative territory
3 область oblastʹ oblast region administrative region
4 город федерального значения gorod federalʹnogo znacheniya city of federal significance city of federal importance autonomous city
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный город avtonomnyy gorod)
5 автономная область avtonomnaya oblastʹ autonomous oblast autonomous region autonomous region
6 автономный округ avtonomnyy okrug autonomous okrug autonomous area autonomous district


""Federal subjects of Russia.

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

Legend Description
  46 "oblasts
The most common type of federal subject with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centers.
  22 "republics
Nominally["citation needed] autonomous, each has its own constitution and legislature; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.
  9 "krais
Essentially the same as oblasts. The title "territory" is historic, originally given because they were once considered frontier regions.
With a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
Major cities that function as separate regions.
  1 autonomous oblast
The only autonomous oblast is the "Jewish Autonomous Oblast.


Click any region for more information. Go ""here for image description.
Republic of Adygea Republic of Bashkortostan Republic of Buryatia Altai Republic Republic of Dagestan Republic of Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkar Republic Republic of Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkess Republic Republic of Karelia Komi Republic Mari El Republic Republic of Mordovia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Republic of North Ossetia-Alania Republic of Tatarstan Tuva Republic Udmurt Republic Republic of Khakassia Chechen Republic Chuvash Republic Altai Krai Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Krai Krasnoyarsk Krai Primorsky Krai Stavropol Krai Khabarovsk Krai Amur Oblast Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Oblast Astrakhan Oblast Belgorod Oblast Bryansk Oblast Vladimir Oblast Volgograd Oblast Vologda Oblast Voronezh Oblast Ivanovo Oblast Irkutsk Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Kaluga Oblast Kemerovo Oblast Kirov Oblast Kostroma Oblast Kurgan Oblast Kursk Oblast Leningrad Oblast Lipetsk Oblast Magadan Oblast Moscow Oblast Murmansk Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast Novosibirsk Oblast Omsk Oblast Orenburg Oblast Oryol Oblast Penza Oblast Perm Krai Pskov Oblast Rostov Oblast Ryazan Oblast Samara Oblast Saratov Oblast Sakhalin Oblast Sverdlovsk Oblast Smolensk Oblast Tambov Oblast Tver Oblast Tomsk Oblast Tula Oblast Tyumen Oblast Ulyanovsk Oblast Chelyabinsk Oblast Zabaykalsky Krai Yaroslavl Oblast Moscow Saint Petersburg Jewish Autonomous Oblast Nenets Autonomous Okrug Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Kamchatka KraiFederal subjects of Russia (by number).png
""About this image

