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See also: "George Washington and slavery and "Thomas Jefferson and slavery

One of the greatest contradictions of the Founding Fathers was their disunity with regard to slavery at a time that they were seeking liberty for themselves. In her study of "Thomas Jefferson, historian Annette Gordon-Reed emphasizes this irony, "Others of the founders held slaves, but no other founder drafted the charter for freedom, "[38] In addition to Jefferson, "George Washington, "John Jay and many other of the Founding Fathers practiced slavery but were also conflicted by the institution which many saw as immoral and politically divisive.[39] "Benjamin Franklin owned slaves (though Franklin later became an "abolitionist).[40] "John Jay would try unsuccessfully to abolish slavery as early as 1777 in New York State but was overruled (though he would later sign the Gradual Emancipation Act into law while Governor).[41] "Alexander Hamilton opposed slavery, well familiar with slavery and its effect on slaves and on slaveholders [42] though he negotiated slave transactions for his wife's family, the Schuylers [43] John Adams, Samuel Adams and Thomas Paine never owned slaves [44]

"Slaves and slavery are mentioned only indirectly in the 1787 Constitution. For example, "Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3 prescribes that "three fifths of all other Persons" are to be counted for the apportionment of seats in the "House of Representatives and direct taxes. Additionally, in "Article 4, Section 2, Clause 3, slaves are referred to as "persons held in service or labor".[40][45] The Founding Fathers, however, did make important efforts to contain slavery. Many Northern states had adopted legislation to end or significantly reduce slavery during and after the American Revolution.[45] In 1782 "Virginia passed a "manumission law that allowed slave owners to free their slaves by will or deed.[46] As a result, thousands of slaves were manumitted in Virginia.[46] Thomas Jefferson, in 1784, proposed to ban slavery in all the Western Territories, which failed to pass Congress by one vote.[45] Partially following Jefferson's plan, Congress did ban slavery in the "Northwest Ordinance of 1787, for lands north of the "Ohio River.[45]

The "international slave trade was banned in all states except "South Carolina, by 1800. Finally in 1807, President Jefferson called for and signed into law a Federally-enforced ban on the international slave trade throughout the U.S. and its territories. It became a federal crime to import or export a slave.[47] However, the domestic "slave trade was allowed, for expansion, or for diffusion of slavery into the "Louisiana Territory.[48]

Attendance at Conventions[edit]

In the winter and spring of 1786–1787, twelve of the thirteen states chose a total of 74 delegates to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Nineteen delegates chose not to accept election or attend the debates; for example, "Patrick Henry of Virginia thought that state politics were far more interesting and important than national politics, though during the ratification controversy of 1787–1788 he claimed, "I smelled a rat." Rhode Island did not send delegates because of its politicians' suspicions of the Convention delegates' motivations. As the colony was founded by "Roger Williams as a sanctuary for "Baptists, Rhode Island's absence at the Convention in part explains the absence of Baptist affiliation among those who did attend. Of the 55 who did attend at some point, no more than 38 delegates showed up at one time.[49]

Spouses and Children[edit]

Most of the Founding Fathers married and had children. Many of their spouses, like "Eliza Schuyler Hamilton, "Martha Washington, "Abigail Adams, Sarah Livingston Jay, "Dolley Madison, Mary White Morris and Catherine Alexander Duer were strong women and made significant contributions of their own to the fight for liberty.[50]

Sherman fathered the largest family: 15 children by two wives. At least nine (Bassett, Brearly, Johnson, Mason, Paterson, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Sherman, Wilson, and Wythe) married more than once. Four (Baldwin, Gilman, Jenifer, and Alexander Martin) were lifelong "bachelors. Many of the delegates also had children conceived "illegitimately.[51] George Washington, "The Father of our Country,"[52] had no biological descendants.

Charters of Freedom and Historical Documents of the United States[edit]

The "National Archives and Records Administration also known as NARA, defines America's Founding Documents or "Charters of Freedom as the Declaration of Independence (1776), The Constitution (1787) and the Bill of Rights (1791). These original instruments which represent the philosophy of our young nation are housed in Washington, D. C. in the NARA Rotunda.[53] The "Library of Congress further identifies the Articles of Confederation, also preserved at NARA, as a primary American document.[54] Th Articles of Confederation served as the first constitution of the United States until its replacement by the present Constitution on March 4, 1789.

