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The Finno-Ugric languages.
Finno-Ugric ("// or "//), Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the "Uralic language family except the "Samoyedic languages. Its commonly accepted status as a subfamily of Uralic is based on criteria formulated in the 19th century and is criticized by some contemporary linguists. The three most-spoken Uralic languages, "Hungarian, "Finnish, and "Estonian, are all included in Finno-Ugric, although linguistic roots common to both branches of the traditional Finno-Ugric language tree ("Finno-Permic and "Ugric) are distant.
The term Finno-Ugric, which originally referred to the entire family, is sometimes used as a synonym for the term Uralic, which includes the "Samoyedic languages, as commonly happens when a language family is expanded with further discoveries.
The validity of Finno-Ugric as a genetic grouping is under challenge, with some feeling that the "Finno-Permic languages are as distinct from the "Ugric languages as they are from the "Samoyedic languages spoken in Siberia, or even that none of the Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, or Ugric branches has been established. Received opinion has been that the easternmost (and last-discovered) Samoyed had separated first and the branching into Ugric and Finno-Permic took place later, but this reconstruction does not have strong support in the linguistic data. In the past, and occasionally today as well, the term Finno-Ugric was used for the entire Uralic language family.
Attempts at "reconstructing a Proto-Finno-Ugric "protolanguage, a common ancestor of all "Uralic languages except for the "Samoyedic languages, are largely indistinguishable from "Proto-Uralic, suggesting that Finno-Ugric might not be a historical grouping but a geographical one, with Samoyedic being distinct by lexical borrowing rather than actually being historically divergent. It has been proposed that the area in which Proto-Finno-Ugric was spoken reached between the "Baltic Sea and the "Ural Mountains.
Traditionally, the main set of evidence for the genetic proposal of Proto-Finno-Ugric has come from vocabulary. A large amount of vocabulary (e.g. the numerals "one", "three", "four" and "six"; the body-part terms "hand", "head") is only reconstructed up to the Proto-Finno-Ugric level, and only words with a Samoyedic equivalent have been reconstructed for Proto-Uralic. That methodology has been criticised, as no coherent explanation other than inheritance has been presented for the origin of most of the Finno-Ugric vocabulary (though a small number has been explained as old loanwords from "Proto-Indo-European or its immediate successors). The Samoyedic group has undergone a longer period of independent development, and its divergent vocabulary could be caused by mechanisms of replacement such as "language contact. (The Finno-Ugric group is usually dated to approximately 4000 years ago, the Samoyedic a little over 2000.) Proponents of the traditional binary division note, however, that the invocation of extensive contact influence on vocabulary is at odds with the grammatical conservatism of Samoyedic.
The consonant *š ("voiceless postalveolar fricative, [ʃ]) has not been conclusively shown to occur in the traditional Proto-Uralic lexicon, but it is attested in some of the Proto-Finno-Ugric material. Another feature attested in the Finno-Ugric vocabulary is that *i now behaves as a neutral vowel with respect to front-back vowel harmony, and thus there are roots such as *niwa- "to remove the hair from hides".
Sammallahti (1988) further reconstructs sound changes *oo, *ee → *a, *ä (merging with original *a, *ä) for the development from Proto-Finno-Ugric to Proto-Ugric. Similar sound laws are required for other languages as well. Thus, the origin and raising of long vowels may actually belong at a later stage, and the development of these words from Proto-Uralic to Proto-Ugric can be summarized as simple loss of *x (if it existed in the first place at all; vowel length only surfaces consistently in the "Baltic-Finnic languages.) The proposed raising of *o has been alternately interpreted instead as a lowering *u → *o in Samoyedic (PU *lumi → *lomə → "Proto-Samoyedic *jom).
Janhunen (2007, 2009) notes a number of "derivational innovations in Finno-Ugric, including *ńoma "hare" → *ńoma-la, (vs. Samoyedic *ńomå), *pexli "side" → *peel-ka → *pelka "thumb", though involving Proto-Uralic derivational elements.
The Finno-Ugric group is not typologically distinct from Uralic as a whole: the most widespread structural features among the group all extend to the Samoyedic languages as well.
Modern linguistic research has shown that Volgaic languages is a geographical classification rather than a linguistic one, because the Mordvinic languages are more closely related to the Finno-Lappic languages than the Mari languages.
The relation of the Finno-Permic and the Ugric groups is adjudged remote by some scholars. On the other hand, with a projected time depth of only 3 or 4 thousand years, the traditionally accepted Finno-Ugric grouping would be far younger than many major families such as "Indo-European or "Semitic, and would be about the same age as, for instance, the "Eastern subfamily of "Nilotic. But the grouping is far from transparent or securely established. The absence of early records is a major obstacle. As for the Finno-Ugric "Urheimat, most of what has been said about it is speculation.