Code Name Capital/Administrative center[a] Flag Coat
of arms
"Federal district "Economic region Area
01 "Adygea, Republic of "Maykop ""Flag of Adygea.svg ""Coat of arms of Adygea.svg "Southern "North Caucasus 7,600 447,109 1922
02 "Bashkortostan, Republic of "Ufa ""Flag of Bashkortostan.svg ""Coat of Arms of Bashkortostan.svg "Volga "Ural 143,600 4,104,336 1919
03 "Buryatia, Republic of "Ulan-Ude ""Flag of Buryatia.svg ""Coat of Arms of Buryatiya.svg "Siberian "East Siberian 351,300 981,238 1923
04 "Altai Republic "Gorno-Altaysk ""Flag of Altai Republic.svg ""Coat of Arms of Altai Republic.svg "Siberian "West Siberian 92,600 202,947 1922
05 "Dagestan, Republic of "Makhachkala ""Flag of Dagestan.svg ""Coat of Arms of Dagestan.svg "North Caucasian "North Caucasus 50,300 2,576,531 1921
06 "Ingushetia, Republic of "Magas
(Largest city: "Nazran)
""Flag of Ingushetia.svg ""Coat of Arms of Ingushetia.svg "North Caucasian "North Caucasus 4,000 467,294 1992
07 "Kabardino-Balkar Republic "Nalchik ""Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg ""Coat of Arms of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg "North Caucasian "North Caucasus 12,500 901,494 1936
08 "Kalmykia, Republic of "Elista ""Flag of Kalmykia.svg ""Coat of Arms of Kalmykia.svg "Southern "Volga 76,100 292,410 1957
09 "Karachay-Cherkess Republic "Cherkessk ""Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg ""Coat of Arms of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg "North Caucasian "North Caucasus 14,100 439,470 1957
10 "Karelia, Republic of "Petrozavodsk ""Flag of Karelia.svg ""Coat of Arms of Republic of Karelia.svg "Northwestern "Northern 172,400 716,281 1956
11 "Komi Republic "Syktyvkar ""Flag of Komi.svg ""Coat of Arms of the Komi Republic.svg "Northwestern "Northern 415,900 1,018,674 1921
12 "Mari El Republic "Yoshkar-Ola ""Flag of Mari El.svg ""Coat of Arms of Mari El.svg "Volga "Volga-Vyatka 23,200 727,979 1920
13 "Mordovia, Republic of "Saransk ""Flag of Mordovia.svg ""Coat of Arms of Mordovia.svg "Volga "Volga-Vyatka 26,200 888,766 1930
14 "Sakha (Yakutia) Republic "Yakutsk ""Flag of Sakha.svg ""Coat of Arms of Sakha (Yakutia).svg "Far Eastern "Far Eastern 3,103,200 949,280 1922
15 "North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of "Vladikavkaz ""Flag of North Ossetia.svg ""Wapen Ossetien.svg "North Caucasian "North Caucasus 8,000 710,275 1924
16 "Tatarstan, Republic of "Kazan ""Flag of Tatarstan.svg ""Coat of Arms of Tatarstan.svg "Volga "Volga 68,000 3,779,265 1920
17 "Tuva Republic "Kyzyl ""Flag of Tuva.svg ""Coat of arms of Tuva.svg "Siberian "East Siberian 170,500 305,510 1944
18 "Udmurt Republic "Izhevsk ""Flag of Udmurtia.svg ""Coat of arms of Udmurtia.svg "Volga "Ural 42,100 1,570,316 1920
19 "Khakassia, Republic of "Abakan ""Flag of Khakassia.svg ""Coat of arms of Khakassia.svg "Siberian "East Siberian 61,900 546,072 1930
20 "Chechen Republic "Grozny ""Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg ""Coat of arms of Chechnya.svg "North Caucasian "North Caucasus 15,300 1,103,686 1991
21 "Chuvash Republic "Cheboksary ""Flag of Chuvashia.svg ""Coat of Arms of Chuvashia.svg "Volga "Volga-Vyatka 18,300 1,313,754 1920
22 "Altai Krai "Barnaul ""Flag of Altai Krai.svg ""Coat of Arms of Altai Krai.svg "Siberian "West Siberian 169,100 2,607,426 1937
75 "Zabaykalsky Krai "Chita ""Flag of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg ""Coat of arms of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg "Siberian "East Siberian 431,500 1,155,346 2008
41 "Kamchatka Krai "Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky ""Flag of Kamchatka Krai.svg ""Coat of Arms of Kamchatka Krai.svg "Far Eastern "Far Eastern 472,300 358,801 2007
23 "Krasnodar Krai "Krasnodar ""Flag of Krasnodar Krai.svg ""Coat of Arms of Krasnodar Kray.svg "Southern "North Caucasus 76,000 5,125,221 1937
24 "Krasnoyarsk Krai "Krasnoyarsk ""Flag of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg ""Coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg "Siberian "East Siberian 2,339,700 2,966,042 1934
59 "Perm Krai "Perm ""Flag of Perm Krai.svg ""Coat of Arms of Perm Krai.svg "Volga "Ural 160,600 2,819,421 2005
25 "Primorsky Krai "Vladivostok ""Flag of Primorsky Krai.svg ""Coat of arms of Primorsky Krai.svg "Far Eastern "Far Eastern 165,900 2,071,210 1938
26 "Stavropol Krai "Stavropol ""Flag of Stavropol Krai.svg ""Coat of arms of Stavropol Krai.svg "North Caucasian "North Caucasus 66,500 2,735,139 1934