Signatories of two of the Charters of Freedom, The Articles of Confederation and the Continental Association are indicated below. (Continental Association (CA), Declaration of Independence (DI), Articles of Confederation (AC), and the United States Constitution (USC)):

Name Province/State CA (1774) DI (1776) AC (1777) USC (1787)
"Andrew Adams "Connecticut Yes
"John Adams "Massachusetts Yes Yes
"Samuel Adams "Massachusetts Yes Yes Yes
"Thomas Adams "Virginia Yes
"John Alsop "New York Yes
"Abraham Baldwin "Georgia Yes
"John Banister "Virginia Yes
"Josiah Bartlett "New Hampshire Yes Yes
"Richard Bassett "Delaware Yes
"Gunning Bedford, Jr. "Delaware Yes
"Edward Biddle "Pennsylvania Yes
"John Blair "Virginia Yes
"Richard Bland "Virginia Yes
"William Blount "North Carolina Yes
"Simon Boerum "New York Yes
"Carter Braxton "Virginia Yes
"David Brearley "New Jersey Yes
"Jacob Broom "Delaware Yes
"Pierce Butler "South Carolina Yes
"Charles Carroll of Carrollton "Maryland Yes
"Daniel Carroll "Maryland Yes Yes
"Richard Caswell "North Carolina Yes
"Samuel Chase "Maryland Yes Yes
"Abraham Clark "New Jersey Yes
"William Clingan "Pennsylvania Yes
"George Clymer "Pennsylvania Yes Yes
"John Collins "Rhode Island Yes
"Stephen Crane "New Jersey Yes
"Thomas Cushing "Massachusetts Yes
"Francis Dana "Massachusetts Yes
"Jonathan Dayton "New Jersey Yes
"Silas Deane "Connecticut Yes
"John De Hart "New Jersey Yes
"John Dickinson "Delaware Yes Yes
"Pennsylvania Yes
"William Henry Drayton "South Carolina Yes
"James Duane "New York Yes Yes
"William Duer "New York Yes
"Eliphalet Dyer "Connecticut Yes
"William Ellery "Rhode Island Yes Yes
"William Few "Georgia Yes
"Thomas Fitzsimons "Pennsylvania Yes
"William Floyd "New York Yes Yes
"Nathaniel Folsom "New Hampshire Yes
"Benjamin Franklin "Pennsylvania Yes Yes
"Christopher Gadsden "South Carolina Yes
"Joseph Galloway "Pennsylvania Yes
"Elbridge Gerry "Massachusetts Yes Yes
"Nicholas Gilman "New Hampshire Yes
"Nathaniel Gorham "Massachusetts Yes
"Button Gwinnett "Georgia Yes
"Lyman Hall "Georgia Yes
"Alexander Hamilton "New York Yes
"John Hancock "Massachusetts Yes Yes
"John Hanson "Maryland Yes
"Cornelius Harnett "North Carolina Yes
"Benjamin Harrison "Virginia Yes Yes
"John Hart "New Jersey Yes
"John Harvie "Virginia Yes
"Patrick Henry "Virginia Yes
"Joseph Hewes "North Carolina Yes Yes
"Thomas Heyward, Jr. "South Carolina Yes Yes
"Samuel Holten "Massachusetts Yes
"William Hooper "North Carolina Yes Yes
"Stephen Hopkins "Rhode Island Yes Yes
"Francis Hopkinson "New Jersey Yes
"Titus Hosmer "Connecticut Yes
"Charles Humphreys "Pennsylvania Yes
"Samuel Huntington "Connecticut Yes Yes
"Richard Hutson "South Carolina Yes
"Jared Ingersoll "Pennsylvania Yes
"John Jay "New York Yes
"Thomas Jefferson "Virginia Yes
"Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer "Maryland Yes
"Thomas Johnson "Maryland Yes
"William Samuel Johnson "Connecticut Yes
"Rufus King "Massachusetts Yes
"James Kinsey "New Jersey Yes
"John Langdon "New Hampshire Yes
"Edward Langworthy "Georgia Yes
"Henry Laurens "South Carolina Yes
"Francis Lightfoot Lee "Virginia Yes Yes
"Richard Henry Lee "Virginia Yes Yes Yes
"Francis Lewis "New York Yes Yes
"Philip Livingston "New York Yes Yes
"William Livingston "New Jersey Yes Yes
"James Lovell "Massachusetts Yes
"Isaac Low "New York Yes
"Thomas Lynch "South Carolina Yes Yes
"James Madison "Virginia Yes
"Henry Marchant "Rhode Island Yes
"John Mathews "South Carolina Yes
"James McHenry "Maryland Yes
"Thomas McKean "Delaware Yes Yes Yes
"Arthur Middleton "South Carolina Yes
"Henry Middleton "South Carolina Yes
"Thomas Mifflin "Pennsylvania Yes Yes
"Gouverneur Morris "New York Yes
"Pennsylvania Yes
"Lewis Morris "New York Yes
"Robert Morris "Pennsylvania Yes Yes Yes
"John Morton "Pennsylvania Yes Yes
"Thomas Nelson, Jr. "Virginia Yes
"William Paca "Maryland Yes Yes
"Robert Treat Paine "Massachusetts Yes Yes
"William Paterson "New Jersey Yes
"Edmund Pendleton "Virginia Yes
"John Penn "North Carolina Yes Yes
"Charles Pinckney "South Carolina Yes
"Charles Cotesworth Pinckney "South Carolina Yes
"Peyton Randolph "Virginia Yes
"George Read "Delaware Yes Yes Yes
"Joseph Reed "Pennsylvania Yes
"Daniel Roberdeau "Pennsylvania Yes
"Caesar Rodney "Delaware Yes Yes
"George Ross "Pennsylvania Yes Yes
"Benjamin Rush "Pennsylvania Yes
"Edward Rutledge "South Carolina Yes Yes
"John Rutledge "South Carolina Yes Yes
"Nathaniel Scudder "New Jersey Yes
"Roger Sherman "Connecticut Yes Yes Yes Yes
"James Smith "Pennsylvania Yes
"Jonathan Bayard Smith "Pennsylvania Yes
"Richard Smith "New Jersey Yes
"Richard Dobbs Spaight "North Carolina Yes
"Richard Stockton "New Jersey Yes
"Thomas Stone "Maryland Yes
"John Sullivan "New Hampshire Yes
"George Taylor "Pennsylvania Yes
"Edward Telfair "Georgia Yes
"Matthew Thornton "New Hampshire Yes
"Matthew Tilghman "Maryland Yes
"Nicholas Van Dyke "Delaware Yes
"George Walton "Georgia Yes
"John Walton "Georgia Yes
"Samuel Ward "Rhode Island Yes
"George Washington "Virginia Yes Yes
"John Wentworth, Jr. "New Hampshire Yes
"William Whipple "New Hampshire Yes
"John Williams "North Carolina Yes
"William Williams "Connecticut Yes
"Hugh Williamson "North Carolina Yes
"James Wilson "Pennsylvania Yes Yes
"Henry Wisner "New York Yes
"John Witherspoon "New Jersey Yes Yes
"Oliver Wolcott "Connecticut Yes Yes
"George Wythe "Virginia Yes

