Mitterrand supported closer European collaboration and the preservation of France's special relationship with its former colonies, which he feared were falling under ""Anglo-Saxon influence." His drive to preserve French power in Africa led to controversies concerning Paris' role during the "Rwandan Genocide. Despite Mitterrand's left-wing affiliations, the 1980s saw France becoming more distant from the "USSR, especially following events such as the expulsion of 47 Soviet "diplomats and their families from the country in 1982 after they were accused of large-scale industrial and military "espionage. Mitterrand also sharply criticized the "Soviet intervention in "Afghanistan as well as the country's nuclear weapons buildup. When Mitterrand visited the USSR in November 1988, the Soviet media claimed to be 'leaving aside the virtually wasted decade and the loss of the "Soviet-French 'special relationship' of the Gaullist era'.
Nevertheless, Mitterrand was worried by the rapidity of the "Eastern bloc's "collapse. He was opposed to "German reunification but came to see it as unavoidable. He was opposed to the swift recognition of "Croatia and "Slovenia, which he thought would lead to the "violent implosion of Yugoslavia.
France participated in the "Gulf War (1990–1991) with the "U.N. coalition.
His major achievements came internationally, especially in the "European Economic Community. He initially opposed further membership fearing the Community was not ready and it would water it down to a free trade area.
He supported the "enlargement of the Community to include Spain and Portugal (which both joined in January 1986). In February 1986 he helped the "Single European Act come into effect. He worked well with "Helmut Kohl and improved "Franco-German relations significantly. Together they fathered the "Maastricht Treaty, which was signed on 7 February 1992. It was ratified by "referendum, approved by just over 51% of the voters.
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was against a "German reunification and also against the then discussed "Maastricht Treaty. When "Helmut Kohl, then German Chancellor, asked Mitterrand to agree to reunification (France was one of the four Allies who had to agree to the "Two Plus Four-treaty), Mitterrand told Kohl he accepted it only in the event Germany would abandon the "Deutsche Mark and adopt the Euro. Kohl accepted this "package deal (even without talking to "Karl Otto Pöhl, then President of the Bundesbank).
1990 speech at La Baule
Responding to a democratic movement in Africa after the 1989 fall of the "Berlin Wall, he made his La Baule speech in June 1990 which tied "development aid to democratic efforts from former French colonies, and during which he opposed the devaluation of the "CFA Franc. Seeing an "East wind" blowing in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, he stated that a "Southern wind" was also blowing in Africa, and that state leaders had to respond to the populations' wishes and aspirations by a "democratic opening", which included a "representative system, free elections, multipartyism, "freedom of the press, an independent judiciary, and abolition of censorship. Claiming that France was the country making the most important effort concerning development aid, he announced that the "least developed countries (LDCs) would henceforth receive only grants from France, as opposed to loans (in order to combat the massive increase of "Third World debt during the 1980s). He likewise limited the "interest rate to 5% on French loans to intermediate-income countries (that is, "Ivory Coast, "Congo, Cameroon and "Gabon).
He also criticized interventionism in sovereign matters, which was according to him only another form of ""colonialism". However, according to Mitterrand, this did not imply lessened concern on the part of Paris for its "former colonies. Mitterrand thus continued with the African policy of de Gaulle inaugurated in 1960, which followed the relative failure of the 1958 creation of the "French Community. All in all, Mitterrand's La Baule speech, which marked a relative turning point in France's policy concerning its former colonies, has been compared with the 1956 loi-cadre "Defferre which was responding to "anti-colonialist feelings.
African heads of state themselves reacted to Mitterrand's speech at most with indifference. "Omar Bongo, President of Gabon, declared that he would rather have "events counsel him;" "Abdou Diouf, President of Senegal, said that, according to him, the best solution was a "strong government" and a "good faith opposition;" the President of Chad, "Hissène Habré (nicknamed the "African "Pinochet") claimed that it was contradictory to demand that African states should simultaneously carry on a "democratic policy" and "social and economic policies which limited their sovereignty", in a clear allusion to the "International Monetary Fund and the "World Bank's ""structural adjustment programs". "Hassan II, the king of Morocco, said for his part that "Africa was too open to the world to remain indifferent to what was happening around it", but that Western countries should "help young democracies open out, without putting a knife under their throat, without a brutal transition to multipartyism."
