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Framingham, Massachusetts
""Concord Square Historic District, July 2012
""Official seal of Framingham, Massachusetts
""Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°16′45″N 71°25′00″W / 42.27917°N 71.41667°W / 42.27917; -71.41667"Coordinates: 42°16′45″N 71°25′00″W / 42.27917°N 71.41667°W / 42.27917; -71.41667
Country United States
State "Massachusetts
"County "Middlesex
Settled 1650
Incorporated (town) 1700
Incorporated (city) 2018
 • Type "City
 • "Mayor "Yvonne M. Spicer
 • "City council
  • Dennis Giombetti
  • Charlie Sisitsky
  • George King
  • Cheryl Tully Stoll
  • Pam Richardson
  • Adam Steiner
  • Michael Cannon
  • Michael Rossi
  • Margareth Basilio Shepard
  • Judith Grove
  • Edgardo A. Torres
 • Total 26.4 sq mi (68.5 km2)
 • Land 25.1 sq mi (65.1 km2)
 • Water 1.3 sq mi (3.4 km2)
Elevation 165 ft (50 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 68,318
 • Density 2,581.1/sq mi (995.2/km2)
"Time zone "Eastern ("UTC−5)
 • Summer ("DST) "Eastern ("UTC−4)
ZIP code 01701~05
"Area code(s) "508 / "774
"FIPS code 25-24925
"GNIS feature ID 0618224
Website Framinghamma.gov/

Framingham "/ˈfrmɪŋˌhæm/ (""About this sound listen) is a "city in the "Commonwealth of "Massachusetts in the "United States. Incorporated in 1700, it is located within "Middlesex County and the "MetroWest subregion of the "Greater Boston metropolitan area. The city proper covers 25 square miles (65 km2) with an estimated population of 68,318 in 2010, making it the 14th most populous "municipality in Massachusetts.[1][2] Residents voted in favor of adopting a charter to transition from a "representative town meeting system to a "mayor–council government in April 2017, and the municipality transitioned to city status on January 1, 2018.[3]



Framingham, sited on the ancient trail known as the "Old Connecticut Path, was first settled by a European when John Stone settled on the west bank of the "Sudbury River in 1647. In 1660, "Thomas Danforth, an official of the Bay Colony, formerly of "Framlingham, Suffolk, received a grant of land at "Danforth's Farms" and began to accumulate over 15,000 acres (100 km2). He strenuously resisted petitions for incorporation of the town, which was officially incorporated in 1700, following his death the previous year. Why the "L" was dropped from the new town's name is not known. The first church was organized in 1701, the first teacher was hired in 1706, and the first permanent schoolhouse in 1716.

On February 22, 1775, the British general "Thomas Gage sent two officers and an enlisted man out of Boston to survey the route to "Worcester, Massachusetts. In Framingham, those spies stopped at Buckminster's Tavern. They watched the town militia muster outside the building, impressed with the men's numbers but not their discipline. Though "the whole company" came into the tavern after their drill, the officers managed to remain undetected and continued on their mission the next day.[4] Gage did not order a march along that route, instead ordering troops to "Concord, Massachusetts, on April 18–19. Framingham sent two militia companies totaling about 130 men into the "Battles of Lexington and Concord that followed; one of those men was wounded.[5]

In the years prior to the "American Civil War, Framingham was an annual gathering-spot for members of the "abolitionist movement. Each "Independence Day from 1854 to 1865, the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society held a rally in a picnic area called Harmony Grove near what is now downtown Framingham. At the 1854 rally, "William Lloyd Garrison burned copies of the "Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, judicial decisions enforcing it, and the "United States Constitution. Other prominent abolitionists present that day included "William Cooper Nell, "Sojourner Truth, "Wendell Phillips, "Lucy Stone, and "Henry David Thoreau.[6]

During the "post–World War II baby boom, Framingham, like many other suburban areas, experienced a large increase in population and housing. Much of the housing constructed during that time consisted of "split-level and ranch-style houses.