Post-Constitution Life[edit]

Subsequent events in the lives of the Founding Fathers after the adoption of the Constitution were characterized by success or failure, reflecting the abilities of these men as well as the vagaries of fate.[55] Washington, Adams, Jefferson and Madison served in America's highest office of President. Jay would be elected to two terms as Governor of New York.

Seven (Fitzsimons, Gorham, Luther Martin, Mifflin, Robert Morris, Pierce, and Wilson) suffered serious financial reversals that left them in or near bankruptcy; in fact, Robert Morris spent three of the last years of his life imprisoned following bad land deals.[50] Two, Blount and Dayton, were involved in possibly treasonous activities. Yet, as they had done before the convention, most of the group continued to render public service, particularly to the new government they had helped to create.

Youth and Longevity[edit]

Death age of the Founding Fathers.

Many of the Founding Fathers were under 40 years old at the time of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 "James Armistead Lafayette was 15, "Marquis de Lafayette was 18, "Aaron Burr was 20, "Gouverneur Morris and "Betsy Ross were 24. The oldest were Benjamin Franklin, 70 and "Samuel Whittemore, 81.[56]

Secretary "Charles Thomson lived to the age of 94. Johnson died at 92. John Adams lived to the age of 90. A few — Franklin, Jay, Jefferson, Madison, "Hugh Williamson, and "George Wythe — lived into their eighties. Approximately 16 died in their seventies, 21 in their sixties, 8 in their fifties, and 5 in their forties. Three ("Alexander Hamilton, "Richard Dobbs Spaight and "Button Gwinnett) were killed in "duels.