All in all, the La Baule speech has been said to be on one hand "one of the foundations of political renewal in Africa French speaking area", and on the other hand "cooperation with France", this despite "incoherence and inconsistency, like any "public policy".
Discovery of HIV
Controversy surrounding the discovery of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was intense after American researcher "Robert Gallo and French scientist "Luc Montagnier both claimed to have discovered it. The two scientists had given the new virus different names. The "controversy was eventually settled by an agreement (helped along by the mediation of Dr "Jonas Salk) between President "Ronald Reagan and Mitterrand which gave equal credit to both men and their teams.
Apology to the Huguenots
In October 1985, to commemorate the tricentenary of the "Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Mitterrand gave a formal apology to the descendants of "Huguenots around the world. At the same time, a special postage stamp was released in their honour. The stamp states that France is the home of the Huguenots ("Accueil des Huguenots"). Hence their rights were finally recognised.
Co-Prince of Andorra
On 2 February 1993, in his capacity as co-prince of "Andorra, Mitterrand and "Joan Martí Alanis, who was "Bishop of Urgell and therefore Andorra's other co-prince, signed Andorra's new "constitution, which was later approved by "referendum in the principality.
Retirement and death
Mitterrand died in Paris on 8 January 1996 at the age of 79 from prostate cancer, a condition he and his doctors had concealed for most of his presidency (see section on Medical Secrecy below). A few days before his death, he was joined by family members and close friends for a "last meal" that attracted controversy because, in addition to other gourmet dishes, it included the serving of roast "ortolan bunting, a small wild songbird that is a protected species whose sale is (and was at the time) illegal in France.
Prime Ministers during presidency
As of 2017, Mitterrand has had the most prime ministers during the regime of the 5th Republic.
|"Laurent Fabius||1984||1986||The youngest PM since "Decazes (39 years old)|
|"Jacques Chirac||1986||1988||First "cohabitation of the Fifth Republic|
|"Édith Cresson||1991||1992||First female prime minister|
|"Édouard Balladur||1993||1995||Second Cohabitation|
Following his death, a controversy erupted when his former physician, Dr Claude Gubler, wrote a book called Le Grand Secret ("The Great Secret") explaining that Mitterrand had false health reports published since November 1981, hiding his cancer. Mitterrand's family then prosecuted Gubler and his publisher for violating "medical confidentiality.
Mitterrand came under fire in 1992 when it was revealed that he had arranged for the laying of a wreath of flowers on the grave of "Philippe Pétain each "Armistice Day since 1987. Pétain had been the leader of French forces at the dramatic "Battle of Verdun in World War I, for which he was revered by his contemporaries. Later, however, he became leader of "Vichy France after the French "defeat by Germany (June 1940) in World War II, collaborating with "Nazi Germany and putting "anti-semitic measures into place.
The placing of such a wreath was not without precedent. Presidents "Charles de Gaulle and "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing had wreaths placed on Pétain's grave to commemorate the 50th and 60th anniversaries of the end of World War I. Similarly, President "Georges Pompidou had a wreath placed in 1973 when Pétain's remains were returned to the "Ile d'Yeu after being stolen. Nonetheless, Mitterrand's regular annual tributes went beyond the marking by his predecessors of exceptional occasions, and offended sensibilities at a time when France was re-examining its role in "the Holocaust.["citation needed]
The Urba consultancy was established in 1971 by the "Socialist Party to advise Socialist-led "communes on infrastructure projects and public works. The "Urba affair became public in 1989 when two police officers investigating the "Marseille regional office of Urba discovered detailed minutes of the organisation's contracts and division of proceeds between the party and elected officials. Although the minutes proved a direct link between Urba and graft activity, an edict from the office of Mitterrand, himself listed as a recipient, prevented further investigation. The Mitterrand election campaign of 1988 was directed by "Henri Nallet, who then became "Justice Minister and therefore in charge of the investigation at national level. In 1990 Mitterrand declared an amnesty for those under investigation, thus ending the affair. Socialist Party treasurer "Henri Emmanuelli was tried in 1997 for corruption offences, for which he received a two-year suspended sentence.
