Constitutionally, the power vested in the "special administrative regions of the People's Republic is granted from the "Central People's Government, through decision by the "National People's Congress. However, there have been certain largely informal grants of power to the provinces, to handle economic affairs and implement national policies, resulting in a system some have termed federalism ""with Chinese characteristics".
Internal controversy and conflict
Certain forms of political and constitutional dispute are common to federations. One issue is that the exact division of power and responsibility between federal and regional governments is often a source of controversy. Often, as is the case with the United States, such conflicts are resolved through the judicial system, which delimits the powers of federal and local governments. The relationship between federal and local courts varies from nation to nation and can be a controversial and complex issue in itself.
Another common issue in federal systems is the conflict between regional and national interests, or between the interests and aspirations of different ethnic groups. In some federations the entire jurisdiction is relatively homogeneous and each constituent state resembles a miniature version of the whole; this is known as 'congruent federalism'. On the other hand, incongruent federalism exists where different states or regions possess distinct ethnic groups.
The ability of a federal government to create national institutions that can mediate differences that arise because of linguistic, ethnic, religious, or other regional differences is an important challenge. The inability to meet this challenge may lead to the secession of parts of a federation or to civil war, as occurred in United States (southern states interpreted slavery under the tenth amendment as a state right, while northern states were against slavery, with a catalysis occurring in the then "Kansas Territory) and Switzerland. In the case of "Malaysia, Singapore was expelled from the federation because of rising racial tension. In some cases internal conflict may lead a federation to collapse entirely, as occurred in "Nigeria, the "Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, the "Gran Colombia, the "United Provinces of Central America and the "West Indies Federation.
The federal government is the common or national government of a federation. A federal government may have distinct powers at various levels authorized or delegated to it by its member states. The structure of federal governments vary. Based on a broad definition of a basic "federalism, there are two or more levels of government that exist within an established territory and govern through common institutions with overlapping or shared powers as prescribed by a constitution.
Federal government is the government at the level of the sovereign state. Usual responsibilities of this level of government are maintaining "national security and exercising international diplomacy, including the right to sign binding "treaties. Basically, a modern federal government, within the limits defined by its constitution, has the power to make laws for the whole country, unlike local governments. As originally written, the "United States Constitution was created to limit the federal government from exerting power over the states by enumerating only specific powers. It was further limited by the addition of the "Tenth Amendment contained in the "Bill of Rights and the "Eleventh Amendment. However, later amendments, particularly the "Fourteenth Amendment, gave the federal government considerable authority over states.
Federal government within this structure are the government ministries and departments and agencies to which the ministers of government are assigned.
For a detailed list of federated units, see "Federated state#List of constituents by federation. There are 27 federations as of October 2013.
|Year est.||Federation||Federating units||Major federating units||Minor federating units[t 1]||Type
|1853||"Argentina||"Provinces of Argentina||23 provinces||1 autonomous city||R|
|1901||"Australia||"States and territories of Australia||6 states||3 federal territories (of which 2 are self-governing) and 7 external territories||M|
|1920||"Austria||"States of Austria||9 Länder or Bundesländer||R|
|1970||"Belgium||"Divisions of Belgium||3 communities, 3 regions||M|
|1995||"Bosnia and Herzegovina||"Divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina||2 entities, one of which is itself a federation of 10 cantons||1 District [t 3]||R|
|1889||"Brazil||"States of Brazil||26 states[t 4]||1 federal district||R|
|1867||"Canada||"Provinces and territories of Canada||10 provinces||3 territories||M|
|1975||"Comoros||"Autonomous Islands of the Comoros||3 islands||R|
|1995||"Ethiopia||"Regions of Ethiopia||9 regions||2 chartered cities||R|
|1949||"Germany||"States of Germany||16 Länder or Bundesländer||R|
|1950||"India||"States and territories of India||29 States||7 Union Territories, including a National Capital Territory||R|
|2005||"Iraq||"Governorates of Iraq||18 provinces||R|
|1963||"Malaysia||"States of Malaysia||13 states||3 federal territories||M|
|1821||"Mexico||"States of Mexico||32 federal entities, which are 31 states and its capital "Mexico City||R|
|1979||"Federated States of Micronesia||"Administrative divisions of Micronesia||4 states||R|
|2015||"Nepal||"Provinces of Nepal||7 provinces||R|
|1963||"Nigeria||"States of Nigeria||36 states||1 federal capital territory||R|
|1956||"Pakistan||"Provinces and territories of Pakistan||4 provinces||4 federal territories including a federal capital territory||R|
|"Russia||"Federal subjects of Russia||46 oblasts, 22 republics, 9 krais, 4 autonomous okrugs, 3 federal-level cities, 1 autonomous oblast||R|
|1983||"Saint Kitts and Nevis||The islands "St. Kitts and "Nevis||2 islands||M|
|2012||"Somalia||"Federal Member States of Somalia||18 states||R|
|2011||"South Sudan||"States of South Sudan||28 states||R|
|1956||"Sudan||"States of Sudan||17 states||R|
|1848||"Switzerland||"Cantons of Switzerland||26 cantons[t 5]||R|
|1971||"United Arab Emirates||"Emirates of the UAE||7 "emirates||M|
|1776[t 6]||"United States of America||"Political divisions of the United States||50 "States||1 federal district; 16 "territories[t 7]||R|
|1863||"Venezuela||"States of Venezuela||23 states||1 federal district, 1 federal dependency||R|
- That is, first-level subdivisions possessing less autonomy than the major federating units.