27 "Khabarovsk Krai "Khabarovsk ""Flag of Khabarovsk Krai.svg ""Coat of Arms of Khabarovsky kray (N2).png "Far Eastern "Far Eastern 788,600 1,436,570 1938
28 "Amur Oblast "Blagoveshchensk ""Flag of Amur Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Amur oblast.png "Far Eastern "Far Eastern 363,700 902,844 1932
29 "Arkhangelsk Oblast "Arkhangelsk ""Flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Arkhangelsk oblast.svg "Northwestern "Northern 587,400 1,336,539 1937
30 "Astrakhan Oblast "Astrakhan ""Flag of Astrakhan Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Astrakhan Oblast.svg "Southern "Volga 44,100 1,005,276 1943
31 "Belgorod Oblast "Belgorod ""Flag of Belgorod Oblast.svg ""New Coat of Arms of Belgorod Oblast.svg "Central "Central Black Earth 27,100 1,511,620 1954
32 "Bryansk Oblast "Bryansk ""Flag of Bryansk Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Bryansk Oblast.svg "Central "Central 34,900 1,378,941 1944
33 "Vladimir Oblast "Vladimir ""Flag of Vladimirskaya Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Vladimiri Oblast.svg "Central "Central 29,000 1,523,990 1944
34 "Volgograd Oblast "Volgograd ""Flag of Volgograd Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Volgograd oblast.svg "Southern "Volga 113,900 2,699,223 1937
35 "Vologda Oblast "Vologda
(Largest city: "Cherepovets)
""Flag of Vologda oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Vologda oblast.svg "Northwestern "Northern 145,700 1,269,568 1937
36 "Voronezh Oblast "Voronezh ""Flag of Voronezh Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Voronezh Oblast.svg "Central "Central Black Earth 52,400 2,378,803 1934
37 "Ivanovo Oblast "Ivanovo ""Flag of Ivanovo Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Ivanovo Oblast.svg "Central "Central 21,800 1,148,329 1936
38 "Irkutsk Oblast "Irkutsk ""Flag of Irkutsk Oblast.svg ""Герб Иркутской области.svg "Siberian "East Siberian 767,900 2,581,705 1937
39 "Kaliningrad Oblast "Kaliningrad ""Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg ""Kaliningrad Oblast Coat of Arms 2006.svg "Northwestern "Kaliningrad 15,100 955,281 1946
40 "Kaluga Oblast "Kaluga ""Flag of Kaluga Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Kaluga Oblast.svg "Central "Central 29,900 1,041,641 1944
42 "Kemerovo Oblast "Kemerovo
(Largest city: "Novokuznetsk)
""Flag of Kemerovo oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Kemerovo Oblast.svg "Siberian "West Siberian 95,500 2,899,142 1943
43 "Kirov Oblast "Kirov ""Flag of Kirov Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Kirov Region.svg "Volga "Volga-Vyatka 120,800 1,503,529 1934
44 "Kostroma Oblast "Kostroma ""Flag of Kostroma Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Kostroma Oblast.svg "Central "Central 60,100 736,641 1944
45 "Kurgan Oblast "Kurgan ""Flag of Kurgan Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Kurgan Oblast.svg "Ural "Ural 71,000 1,019,532 1943
46 "Kursk Oblast "Kursk ""Flag of Kursk Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Kursk oblast.svg "Central "Central Black Earth 29,800 1,235,091 1934
47 "Leningrad Oblast Largest city: "Gatchina[b] ""Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Leningrad Oblast.svg "Northwestern "Northwestern 84,500 1,669,205 1927
48 "Lipetsk Oblast "Lipetsk ""Flag of Lipetsk Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Lipetsk oblast.svg "Central "Central Black Earth 24,100 1,213,499 1954
49 "Magadan Oblast "Magadan ""Flag of Magadan Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Magadan oblast.svg "Far Eastern "Far Eastern 461,400 182,726 1953
50 "Moscow Oblast Largest city: "Balashikha[c] ""Flag of Moscow oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Moscow oblast.svg "Central "Central 44,300[16] 6,618,538 1929
51 "Murmansk Oblast "Murmansk ""Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg ""Герб Мурманской области.svg "Northwestern "Northern 144,900 892,534 1938
52 "Nizhny Novgorod Oblast "Nizhny Novgorod ""Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg ""Coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg "Volga "Volga-Vyatka 76,900 3,524,028 1936
53 "Novgorod Oblast "Veliky Novgorod ""Flag of Novgorod Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Novgorod Oblast.svg "Northwestern "Northwestern 55,300 694,355 1944
54 "Novosibirsk Oblast "Novosibirsk ""Flag of Novosibirsk oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Novosibirsk oblast.svg "Siberian "West Siberian 178,200 2,692,251 1937
55 "Omsk Oblast "Omsk ""Flag of Omsk Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Omsk Oblast.svg "Siberian "West Siberian 139,700 2,079,220 1934