Framingham is known for the "Framingham Heart Study, as well as for the Dennison Manufacturing Company, which was founded in 1844 as a jewelry and watch box manufacturing company by "Aaron Lufkin Dennison, who became the pioneer of the "American System of Watch Manufacturing at the nearby "Waltham Watch Company. His brother Eliphalet Whorf Dennison developed the company into a sizable industrial complex which merged in 1990 into "Avery Dennison, with headquarters in "Pasadena, California, and active corporate offices in the town.

In 2000, Framingham celebrated its "Tercentennial. On January 1, 2018, Framingham became a city and "Yvonne M. Spicer was inaugurated as its first mayor, thus becoming the first popularly elected African-American woman mayor in Massachusetts.[7]


Framingham is located at 42°17′59″N 71°25′35″W / 42.29972°N 71.42639°W / 42.29972; -71.42639 (42.299795, −71.426627).[8]

According to the "United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.4 square miles (68.5 km²). 25.1 square miles (65.1 km²) of it is land and 1.3 square miles (3.4 km²) of it (4.99%) is water.[8]

Framingham is located in eastern Massachusetts, 20 miles (32 km) west of "Boston, midway between Boston and "Worcester. It is bordered by "Southborough and "Marlborough on the west; "Sherborn and "Ashland on the south; "Natick on the east; "Wayland on the northeast; and "Sudbury on the north.

The city of Framingham is divided by "Route 9, which passes east-to-west through the middle of the city. South Framingham includes Downtown Framingham (the city government seat), and the villages of Coburnville, Lokerville, and Salem End Road. North Framingham includes the villages of Nobscot, Pinefield, Ridgefield, and "Saxonville plus Framingham Center (the physical center of the city, featuring the town common).


Historical population
" 18504,252—    
" 18604,227−0.6%
" 18704,968+17.5%
" 18806,235+25.5%
" 18909,239+48.2%
" 190011,302+22.3%
" 191012,948+14.6%
" 192017,033+31.5%
" 193022,210+30.4%
" 194023,214+4.5%
" 195028,086+21.0%
" 196044,526+58.5%
" 197064,048+43.8%
" 198065,113+1.7%
" 199064,989−0.2%
" 200066,910+3.0%
" 201068,318+2.1%

Source: "United States Census records and "Population Estimates Program data.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

As of the census of 2010,[19] there were 68,318 people, 27,529 households, and 16,573 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,663.6 people per square mile (1,028.4/km²). There were 26,734 housing units at an average density of 2,728.6 per square mile (410.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 65.3% "White, 5.8% "Black, 0.8% "Native American, 6.3% "Asian, 0.1% "Pacific Islander, 6.27% from "other races, and 3.38% from two or more races. "Hispanic or "Latino of any race were 13.4% of the population (4.7% "Puerto Rican, 1.8% "Guatemalan, 1.5% "Salvadoran, 1.1% "Dominican, 0.9% "Mexican, 0.6% "Colombian, 0.3% "Peruvian). (Source: 2010 Census Quickfacts)

There were 26,153 households, out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.6% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 21.4% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 34.5% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $54,288, and the median income for a family was $67,420. Males had a median income of $46,122 versus $35,941 for females. The per capita income for the city was $27,758. About 8.0% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over.

Brazilian immigrants have a major presence in Framingham.[20][21][22][23] Since the 1980s, a large segment of the Brazilian population has come from the single city of "Governador Valadares.[24]


Framingham is one of the few municipalities in Massachusetts meeting the legal requirement of 10% for "Massachusetts Chapter 40B Affordable housing which mostly targets people with income levels in the 70% of median income. In addition to its 40B Affordable component, Framingham has a large percentage of rental units which target people in the 30% of median income bracket. Framingham has a much larger percentage of rental households than any of the surrounding municipalities. Statewide, the median income of rental households is 47% of the median for homeowners, and in Middlesex County it is slightly more than 50%. In Framingham, the median renter income of $33,626 is 45% of the median homeowner income of $75,040.[25]