Political adversaries John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died on the same day - July 4, 1826 [57]

The last remaining founders, also called the ""Last of the Romans", lived well into the nineteenth century.[58]

Founders Who Were Not Signatories or Delegates[edit]

The following men and women are also recognized by many as having been founders of the United States based upon their significant contributions to the formation of American nation and democracy.


Institutions Formed by Founders[edit]

Several Founding Fathers were instrumental in establishing schools and cultural institutions that still exist today:

Scholarship on the Founding Founders[edit]

Articles and books by 21st century historians combined with the digitization of primary sources like handwritten letters continue to contribute to an encyclopedic body of knowledge about the Founding Fathers.

Living Historians Whose Focus is the Founding Fathers[edit]

"Ron Chernow won the "Pulitzer Prize for his biography of George Washington. His bestselling book about Alexander Hamilton inspired the blockbuster musical of the same name.

"Joseph J. Ellis - According to Ellis, the concept of the Founding Fathers of the U.S. emerged in the 1820s as the last survivors died out. Ellis says "the founders", or "the fathers", comprised an aggregate of semi-sacred figures whose particular accomplishments and singular achievements were decidedly less important than their sheer presence as a powerful but faceless symbol of past greatness. For the generation of national leaders coming of age in the 1820s and 1830s – men like "Andrew Jackson, "Henry Clay, "Daniel Webster, and "John C. Calhoun – "the founders" represented a heroic but anonymous abstraction whose long shadow fell across all followers and whose legendary accomplishments defied comparison.

"We can win no laurels in a war for independence," Webster acknowledged in 1825. "Earlier and worthier hands have gathered them all. Nor are there places for us ... [as] the founders of states. Our fathers have filled them. But there remains to us a great duty of defence and preservation."[87]

"Joanne B. Freeman Freeman's area of expertise is the life and legacy of Alexander Hamilton as well as political culture of the revolutionary and early national eras.[88][89][90] Freeman has documented the often opposing visions of the Founding Fathers as they tried to build a new framework for governance, "Regional distrust, personal animosity, accusation, suspicion, implication, and denouncement—this was the tenor of national politics from the outset.” [91]

"Annette Gordon-Reed is an American historian and "Harvard Law School professor. She is noted for changing scholarship on "Thomas Jefferson regarding his relationship with "Sally Hemings and her children. She has studied the challenges facing the Founding Fathers particularly as it relates to their position and actions on slavery. She points out "the central dilemma at the heart of American democracy: the desire to create a society based on liberty and equality" that yet does not extend those privileges to all." [38]

"Jack N. Rakove - Thomas Jefferson

"Peter S. Onuf - Thomas Jefferson

Noted Collections of the Founding Fathers[edit]

The Founders Online is a searchable database of over 178,000 documents authored by or addressed to George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams (and family), Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison.

In Stage and Film[edit]

The Founding Fathers were portrayed in the "Tony Award winning musical "1776, a stage production about the debates over, and eventual adoption of, the "Declaration of Independence; the popular performance was later turned into the "1972 film