56 "Orenburg Oblast "Orenburg ""Flag of Orenburg Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Orenburg Oblast.svg "Volga "Ural 124,000 2,179,551 1934
57 "Oryol Oblast "Oryol ""Flag of Oryol Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Oryol Oblast (small).svg "Central "Central 24,700 860,262 1937
58 "Penza Oblast "Penza ""Flag of Penza Oblast.svg ""Gerb of Penza region.jpg "Volga "Volga 43,200 1,452,941 1939
60 "Pskov Oblast "Pskov ""Flag placeholder.svg ""Coat of Arms of Pskov Oblast.svg "Northwestern "Northwestern 55,300 760,810 1944
61 "Rostov Oblast "Rostov-on-Don ""Flag of Rostov Oblast.svg ""Rostov oblast coa.png "Southern "North Caucasus 100,800 4,404,013 1937
62 "Ryazan Oblast "Ryazan ""Flag of Ryazan Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Ryazan oblast.png "Central "Central 39,600 1,227,910 1937
63 "Samara Oblast "Samara ""Flag of Samara Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Samara oblast.png "Volga "Volga 53,600 3,239,737 1928
64 "Saratov Oblast "Saratov ""Flag of Saratov Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Saratov oblast.svg "Volga "Volga 100,200 2,668,310 1936
65 "Sakhalin Oblast "Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk ""Flag of Sakhalin Oblast.svg ""Sakhalin Oblast Coat of Arms.svg "Far Eastern "Far Eastern 87,100 546,695 1947
66 "Sverdlovsk Oblast "Yekaterinburg ""Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Sverdlovsk oblast.svg "Ural "Ural 194,800 4,486,214 1935
67 "Smolensk Oblast "Smolensk ""Flag of Smolensk oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Smolensk oblast.svg "Central "Central 49,800 1,049,574 1937
68 "Tambov Oblast "Tambov ""Flag of Tambov Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Tambov Oblast.svg "Central "Central Black Earth 34,300 1,178,443 1937
69 "Tver Oblast "Tver ""Flag of Tver Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Tver oblast.svg "Central "Central 84,100 1,471,459 1935
70 "Tomsk Oblast "Tomsk ""Flag of Tomsk Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Tomsk Oblast, Russia.svg "Siberian "West Siberian 316,900 1,046,039 1944
71 "Tula Oblast "Tula ""Flag of Tula Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Tula oblast.png "Central "Central 25,700 1,675,758 1937
72 "Tyumen Oblast "Tyumen ""Flag of Tyumen Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Tyumen Oblast.svg "Ural "West Siberian 1,435,200 3,264,841 1944
73 "Ulyanovsk Oblast "Ulyanovsk ""Flag of Ulyanovsk Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Ulyanovsk Oblast.png "Volga "Volga 37,300 1,382,811 1943
74 "Chelyabinsk Oblast "Chelyabinsk ""Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg "Ural "Ural 87,900 3,603,339 1934
76 "Yaroslavl Oblast "Yaroslavl ""Flag of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg ""Coat of Arms of Yaroslavl Oblast (2011) full.svg "Central "Central 36,400 1,367,398 1936
77 "Moscow ""Flag of Moscow.svg ""Coat of Arms of Moscow.svg "Central "Central 2,511 10,382,754
78 "Saint Petersburg ""Flag of Saint Petersburg Russia.svg ""Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).svg "Northwestern "Northwestern 1,439 4,662,547
79 "Jewish Autonomous Oblast "Birobidzhan ""Flag of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg ""Coat of arms of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg "Far Eastern "Far Eastern 36,000 190,915 1934
83 "Nenets Autonomous Okrug "Naryan-Mar ""Flag of Nenets Autonomous District.svg ""Coat of arms of Nenets Autonomous Okrug.svg "Northwestern "Northern 176,700 41,546 1929
86 "Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra "Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: "Surgut)
""Flag of Yugra.svg ""Coat of Arms of Yugra.svg "Ural "West Siberian 523,100 1,432,817 1930
87 "Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "Anadyr ""Flag of Chukotka.svg ""Coat of Arms of Chukotka.svg "Far Eastern "Far Eastern 737,700 53,824 1930
89 "Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug "Salekhard
(Largest city: "Noyabrsk)
""Flag of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.svg ""Coat of Arms of Yamal Nenetsia.svg "Ural "West Siberian 750,300 507,006 1930
82 "Crimea, Republic of[d] "Simferopol ""Flag of Crimea.svg ""Emblem of Crimea.svg "Southern[17][18] "North Caucasus 26,964[19] 1,966,801[20] 2014
92 "Sevastopol[d] ""Flag of Sevastopol.svg ""COA of Sevastopol.svg "Southern[17][18] "North Caucasus 864[21] 379,200[21] 2014
a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative center.