Housing in South Framingham is mainly single-family houses on lots of less than 0.5 acres (0 ha),[26] multi-family homes or apartments. Additionally much of the Framingham's affordable housing is located south of Route 9. However, there a large number of large, single-family homes around Salem End Road on the West Side of South Framingham. This region is often overlooked as being in South Framingham because the area is physically separated from most of the South Side due to a series of reservoirs and the "Sudbury River.[27] Also, there are many large "Victorian houses located along the shores of Learned and Gleason Ponds, and along Concord St. and Union Ave. near Downtown Framingham. Additionally, the West Side of South Framingham along Route 9 has several large tracts of multi-story apartment buildings that comprise a major part of the city's apartment stock.[28][29][30]

North Framingham was originally mostly farmland and gave way to large tracts of single-family housing on lots of over 0.5 acres (0 ha) after World War II. The village of Saxonville on the east side is an old mill area that consists of many Victorian homes, and is undergoing a large expansion of over six hundred new homes on a former "gravel pit. The village of Nobscot on the western side has many homes that are valued above mean housing prices for the region. While there are several small apartment complexes on the North Side, most have been converted to "condominia. In the 1950s and 1960s, the villages of Nobscot, Pinefield, and Saxonville all had a large number of slab and raised "ranch-style houses constructed by the Campanelli Company. These homes are classic cookie-cutter style homes that feature the same general shape and "floor plan; while there are six or seven styles of the houses, the large majority of which are referred to Campanelli "L" ranches because their floor plan resembles the letter ""L". At the time of construction, these homes were considered by many to be the epitome of the American dream of homeownership; today they are viewed as more modest homes.

Today, most of Framingham has been developed with the exception of some parcels in the northwest quadrant. In this part of the city, there are more people with wells and septic systems, combined with a large amount of ledge, which prevents most of the unbuilt land from being developed.

Government and politics[edit]

Framingham's Home Rule Charter was approved by voters on April 4, 2017, and took effect on January 1, 2018.[31] On that date, "Yvonne M. Spicer was inaugurated as Framingham's first mayor.

Elections are held in November of odd-numbered years, to elect a full-time mayor serving a four-year term, and an 11-member city council comprising nine district members serving two-year terms and two at-large members serving four-year terms. The mayor replaced the Board of Selectmen as the chief executive, and the City Council replaced Representative Town Meeting as the legislative body. The Mayor and at-large-councilors are limited to a maximum of three consecutive terms in office and district councilors are limited to six consecutive terms in office.[32]

The School Committee has ten members: one elected from each of the nine districts, serving two-year terms, and the mayor, who serves as a tenth member and may only vote to break a tie.[32]

The Board of Library Trustees and the Board of Cemetery Trustees are also elected positions serving for four-year terms, with half the membership elected at alternating municipal elections.[32]

The Charter provides for an automatic review of the Charter five years after its adoption and periodically thereafter.[32]


The Framingham School Department can trace its roots back to 1706 when the town hired its first school master, Deacon Joshua Hemenway. While Framingham had its first school master, it did not get its own public school building until 1716. The first high school, the Framingham Academy, opened its doors in 1792; however this school was eventually closed due to financing issues and the legality of the town providing funds for a private school. The first town-operated high school opened in 1852 and has been in operation continuously in numerous location throughout the town.[33]

Framingham has 14 public schools which are part of the Framingham Public School District.[34] This includes "Framingham High School, three middle schools (Walsh, Fuller, and Cameron), nine elementary schools (Barberi, Brophy, Dunning, Hemenway, King, McCarthy, Potter Road, Stapleton, Woodrow Wilson), and the Blocks Pre-School.[34] The school district's main offices are located in the Fuller Administration Building on Flagg Drive[35] with additional offices at the King School on Water Street. The city also has a regional "vocational high school[36] and one regional "charter school.[37] Framingham is also home to several private schools, including Summit Montessori School, the "Sudbury Valley School, three "parochial schools, including "Marian High School, one "Jewish day school, and several specialty schools.

Since 1998, when Framingham began upgrading its schools, it has performed major renovations to Cameron, Wilson, McCarthy, and "Framingham High School. Two public school buildings that were mothballed due to financial issues or population drops have been leased to the Metrowest Jewish Day School (at the former Juniper Hill Elementary) and Mass Bay Community College (at the former Farley Middle school). Several schools that were no longer being used were sold off, including Lincoln, Roosevelt, and Washington.