From 1982 to 1986, Mitterrand established an "anti-terror cell" installed as a service of the President of the Republic. This was an unusual set-up, since such law enforcement missions against terrorism are normally left to the "National Police and "Gendarmerie, run under the cabinet and the Prime Minister, and under the supervision of the judiciary. The cell was largely staffed by members of these services, but it bypassed the normal line of command and safeguards. 3000 conversations concerning 150 people (7 for reasons judged to be contestable by the ensuing court process) were recorded between January 1983 and March 1986 by this anti terrorist cell at the Elysée Palace. In one of its first actions, the cell was involved in the ""Irish of Vincennes" affair, in which it appeared that members of the cell had planted weapons and explosives in the Vincennes apartment of three Irish nationals who were arrested on terrorism charges. Most markedly, it appears that the cell, under illegal presidential orders, obtained "wiretaps on journalists, politicians and other personalities who may have been an impediment for Mitterrand's personal life. The illegal wiretapping was revealed in 1993 by "Libération; the case against members of the cell went to trial in November 2004.
It took 20 years for the 'affaire' to come before the courts because the instructing judge Jean-Paul Vallat was at first thwarted by the 'affaire' being classed a defence secret, but in December 1999 la "Commission consultative du secret de la défense nationale declassified part of the files concerned. The Judge finished his investigation in 2000, but it still took another four years before coming on 15 November 2004 before the 16th chamber of the "Tribunal correctionnel de Paris. 12 people were charged with "atteinte à la vie privée" (breach of privacy) and one with selling computer files. 7 were given suspended sentences and fines and 4 were found not guilty.
The 'affaire' finally ended before the Tribunal correctionnel de Paris with the court's judgement on 9 November 2005. 7 members of the President's anti-terrorist unit were condemned and Mitterrand was designated as the "inspirator and essentially the controller of the operation."
The court's judgement revealed that Mitterrand was motivated by keeping elements of his private life secret from the general public, such as the existence of his illegitimate daughter "Mazarine Pingeot (which the writer "Jean-Edern Hallier, was threatening to reveal), his cancer which had been diagnosed in 1981, and the elements of his past in the Vichy Régime which were not already public knowledge. The court judged that certain people were tapped for "obscure" reasons, such as "Carole Bouquet's companion, a lawyer with family in the Middle East, "Edwy Plenel, a journalist for le Monde who covered the Rainbow Warrior story and the Vincennes Three affair, and the lawyer Antoine Comte. The court declared "Les faits avaient été commis sur ordre soit du président de la République, soit des ministres de la Défense successifs qui ont mis à la disposition de ("Christian Prouteau) tous les moyens de l'État afin de les exécuter" (translation: these actions were committed following orders from the French President or his various Defence Ministers who gave "Christian Prouteau full access to the state machinery so he could execute the orders) The court stated that Mitterrand was the principal instigator of the wire taps (l'inspirateur et le décideur de l'essentiel) and that he had ordered some of the taps and turned a blind eye to others and that none of the 3000 wiretaps carried out by the cell were legally obtained.
On 13 March 2007 the "Court of Appeal in Paris awarded €1 damages to the actress Carole Bouquet and €5000 to Lieutenant-Colonel Jean-Michel Beau for breach of privacy.
The case was taken to the "European Court of Human Rights, which gave judgement on 7 June 2007 that the rights of free expression of the journalists involved in the case were not respected.
In 2008 the French state was ordered by the courts to give Jean-Edern Hallier's family compensation.
Paris assisted "Rwanda's president "Juvénal Habyarimana, who was assassinated on 6 April 1994 while travelling in a "Dassault "Falcon 50 given to him as a personal gift of Mitterrand. Through the offices of the 'Cellule Africaine', a Presidential office headed by Mitterrand's son, "Jean-Christophe, he provided the Hutu regime with financial and military support in the early 1990s. With French assistance, the Rwandan army grew from a force of 9,000 men in October 1990 to 28,000 in 1991. France also provided training staff, experts and massive quantities of weaponry and facilitated arms contracts with Egypt and South Africa. It also financed, armed and trained Habyrimana's Presidential Guard. French troops were deployed under "Opération Turquoise, a military operation carried out under a United Nations (UN) mandate. The operation is currently the object of political and historical debate.
