|François Joseph Paul de Grasse|
|Nickname(s)||Comte de Grasse|
13 September 1723|
"Le Bar-sur-Loup, "Provence, "France
|Died||11 January 1788
"Tilly, "Île-de-France, "France
|Buried||"Church of Saint-Roch, Paris|
|Allegiance||" "Order of Saint John (1734–1741)
"Kingdom of France (1741–1784)
|Years of service||1734–1784|
|Rank||"Lieutenant général des armées navales|
François Joseph Paul de Grasse (September 13, 1723 – January 11, 1788) was a "French "admiral, also known as the Comte de Grasse. He is best known for his command of the French fleet at the "Battle of the Chesapeake, which led directly to the "British surrender at Yorktown in the "American Revolutionary War.
British "Admiral Rodney defeated and captured de Grasse the next year, at the "Battle of the Saintes in the Caribbean. De Grasse was widely criticised for his loss in that battle. On his return to France, he demanded a "court martial; it acquitted him of fault in his defeat.
François-Joseph de Grasse was born and raised at "Bar-sur-Loup in south-eastern France, the last child of Francois de Grasse Rouville, Marquis de Grasse. He earned his title and supported his "Provençal family.
At the age of eleven (1734), de Grasse entered the "Order of Saint John as a "page of the Grand Master. He served as an "ensign on the "galleys in wars against the Turks and the Moors. In 1740 at the age of 17, he entered the "French Navy.
Following "Britain's victory over the French in the Seven Years War, de Grasse helped rebuild the French navy in the years after the "Treaty of Paris (1763).
In 1775, the "American War of Independence broke out when American colonists rebelled against British rule. France supplied the colonists with covert aid, but remained officially neutral until 1778. The "Treaty of Alliance (1778) established the Franco-American alliance and France entered the war on behalf of the rebels and against Great Britain.
In 1779, he joined the fleet of "Count d'Estaing in the "Caribbean and distinguished himself in the battles of "Dominica and "Saint Lucia during 1780["clarification needed] and of "Tobago during 1781. He contributed to the "capture of Grenada and took part in the three actions fought by "Guichen against "Admiral Rodney in the "Battle of Martinique (1780).
De Grasse came to the aid of "Washington and "Rochambeau's "Expédition Particulière, setting sail with 3,000 men from "Saint-Domingue. De Grasse landed the 3,000 French reinforcements in Virginia, and immediately afterward decisively defeated the British fleet in the "Battle of the Chesapeake in September 1781. He drew away the British forces and blockaded the coast until "Lord Cornwallis surrendered, ensuring the independence of the "United States of America.
De Grasse returned to the Caribbean, where he was less fortunate and was defeated at the "Battle of St. Kitts by "Admiral Hood. Shortly afterward, in April 1782, he was defeated and taken prisoner by "Admiral Rodney at the "Battle of the Saintes. He was taken to London, and while there briefly took part in the negotiations that laid the foundations for the "Peace of Paris (1783), which brought the war to an end.
He returned to France and published a Mémoire justificatif. In 1784, he was acquitted by a "court-martial.
His son "Alexandre Francois Auguste de Grasse published a Notice biographique sur l'amiral comte de Grasse d'après les documents inédits in 1840.
The "French Navy has had two vessels named in his honour:
The "United States Navy has had three vessels named in his honour:
"" This article incorporates text from a publication now in the "public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Grasse, François Joseph Paul, Comte de". "Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 369.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to François Joseph Paul de Grasse.|