- R = "Federal republic; M = "Federal monarchy.
- "Brčko District is de jure part of both entities, and de facto administered separately from either.
- 20 provinces during the "Empire of Brazil 1822–89
- Three pairs of cantons have less power at federal level than the other 20 cantons, but the same degree of internal autonomy.
- The "United States Constitution, which replaced the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was drafted in 1787 and was ratified in 1788. The "first Congress and "President did not take office until March 1789.
- Of the 5 territories that are permanently inhabited, all are "unincorporated, two are "commonwealths and a third is formally "unorganized. Of the other 11, one is incorporated and all are unorganized; together they form the "United States Minor Outlying Islands. The term "insular area includes both territories and places with a "Compact of Free Association.
Long form titles
- "Federal Republic of: Germany, Somalia, "Nigeria.
- Federation: "Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Malaysia (informal)
- Republic: "Argentina, Austria, India (also called "Indian Union), "Iraq, South Africa, "Sudan, "South Sudan.
- Bolivarian Republic ("Venezuela)
- "Confederation (Switzerland)
- "Commonwealth (Australia)
- "Dominion (Canada before 1982)
- Federal Democratic Republic ("Ethiopia, Nepal)
- Federated States ("FS Micronesia)
- Federative Republic ("Brazil)
- Islamic Republic ("Pakistan)
- Kingdom (Belgium)
- Union ("Comoros)
- United Emirates ("United Arab Emirates)
- United States (United States of America, Mexico)
- "United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1825)
- "Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
- "Argentine Confederation (1831–1861)
- Austria (1934–1938)
- "Federal Republic of Cameroon (1961–1972)
- "United Provinces of Central America (1823 – circa 1838)
- "United States of Colombia (1863–1886)
- "Democratic Republic of the Congo (1964–1967)
- "Czechoslovakia (1969–1992)
- "Republic of Kenya (1963–1964)
- "Federated Dutch Republic (1581–1795)
- "Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1952–1962)
- "French Equatorial Africa (1910–1958)
- "French Indochina (1887–1954)
- "French West Africa (1904–1958)
- "North German Confederation (1867–1871)
- "German Empire (1871–1918)
- "Weimar Republic (1919–1933)
- "East Germany (1949–1952)
- "Inca Empire (1197–1572)
- "United States of Indonesia (1949–1950)
- "United Kingdom of Libya (1951–1963)
- "Federated Malay States (1896–1946)
- "Federation of Malaya (1948–1963)
- "Malayan Union (1946–1948)
- "Mali Federation (1959–1960)
- "Mengjiang (1937–1945, since 1941 autonomous region of the "Reorganized National Government of China)
- "New Granada (1858–1863)
- "Republic of China (1912–1949)
- "Republic of Korea (1948–1960)
- "Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
- "Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953–1963)
- "Federation of South Arabia (1962–1967)
- "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
- "Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1917–1991)
- "Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (1922–1936)
- "Federal Republic of Spain (1873–1874)
- "Uganda (1962–1967)
- "West Indies Federation (1958–1962)
- "Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1943–1992)
- "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003), renamed "Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006)
Some of the "proclaimed Arab federations were confederations de facto.