Framingham has three colleges, including "Framingham State University and "Massachusetts Bay Community College's Framingham Campus.


Framingham is located approximately halfway between Worcester, the commercial center of Central Massachusetts, and Boston, New England's leading port and metropolitan area. Rail and highway facilities connect these major centers and other communities in the Greater Boston Metropolitan Area.[38]


The closest airport with scheduled international passenger traffic is "Boston's Logan International Airport, 25 miles (40 km) from Framingham. "Worcester Regional Airport, about 27 miles (43 km) away, began scheduled flights to "Fort Lauderdale and "Orlando in November 2013.

Major highways[edit]

Framingham is served by one "Interstate and four "state highways:

Route number Type Local name Direction
""I-90.svg "Interstate 90 "Interstate, limited access "toll road The "Massachusetts Turnpike east/west
""MA Route 9.svg "Route 9 State route, divided highway Worcester Rd.
The Boston/Worcester Turnpike, "Ted Williams Highway
""MA Route 30.svg "Route 30 State route, partial divided highway Cochituate Rd., Worcester Rd. and Pleasant St. east/west
""MA Route 126.svg "Route 126 State route, primary road Old Connecticut Path, School St, Concord St. and Hollis St. north/south
""MA Route 135.svg "Route 135 State route, primary road Waverly St. east/west

Mass transit[edit]



Commuter services[edit]

"Park and ride services:[45]


Framingham's economy is predominantly derived from retail and office complexes. There are scatterings of small manufacturing facilities and commercial services such as plumbing, mechanical and electrical expected to be found in communities of its size. Framingham has three major business districts within the city, The "Golden Triangle", Downtown/South Framingham, and West Framingham. Additionally, there are several smaller business hubs in the villages of Framingham Center, Saxonville, Nobscot, and along the Route 9 corridor.

Golden Triangle[edit]

The Golden Triangle was originally a three square mile district on the eastern side of Framingham, bordered by Worcester Rd. (Route 9), Cochituate Rd. (Route 30), and Speen Street in "Natick. In 1993, the area began to expand beyond the borders of the triangle with construction of a "BJ's Wholesale Club and a "Super Stop & Shop just north of Route 30.[47] It now includes the original area plus parts of Old Connecticut Path., Concord St. (Route 126), and Speen St. north of Route 30. Because of the size and complexity of this area, Framingham and Natick cooperatively operate it as a single distinct district with similar "zoning. The area is one of the largest shopping districts in "New England.["citation needed]

The area was formed with the construction of "Shoppers World in 1951. Shoppers' World was a large open air shopping mall, the second in the US and the first east of the "Mississippi River.[48] The mall drew many other retail construction projects to the area, including "Marshalls (1961, rebuilt as "Bed, Bath and Beyond 1997),[49] "Caldor (1966, Rebuilt as "Wal-Mart in 2002),[50] "Bradlees (1960s, rebuilt as "Kohl's in 2002),[51] the Route 30 Mall (1970),[52] an "AMC Framingham 15, the Framingham Mall (1978, rebuilt 2000),[53] and "Lowe's (formerly the "Verizon Building, 2006).[54] Complementary developments in Natick include the "Natick Mall (1966, rebuilt in 1991, expanded 2007 & renamed Natick Collection),[55] Sherwood Plaza (1960),[56] Cloverleaf Marketplace (1978),[57] and the "Home Depot. In 1994, Shoppers' World was demolished and replaced with a strip mall named Shoppers World.[58] There are also seven hotels and two car dealerships located within the Triangle.

In addition to retail properties, there are large office developments located in the area including several companies headquartered in the triangle; the world headquarters of "TJX is located at the junction of Route 30 and Speen St, as is the main office of "IDG and "IDC. "Disruptor Beam, "Breyers, Leggat McCall, the "American Heart Association, and the "American Cancer Society all have facilities in the area. "Boston Scientific headquarters is housed in Natick, in the old "Carling Brewery building and former "Prime parkway complex. There are over a dozen large office complexes located in, and along, the borders of the Triangle.