More recently, several of the Founding Fathers - Hamilton, Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Laurens and Burr - were reimagined in "Hamilton an acclaimed production about the life of "Alexander Hamilton, with music, lyrics and book by "Lin-Manuel Miranda.The show was inspired by the 2004 biography "Alexander Hamilton by historian "Ron Chernow.The groundbreaking rap musical won 11 Tony Awards [92]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mellinkoff, David. Mellinkoff's Dictionary of American Legal Usage (West Publishing, 1992)
  2. ^ Richard B. Morris, Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries (New York: Harper & Row, 1973).
  3. ^ Kettler, Sarah. "The Founding Fathers: Who Were They Really?". Biography. Retrieved April 5, 2017. 
  4. ^ PBS NewsHour. "Forgotten Founding Father". 
  5. ^ Rose, P.K. "The Founding Fathers of American Intelligence". Retrieved April 5, 2017. 
  6. ^ "Did any of our "Founding Fathers" NOT sign the Declaration of Independence?". Harvard University: Declaration Resources Project. Retrieved April 8, 2017. 
  7. ^ "American Revolution: Key to Declaration of Independence". Retrieved April 6, 2017. 
  8. ^ "Signers of the Declaration". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 7, 2017. 
  9. ^ National Archives. "Meet the Framers of the Constitution". 
  10. ^ US Constitution Online. "The Framers". 
  11. ^ Carl G. Karsch. "The First Continental Congress: A Dangerous Journey Begins". Carpenter's Hall. Retrieved April 10, 2017. 
  12. ^ Stanfield, Jack. America's Founding Fathers: Who Are They? Thumbnail Sketches of 164 Patriots (Universal-Publishers, 2001).
  13. ^ Jill Lepore, The Whites of Their Eyes: The Tea Party’s Revolution and the Battle American History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 16.
  14. ^ a b c d e f R. B. Bernstein, The Founding Fathers Reconsidered (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
  15. ^ Shane White. "The Other New York Hamilton". The Observer. Retrieved April 9, 2017. 
  16. ^ Burnett, Continental Congress, 64–67.
  17. ^ Fowler, Baron of Beacon Hill, 189.
  18. ^ "Signers of the Declaration". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. p. Biography #54. Retrieved April 24, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Confederation Congress". Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved October 23, 2010. 
  20. ^ Calvin C. Jillson (2009). American Government: Political Development and Institutional Change (5th ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 31. "ISBN "978-0-203-88702-8. 
  21. ^ See Brown (19764); Martin (19739); "Data on the Framers of the Constitution," at [1]
  22. ^ Brown (1976); Harris (1969)
  23. ^ "The Alma Maters of Our Founding Fathers". Retrieved April 7, 2017. 
  24. ^ "A Brief History of Columbia". Columbia University. 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  25. ^ "Benjamin Rush (1746 - 1813) access-date=April 9, 2017". Penn University Archives and Records Center. 
  26. ^ "George Wythe". Colonial Williamsburg. Retrieved April 9, 2017. 
  27. ^ Martin (1973); Greene (1973)
  28. ^ Greene (1973)
  29. ^ Greene (1973).
  30. ^ Brown (1976)
  31. ^ William R. Davie, Blackwell P. Robinson. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1957.
  32. ^ a b "Lambert, Franklin T. (2003). The Founding Fathers and the Place of Religion in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (published 2006). "ASIN 069112602X. "ISBN "978-0691126029. 
  33. ^ Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, December 6, 1813 "History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government,"
  34. ^ Letter to Horatio G. Spafford, March 17, 1814 "In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own."
  35. ^ The Religion of Thomas Jefferson Retrieved July 9, 2011
  36. ^ Quoted in The New England Currant (July 23, 1722), "Silence Dogood, No. 9; Corruptio optimi est pessima." "And it is a sad Observation, that when the People too late see their Error, yet the Clergy still persist in their Encomiums on the Hypocrite; and when he happens to die for the Good of his Country, without leaving behind him the Memory of one good Action, he shall be sure to have his Funeral Sermon stuff'd with Pious Expressions which he dropt at such a Time, and at such a Place, and on such an Occasion; than which nothing can be more prejudicial to the Interest of Religion, nor indeed to the Memory of the Person deceas'd. The Reason of this Blindness in the Clergy is, because they are honourably supported (as they ought to be) by their People, and see nor feel nothing of the Oppression which is obvious and burdensome to every one else."
  37. ^ Frazer, Gregg L. (2012). The Religious Beliefs of America's Founders: Reason, Revelation, and Revolution. University Press of Kansas. "ASIN 0700620214. 
  38. ^ a b Annette Gordon-Reed, Engaging Jefferson: Blacks and the Founding Father, The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 2000), pp. 171-182
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  40. ^ a b Wright, William D. (2002). Critical Reflections on Black History. "West Port, "Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. p. 125. 