Some linguists criticizing the Finno-Ugric genetic proposal also question the validity of the entire Uralic family, instead proposing a "Ural–Altaic hypothesis, within which they believe Finno-Permic may be as distant from Ugric as from Turkic. However, this approach has been rejected by nearly all other specialists in Uralic linguistics.
One argument in favor of the Finno-Ugric grouping has come from "loanwords. Several loans from the "Indo-European languages are present in most or all of the Finno-Ugric languages, while being absent from Samoyedic; many others also must be for phonological reasons dated as quite old.
According to Häkkinen (1983) the alleged Proto-Finno-Ugric loanwords are disproportionally well-represented in Hungarian and the Permic languages, and disproportionally poorly represented in the Ob-Ugric languages; hence it is possible that such words have been acquired by the languages only after the initial dissolution of the Uralic family into individual dialects, and that the scarcity of loanwords in Samoyedic results from its peripheric location.
The "number systems among the Finno-Ugric languages are particularly distinct from the Samoyedic languages: only the numerals "2" and "5" have cognates in Samoyedic, while also the numerals, "1", "3", "4", "6", "10" are shared by all or most Finno-Ugric languages.
Below are the numbers 1 to 10 in several Finno-Ugric languages. Forms in italic do not descend from the reconstructed forms.
|"Finnish||"Estonian||"Võro||"Livonian||"Northern Sami||"Inari Sami||"Erzya||"Moksha||"Meadow Mari||"Komi||"Mansi||"Khanty||"Hungarian|
gen. yhden, part. yhtä
gen. ühe, part. üht(e)
gen. kahden, part. kahta
gen. kahe, part. kaht(e)
The number '2' descends in Ugric from a front-vocalic variant *kektä.
The numbers '9' and '8' in Finnic through Mari are considered to be derived from the numbers '1' and '2' as '10–1' and '10–2'. One reconstruction is *yk+teksa and *kak+teksa respectively, where *teksa cf. deka is an Indo-European loan; notice that the difference between /t/ and /d/ is not phonemic, unlike in Indo-European. Another analysis is *ykt-e-ksa, *kakt-e-ksa, with *e being the negative verb.
The four largest groups that speak Finno-Ugric languages are "Hungarians (14.5 million), "Finns (6.5 million), "Estonians (1.1 million), and "Mordvins (0.85 million). Three (Hungarians, Finns, and Estonians) inhabit independent nation-states, "Hungary, "Finland, and "Estonia, while the Mordvins have an autonomous "Mordovian Republic within Russia. The traditional area of the indigenous "Sami people is in Northern Fenno-Scandinavia and the "Kola Peninsula in Northwest Russia and is known as "Sápmi. Some other Finno-Ugric peoples have autonomous republics in "Russia: "Karelians ("Republic of Karelia), "Komi ("Komi Republic), "Udmurts ("Udmurt Republic), "Mari ("Mari El Republic), and "Mordvins ("Moksha and "Erzya; "Republic of Mordovia). "Khanty and "Mansi peoples live in the "Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug of Russia, while Komi-"Permyaks live in "Komi-Permyak Okrug, which used to be an "autonomous okrug of Russia, but today is a territory with special status within "Perm Krai.
The linguistic reconstruction of the Finno-Ugric language family has led to the postulation that the ancient Proto–Finno-Ugric people were ethnically related, and that even the modern Finno-Ugric-speaking peoples are ethnically related. Such hypotheses are based on the assumption that heredity can be traced through linguistic relatedness, although it must be kept in mind that "language shift and ethnic admixture, a relatively frequent and common occurrence both in recorded history and most likely also in prehistory, confuses the picture and there is no straightforward relationship, if at all, between linguistic and genetic affiliation. Still, the premise that the limited community of speakers of a proto-language must have been ethnically homogeneous remains accepted.
Modern genetic studies have shown that the Y-chromosome "haplogroup N3, and sometimes N2, is almost specific though certainly not restricted to Uralic or Finno-Ugric speaking populations, especially as high frequency or primary paternal haplogroup. These haplogroups branched from "haplogroup N, which probably spread north, then west and east from Northern China about 12,000–14,000 years before present from father "haplogroup NO (haplogroup O being the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup in Southeast Asia).
Some of the ethnicities speaking Finno-Ugric languages are:
|"Wikisource has the text of the "1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Finno-Ugrian.|