b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the government bodies of the oblast are located in the city of "St. Petersburg. However, St. Petersburg is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.

c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the government bodies of the oblast are located in the city of "Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.

d. ^ "Not recognized internationally as a part of Russia.

e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.

Lists of federal subjects[edit]


Federal subjects of Russia

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories["why?]. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008.

Date of referendum Date of merger Original entities Original codes New code Original entities New entity
2003-12-07 2005-12-01 1, 1a 59 (1), 81 (1a) 90 "Perm Oblast (1) + "Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) "Perm Krai
2005-04-17 2007-01-01 2, 2a, 2b 24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b) 24 "Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + "Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + "Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) "Krasnoyarsk Krai
2005-10-23 2007-07-01 3, 3a 41 (3), 82 (3a) 91 "Kamchatka Oblast (3) + "Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) "Kamchatka Krai
2006-04-16 2008-01-01 4, 4a 38 (4), 85 (4a) 38 "Irkutsk Oblast (4) + "Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) "Irkutsk Oblast
2007-03-11 2008-03-01 5, 5a 75 (5), 80 (5a) 92 "Chita Oblast (5) + "Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) "Zabaykalsky Krai

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation: Chapter 3, The Federal Structure". Retrieved 2013-04-28. 
  2. ^ "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Russian Presidential Executive Office. Retrieved 2013-04-28. 
  3. ^ Kremlin.ru. Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов (Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation) (in Russian)
  4. ^ Steve Gutterman and Pavel Polityuk (March 18, 2014). "Putin signs Crimea treaty as Ukraine serviceman dies in attack". Reuters. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  5. ^ "Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System - The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  6. ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  7. ^ Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System | The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Constitution.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  8. ^ This treaty consisted of three treaties, see also Concluding and Transitional Provisions: [1] [2]
  9. ^ http://archive.government.ru/eng/gov/base/54.html (accessed="2014-10-17")
  10. ^ a b "Chapter 3. The Federal Structure - The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  11. ^ SlavFile Archive | Slavic Languages Division Archived August 3, 2017, at the "Wayback Machine.. Ata-divisions.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  12. ^ http://eulita.eu/sites/default/files/Tammy_presentation.pdf["permanent dead link]
  13. ^ "Official Website of the Government of the Russian Federation / The Russian Government". Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  14. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
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