Downtown and South Framingham[edit]

The Memorial Building, Framingham's town hall
Framingham Public Library, Lexington St.

The downtown area is located between Memorial Square, formed by the intersection of Concord St. and Union Ave., to the north and its mirror intersection at the junction of Irving St. and Hollis St. on the south end. The area is bisected by Waverly St. (Route 135) and the "MBTA "Commuter Rail tracks. The anchoring structure of Downtown is the city hall, The Memorial Building.[59] From 2015 to 2016, the whole area underwent a multimillion-dollar reconstruction of the intersection of Union Ave. and Concord St. that removed the "traffic circle and replaced it with a signal controlled intersection. Additional lights were installed at the Irving St./Hollis St. intersection, while older signals in the area were upgraded. All sidewalks in the area were to be replaced, lighting upgraded, and new amenities such as seating and bicycle racks were also installed. The project was scheduled to begin in 2012, but has been delayed to 2014–2015.[60][61] Further delays pushed the project into 2015 due to needed electrical utility upgrades and replacement.[62]

South Framingham became the commercial center of the town with the advent of the railroad in the 1880s. It eventually came to house "Dennison Manufacturing and the former "General Motors "Framingham Assembly plant, but the area underwent a financial downturn after the closure of these facilities during the late 1980s.[63] An influx of "Hispanic and Brazilian immigrants helped to revitalize the district starting in the early 2000s. Along with Brazilian and Spanish oriented retail shops, there are restaurants, legal and financial services, the city offices and library, police headquarters, a performing arts center, and the local branch of the "Social Security Administration. Several "Asian and "Indian stores and restaurants add to the rich ethnic flavor of the area, and many small businesses, restaurants and automotive-oriented shops line Waverly St. from Natick in east to Winter St. in the west.[64]

In 2006, the Fitts Market & Hemenway buildings façades underwent a restoration project; these newly renovated structures were awarded a 2006 Massachusetts Historical Commission Preservation Award in the Restoration and Rehabilitation Category.[65] In addition, several retail and housing projects involving the Arcade Building and the former Dennison Building Complex are in the planning stages or under construction.[66][67]

West Framingham[edit]

The business section on the West Side of Framingham runs primarily along Route 9, starting at Temple St.; it is dominated by two large office/industrial parks: the Framingham Industrial Park on the north side of Route 9 and another park on the south side, both on the Framingham/Ashland/Southborough border. "Bose, "Staples Inc and "Applause have their world headquarters in these parks,[68] as does convenience store chain "Cumberland Farms; in addition, "Netezza, "Genzyme, "Capital One, "CA Technologies, "ITT Tech and the local paper, "The MetroWest Daily News, all have major facilities located there. Two of Framingham's seven major auto dealerships are also located in West Framingham: "Ford and "Toyota/"Scion.[69][70]

The large tracts of multi-story apartment and "condominium complexes line both sides of Route 9 from Temple St. to the industrial parks. These buildings represent the majority of Framingham's multi-family dwellings, and along with the business complexes, helped create a large network of support services on the West Side: Framingham's second Super Stop & Shop supermarket,[71] dozens of restaurants and pubs, "Sheraton[72] and "Residence Inn by Marriott[73] hotels and a large "day-care facility all are in the two-mile (3 km) section of Route 9 from Temple St. to "Ashland.

Villages and Route 9[edit]

The Common in Framingham Center

The "Framingham Centre Common Historic District is the physical and historic center of the city. Formed at the junctions of "Worcester Rd. (Route 9), Pleasant St. (Route 30), High St., Main St. and Edgell Rd.[74] the dominating presence is "Framingham State University. The school is home to several thousand students, about one third of whom live on campus.[75] In the late 1960s, "MassHighway replaced the intersection with an overpass, depressing Route 9 below the local roads, and destroying the south half of the old Center retail district. The remaining half houses several small stores, restaurants, "realtors and legal offices. The old Boston and Worcester Street Railway depot, on the east side of the Center, was converted into a strip mall in the early 1980s and houses the Center Postal Station (01703) and several small stores.[76] The Center is rounded out by One and Two Edgell Rd. (two small retail/office buildings), the historic "village hall,[77] the Jonathan Maynard Building (a former school converted to an office building which now houses most of the school district's administration), the Framingham History Center (formerly the Framingham Historical Society and Museum),[78] several banks, a Chinese restaurant, the "American Medical Response paramedic station and McCarthy Office Building.