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  42. ^ Horton, James O. (2004). "Alexander Hamilton: Slavery and Race in a Revolutionary Generation". New York Journal of American History. New York Historical Society (3). Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  43. ^ Magness,Phillip. "Alexander Hamilton's Exaggerated Abolitionism". Retrieved April 6, 2017. 
  44. ^ "The Founding Fathers and Slavery". Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved April 9, 2017. 
  45. ^ a b c d Freehling, William W. (February 1972). "The Founding Fathers and Slavery". The American Historical Review. 77 (1): 87. "doi:10.2307/1856595. "JSTOR 1856595. 
  46. ^ a b The Cambridge History of Law in America. 2008. p. 278. 
  47. ^ Freehling, William W. (February 1972). "The Founding Fathers and Slavery". The American Historical Review. 77 (1): 88. "doi:10.2307/1856595. "JSTOR 1856595. 
  48. ^ Freehling, William W. (February 1972). "The Founding Fathers and Slavery". The American Historical Review. 77 (1): 85. "doi:10.2307/1856595. "JSTOR 1856595. 
  49. ^ See the discussion of the Convention in Clinton L. Rossiter, 1787: The Grand Convention (New York: Macmillan, 1966; reprint ed., with new foreword by Richard B. Morris, New York: W. W. Norton, 1987).
  50. ^ a b Griswold, Rufus (1855), The Republican Court, or, American Society in the Days of Washington, D. Appleton & Co.
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  54. ^ "Articles of Confederation". Library of Congress. Retrieved April 10, 2017. 
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  57. ^ History. "Thomas Jefferson and John Adams Die". 
  58. ^ Elizabeth Fox-Genovese; Eugene D. Genovese (2005). The Mind of the Master Class: History and Faith in the Southern Slaveholders' Worldview. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. "ISBN "9780521850650. 
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  61. ^ Newman, Richard. Freedom's Prophet: Bishop Richard Allen, the AME Church, and the Black Founding Fathers (NYU Press, 2009).
  62. ^ Jane Goodall (27 August 2013). Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder from the World of Plants. Grand Central Publishing. pp. 60–61. "ISBN 978-1-4555-1321-5.
  63. ^ Ballenas, Carl. Images of America: Jamaica (Arcadia Publishing, 2011).
  64. ^ Holmes, David. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. (Oxford University Press US, 2006).
  65. ^ Wood, Gordon S. Revolutionary Characters, What Made the Founding Fathers Different. (New York: Penguin Books, 2007) 225–242.
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h i Buchanan, John. "Founding Fighters: The Battlefield Leaders Who Made American Independence (review)". The Journal of Military History (Volume 71, Number 2, April 2007), pp. 522–524.
  67. ^ Stephen Yafa (2006). Cotton: The Biography of a Revolutionary Fiber. Penguin. p. 75. "ISBN "9780143037224. 
  68. ^ a b c d e Dungan, Nicholas. Gallatin: America's Swiss Founding Father (NYU Press 2010).
  69. ^ Roberts, Cokie. "Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation". Harper Perennial, 2005
  70. ^ Roberts, Cokie. "Ladies of Liberty: The Women Who Shaped Our Nation". Harper, 2008
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  75. ^ "Founding Father Thomas Paine: He Genuinely Abhorred Slavery". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (48): 45. 2005. "doi:10.2307/25073236 (inactive 2017-01-15). 
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  77. ^ Burstein, Andrew. "Politics and Personalities: Garry Wills takes a new look at a forgotten founder, slavery and the shaping of America", Chicago Tribune (November 09, 2003): "Forgotten founders such as Pickering and Morris made as many waves as those whose faces stare out from our currency."
  78. ^ a b Rafael, Ray. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Founding Fathers: And the Birth of Our Nation (Penguin, 2011).
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  83. ^ "A Patriot of Early New England", "New York Times (December 20, 1931). This book review referred to Wingate as one of the "Fathers" of the United States, per the book title.
  84. ^ "The New Yorker, Volume I, page 398 (September 10, 1836): "'The Last of the Romans' — This was said of Madison at the time of his decease, but there is one other person who seems to have some claims to this honorable distinction. Paine Wingate of Stratham, N.H. still survives."
  85. ^ "THE FOUNDING OF THE SOCIETY, 1783–1784". Society of the Cincinnati. Retrieved April 9, 2017. 
  86. ^ "History:The Society of the Cincinnati in the State of Connecticut". 
  87. ^ Joseph J. Ellis; Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams. (2001) p. 214.
  88. ^ Jennifer Schuessler. "Up From the Family Basement, a Little-Seen Hamilton Trove". The New York Times. 
  89. ^ Joanne B. Freeman. "The Long History of Political Idiocy". The New York Times. 
  90. ^ Joanne B. Freeman. "How Hamilton Uses History: What Lin-Manuel Miranda Included in His Portrait of a Heroic, Complicated Founding Father—and What He Left Out". Slate. Retrieved April 9, 2017. 
  91. ^ Chris Bray. "Tip and Gip Sip and Quip-The politics of never". The Baffler. Retrieved April 11, 2017. 
  92. ^ Robert Viagas. "Hamilton Tops Tony Awards With 11 Wins". Playbill. Retrieved April 9, 2017. 


External links[edit]

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