Bombing of the Rainbow Warrior
On 10 July 1985, the "Rainbow Warrior, a "Greenpeace vessel, was in New Zealand preparing to protest against French nuclear testing in the South Pacific when two explosions sank the ship. Photographer "Fernando Pereira tried, following the first explosion, to retrieve his equipment, and was caught by the second explosion and drowned. The New Zealand government called the bombing the first terrorist attack in the country. In mid-1985, French Defence Minister "Charles Hernu was forced to resign after the discovery of French involvement in the attack against the "Rainbow Warrior.
On the twentieth anniversary of the "sinking it was revealed that Mitterrand had personally authorised the bombing which resulted in Pereira's death. Admiral Pierre Lacoste, the former head of the "DGSE, made a statement saying Pereira's death weighed heavily on his conscience. Also on that anniversary, Television New Zealand (TVNZ) sought to access a video recording made at the preliminary hearing where two French agents pleaded guilty, a battle they won in 2006.
President of the French Republic: 1981–1995. Reelected in 1988.
Minister of State, minister of Justice: 1956–1957.
Minister of Interior: 1954–1955.
Minister for Council of Europe: June–September 1953
Minister of State: January–March 1952.
Minister of Overseas and Colonies: 1950–1951.
Secretary of State for Presidency of Council: 1948–1949.
Secretary of State for Information: July–September 1948.
Minister of Veterans and War Victims: 1947–1948.
National Assembly of France
Member of the "National Assembly of France for "Nièvre: 1946–1958 / 1962–1981 (resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1981). Elected in 1946, reelected in 1951, 1956, 1962, 1967, 1968, 1973, 1978.
Senate of France
Senator of "Nièvre: 1959–1962 (resignation, reelected member of the "National Assembly of France in 1962). Elected in 1959.
President of the General Council of "Nièvre: 1964–1981 (resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1981). Reelected in 1967, 1970, 1973, 1976, 1979.
General councillor of "Nièvre: 1949–1981 (resignation). Reelected in 1955, 1961, 1967, 1973, 1979.
"Mayor of "Château-Chinon (Ville): 1959–1981 (resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1981). Reelected in 1965, 1971, 1977.
"Municipal councillor of "Château-Chinon (Ville): 1959–1981 (resignation). Reelected in 1965, 1971, 1977.
First Secretary (leader) of the "Socialist Party: 1971–1981 (resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1981). Reelected in 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979.
- "Iceland: Grand Cross with Collar of the "Order of the Falcon (12 April 1983) 
- "Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the "Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (July 1982)
- "Netherlands: Grand Cross of the "Order of the Netherlands Lion (1991)
- "Portugal: Grand Collar of the "Order of Prince Henry (29 September 1983)
- "Portugal: Grand Collar of the "Order of Liberty (28 October 1987)
- "South Africa: Grand Cross of the "Order of Good Hope in 1994 
- "Sweden: Knight of the "Royal Order of the Seraphim (11 May 1984)
- "United Kingdom: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the "Order of the Bath (See "List) 
- "Philippines: Raja of the "Order of Sikatuna (11 July 1989)
Vexillology and heraldry
- President Mitterrand had chosen a tree half oak half olive-tree as symbol for his presidential flag.
- President Mitterrand received from King "Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden a "coat of arms linked to the reception of the "Order of the Seraphim, which reproduces this symbol.
- Tiersky, Ronald. François Mitterrand: a Very French President. 2003, Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 38–42.
- Chrisafis, Angelique (5 October 2016). "François Mitterrand's love letters to secret mistress to be published" – via The Guardian.
- "'Okay, François Mitterrand was my dad,' Swedish politician reveals". France 24. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Hravn Forsne | Nya Moderaterna". moderat.se. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- "Mitterrands son vill in i riksdagen – DN.SE". dn.se. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- "Pierre Péan, Une jeunesse française (biography on Mitterrand), p.23-35
- "Henry Rousso, Le Syndrome de Vichy, p.365
- Jean Lacouture, Mitterrand, une histoire de Français, éd. du Seuil, « Points », pp. 46/48
- Tiersky, Ronald (1 January 2003). "François Mitterrand: A Very French President". Rowman & Littlefield – via Google Books.