The village of Nobscot, located at the intersection of Water St., Edmands Rd. and Edgell Rd. near "Nobscot Hill, and the Pinefield/Saxonville villages, located where Concord St., Water St., and Central St. intersect,[79][80] are home to several small office buildings, strip malls and gas stations. in 2016, the town moved its satellite branch of the public library named for "Christa McAuliffe from Saxonville to a new facility across from the Hemingway School in Nobscot. "Saxonville is the home of the former Roxbury Carpet Company buildings, now an industrial park, and is one of the city's historical districts.

In addition, the section of Route 9 from the Route 126 "overpass to the Main St./Edgell Rd. beetleback in Framingham Center is heavily developed. Three car dealerships, "Acura, "Chevrolet and "Nissan, several strip malls of varying sizes, many small apartment complexes, several small office complexes and other small shops and restaurants make Route 9 the main commercial thoroughfare in Framingham.

Finally, there are several other small retail areas and facilities spread throughout the city, e.g. near Mt Wayte Ave. and Franklin St.; the intersection of Concord St. and Hartford St.; and along School St., near Hamilton St.



Newspapers and websites[edit]

The City of Framingham is served by:

Television and cable[edit]

Framingham has a "public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable TV channel and local origination television station called Access Framingham (formerly FPAC-TV),[89] that airs on Channel 9 "Comcast, Channel 3 "RCN and Channel 43 "Verizon. Residents can create and produce their own television programs that reflect the personality of the community, and have them cablecast on the "public-access television cable TV channels.

"Framingham High School has a student-run television station, FHS-TV, that broadcasts locally; "Flyer News", its morning news program, has won 11 National High School Emmy Awards.

The City of Framingham operates the Government Channel shown on Comcast channel 99, RCN 13/HD613, and Verizon 42. The Government Channel operation provides programming sponsored by or for the City of Framingham. Commission meetings are cablecast live to inform residents and encourage participation in local government. Some of the programming provided, keeps residents abreast of road closings, construction updates, recycling efforts, public safety information, and special events in the community. The Government Channel is committed to making local government more accessible to all residents.



In the spring of 2016, the town of Framingham was a setting for the film "Patriots Day about the "Boston Marathon bombing, starring "Mark Wahlberg, "John Goodman, "Kevin Bacon, "J.K. Simmons, "Michelle Monaghan, "Alex Wolff, "Melissa Benoist and a cameo appearance by former athlete "David Ortiz.[95] In spring 2009, Framingham was also used for the film "The Company Men, starring "Ben Affleck, "Chris Cooper, "Kevin Costner, and "Tommy Lee Jones.[96]


Points of interest[edit]

Framingham features dozens of athletic fields and civic facilities spread throughout the city in schools and public parks.[97] Many of the recreational facilities were constructed by the "Civilian Conservation Corps during the "New Deal.



Conservation land[edit]


Notable people[edit]


"Crispus Attucks, from Framingham, was the first person to be killed in the fight for American independence.


Arts and sciences[edit]




Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]


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  4. ^ General Gage's Instructions, Boston: John Gill, 1779.
  5. ^ Samuel Adams Drake, History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts (Boston: Estes & Lauriat, 1880), vol. 1, p. 443
  6. ^ "Massachusetts Historical Society: Object Archive". Masshist.org. 1909-09-10. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  7. ^ "Yvonne Spicer sworn in as Framingham's first mayor - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 2018-01-22. 
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  15. ^ "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  17. ^ "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
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  23. ^ "Migration and Refugee Services". Usccb.org. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  24. ^ "Immigration in the U" (PDF). Uml.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  25. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-15. 
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