- "Anti-Federalism, an 18th-century movement in the United States
- "Capital city
- "Corporative federalism
- "Constitutional economics
- "Political economy
- "Rule according to higher law
- "European Union
- "European Coal and Steel Community
- "Federalism in Australia
- "The Federalist Papers
- "Federal monarchy
- "Federated state
- "Federation of Australia
- "Indian Union
- "International organisation
- "Międzymorze (Intermarum)
- "Multinational state
- "New federalism
- "Regional state
- "Supranational union
- "Unitary state
- "World Federalist Movement
- "Centre for Studies on Federalism
- It is often argued that federal states where the central government has the constitutional authority to suspend a constituent state's government by invoking gross mismanagement or civil unrest, or to adopt national legislation that overrides or infringe on the constituent states' powers by invoking the central government's constitutional authority to ensure "peace and good government" or to implement obligations contracted under an international treaty, are not truly federal states.
- Federation on CIA Factbook
- Leonardy, U. (1992). "Federation and Länder in German foreign relations: Power‐sharing in treaty‐making and European affairs". German Politics. 1 (3): 119–135. "doi:10.1080/09644009208404305.
- Oxford English Dictionary
- CH: Confoederatio Helvetica - Switzerland - Information. Swissworld.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- One of the most important recent books about the Belgian institutions, written by one of the leading French-speaking jurists["who?] concludes : Vers le confédéralisme (Toward a Confederation). See: Charles-Etienne Lagasse, Les nouvelles institutions politiques de la Belgique et de l'Europe, Erasme, "Namur 2003, p. 603 "ISBN 2-87127-783-4
- Many Flemings would prefer two states, Flanders and Wallonia, and two special regions, Brussels and the German-speaking region. In Wallonia, there is a wider support for three states : Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels.
- Some dictionaries, such as the Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language (1989 ed.), state that federacy is synonymous with confederacy ("by aphesis"). In French, the English words federacy, confederacy and confederation are all translated by "confédération".
- Mallet, Victor (18 August 2010). "Flimsier footings". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 August 2010.("registration required)
- "A survey of Spain: How much is enough?". The Economist. 6 November 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2010.(subscription required)
- Enrique Guillén López, JUDICIAL REVIEW IN SPAIN: THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT, 41 Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 541, 544 (2008).
- La Communaute du Charbon et de l'Acier, p7 Paul Reuter with preface by Robert Schuman. Paris 1953.
- Josselin, J. M.; Marciano, A. (2006). "How the court made a federation of the EU". The Review of International Organizations. 2: 59. "doi:10.1007/s11558-006-9001-y.
- Schuman or Monnet? The real Architect of Europe. p 129. Bron 2004
- "Federal Constitutional Court Press Release No. 72/2009 of 30 June 2009. Judgment of 30 June 2009: Act Approving the Treaty of Lisbon compatible with the Basic Law; accompanying law unconstitutional to the extent that legislative bodies have not been accorded sufficient rights of participation". Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
Due to this structural democratic deficit, which cannot be resolved in an association of sovereign national states (Staatenverbund), further steps of integration that go beyond the status quo may undermine neither the States' political power of action nor the principle of conferral. The peoples of the Member States are the holders of the constituent power. The Basic Law does not permit the special bodies of the legislative, executive and judicial power to dispose of the essential elements of the constitution, i.e. of the constitutional identity (Article 23.1 sentence 3, Article 79.3 GG). The constitutional identity is an inalienable element of the democratic self-determination of a people.
The original German uses the word Staatenverbund, which they translate as "association of sovereign states", rather than the word Staatenbund (confederation of states) or Bundesstaat (federal state).
- BVerfG, 2 BvE 2/08 vom 30.6.2009, Absatz-Nr. (1–421)
- Economic Warlords by Gregory H. Fuller
- Forum of federations http://www.forumfed.org/en/federalism/by_country/index.php
- "Guidebook to the Somali Draft Provisional Constitution". Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Federal structure of Russia, Article 65 of Russian Constitution.
- see "Political status of Crimea.
- Gained independence in 1957, joined with "Sabah, "Sarawak, and Singapore to form "Malaysia in 1963.
- The USSR was a federation according to the letter of its constitution, but, at least until its final years in the late eighties and early nineties of the 20th century, its governance was highly centralized in practice. See: Soviet Union section.
- The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was officially proclaimed in 1963. Prior to this, the communist Yugoslav state was named Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in 1943 and then Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946. See: "Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.