- "Short, Philip (2014). Mitterrand. A Study in Ambiguity. London: Bodley Head. "ISBN "9781448191895.
- *François Mitterrand, Mémoires interrompus, éd. Odile Jacob, 1996
- reprinted in Politique I, in 1978
- Robert Belot in La Résistance sans De Gaulle, éd. Fayard, 2006, et Henry Rousso in l'Express n° 2871, du 13 juillet 2006
- Jean Lacouture, Mitterrand, une histoire de Français, op. cit., pp. 75/79 et Franz-Olivier Giesbert, François Mitterrand, une vie, éd. du Seuil, « Points », 1996, pp. 77/79
- Pierre Péan, Une jeunesse française, op. cit., pp. 217/218 et Jean Lacouture, Mitterrand, une histoire de Français, op. cit., p. 81
- a photograph taken at this meeting is on the cover of Pierre Péan's book. Marcel Barrois is in the photo.
- "autumn 1943", from: Franz-Olivier Giesbert, François Mitterrand ou la tentation de l'histoire, Éditions du Seuil, 1977 "ISBN 2-02-004591-5, chap. 5, p.49.
- "Jean Pierre-Bloch, De Gaulle ou le temps des méprises (pp. 216/218) « C'était sur notre ordre que François Mitterrand était resté dans les services de prisonniers de Vichy. Lorsqu'il avait été proposé pour la francisque, nous avions été parfaitement tenus au courant ; nous lui avions conseillé d'accepter cette "distinction" pour ne pas se dévoiler. ».
- Jacques Attali, C'était François Mitterrand, Fayard, 2005
- Pierre Péan, op. cit., p. 302
- Pierre Péan, op. cit., pp. 309/310
- Patrick Rotman et Jean Lacouture, "le roman du pouvoir", L'Express
- Franz-Olivier Giesbert, François Mitterrand, une vie, p. 94. "François Mitterrand avait réussi à mettre sur pied un véritable réseau de renseignement dans les camps. Grâce aux prisonniers de guerre, nous avons pu prendre connaissances d'informations, parfois décisives, sur ce qui se passait derrière les frontières"
- On 12 July 1944 "Maurice Schumann (la voice of the Free French) recounted this event on BBC radio.
- Jean Lacouture, Mitterrand, une histoire de Français, op. cit., pp. 97 et 99
- Franz-Olivier Giesbert, François Mitterrand, une vie, éd. du Seuil, 1996, p. 100
- Pierre Péan book pp. 364/365
- Jean Lacouture, Mitterrand, une histoire de Français, tome 1, p. 102
- Mémoires de guerre, tome 3, de Gaulle
- Jean Lacouture, Mitterrand, une histoire de Français, éd. Seuil, 2000, the book is quoted on La Fabrique de sens
- Entretiens inédits François Mitterrand – Marguerite Duras, éd. sonores Frémeaux & Associés, 2007 ?option=com_virtuemart&page=shop.livrets&content_id=2087&product_id=834&category_id=69 en ligne
- "Les guillotinés de Mitterrand – Le Point". lepoint.fr. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Dalrmymple, Theodore (March 2015). "The Battle of Algiers". The New English Review. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
- Paxton, Robert O. (28 June 1987). "The Mitterrand Mystery". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 May 2010. ["sic]
- Tiersky, Ronald. François Mitterrand: a Very French President. Page 30. Lanham, Maryland; Rowman and Littlefield; 2000.
- "Mishra, Pankaj (20 December 2010). "Staying Power". "The New Yorker. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- "René Rémond, Notre siècle, 1988, Fayard, p.664 ff.
- "Congrès d'Epinay (1971)". Dailymotion. 2008-03-22. Retrieved 2017-03-22.
Celui qui n’accepte pas la rupture avec l’ordre établi, avec la société capitaliste, celui là, il ne peut pas être adhèrent du Parti Socialiste.
- Birch, Jonah (19 August 2015). "The Many Lives of François Mitterrand". "Jacobin. Retrieved 2017-03-22.
- "Élection présidentielle de 1981". Miroirs.ironie.org. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- Reichart, Alexandre (2015). "French Monetary Policy (1981–1985), A Constrained Policy, between Volcker Shock, the EMS and Macroeconomic Imbalances". Journal of European Economic History. ISSN 0391-5115, 44(1), pp. 11–46.
- Lombard, Marc (April 1995). "A re-examination of the reasons for the failure of Keynesian expansionary policies in France, 1981-1983". Cambridge Journal of Economics. 19.
- Socialism, the State and Public Policy in France edited by Philip G. Cerny and Martin A. Schain
- Mitterrand's France Edited by Sonia Mazey and Michael Newman
- Vail, Mark I. (2009). Recasting Welfare Capitalism Economic Adjustment in Contemporary France and Germany. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. "ISBN "978-1-59213-967-5.
- Contemporary France: Politics and Society Since 1945 by D. L. Hanley, Miss A P Kerr, N. H. Waites
- "History of the Minitel". Whitepages.fr. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- Schmidt, V.A. (1996). From State to Market?: The Transformation of French Business and Government. Cambridge University Press. p. 125. "ISBN "9780521555531. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Smith, W. Rand (1998). The Left's Dirty Job: The Politics of Industrial Restructuring in France and Spain. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 102. "ISBN "978-0-8229-7189-4. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- Bearce, D. (2009). Monetary Divergence: Domestic Policy Autonomy in the Post-Bretton Woods Era. University of Michigan Press. p. 107. "ISBN "9780472023097. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- The French Socialist Party: Resurgence and Victory by D. S. Bell and Byron Criddle
- France during the socialist years by Gino Raymond
- Hoskyns, C. (1996). Integrating Gender: Women, Law and Politics in the European Union. Verso. p. 217. "ISBN "9781859840788. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- European Welfare Policy: Squaring the Welfare Circle edited by Vic George and Peter Taylor-Gooby
- Corbett, Anne; Moon, Bob (2002-03-11). Education in France: Continuity and Change in the Mitterrand Years 1981–1995. Taylor & Francis. pp. 96–. "ISBN "978-0-203-03568-9. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- The French Socialist Experiment by John S. Ambler
- The French Socialists in Power, 1981–1986 by Patrick McCarthy
- New Scientist. Reed Business Information. p. 29. "ISSN 0262-4079. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- PSI. "Education – France in the United Kingdom – La France au Royaume-Uni". ambafrance-uk.org. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Shields, J. (2007). The Extreme Right in France: From Pétain to Le Pen. Taylor & Francis. p. 200. "ISBN "9781134861118. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- The Death of Politics: France under Mitterrand by John Laughland
- Winter, B. (2008). Hijab and the Republic: Uncovering the French Headscarf Debate. Syracuse University Press. p. 113. "ISBN "9780815651321. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- "Socialist Party". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. 1914-07-31. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
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- ["dead link]
- "France: Letting in France, Rules & Regulations, Various rules and regulations apply to the letting of". justlanded.com. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
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- "National Analytical Study on Housing" (PDF). Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- Innovation, C.E.R. (1997). Implementing Inclusive Education. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. p. 24. "ISBN "9789264155893. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- France since 1870: Culture, Politics, and Society by Charles Sowerine
- One Hundred Years of Socialism: The West European Left in the Twentieth Century by Donald Sassoon
- The Mitterrand Years: Legacy and Evaluation edited by Mairi Maclean
- Padró, Fernando Francisco (1 January 2004). "Statistical Handbook on the Social Safety Net". Greenwood Publishing Group – via Google Books.
- OECD (17 July 2001). "Innovations in Labour Market Policies The Australian Way: The Australian Way". OECD Publishing – via Google Books.
- Mitterrand's role revealed in Rwandan genocide warning, 3 July 2007. "The Independent
- Binyon, Michael (11 September 2009). "Thatcher told Gorbachev Britain did not want German reunification". The Times. London. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Beyond Enlargement Fatigue? The Dutch debate on Turkish accession, European Security Initiative 2006
- sueddeutsche.de 10.9.2009: Für Thatcher war Deutschland eine gefährliche Kröte
- spiegel.de: Mitterrand forderte Euro als Gegenleistung für die Einheit; spiegel.de 27. April 1998: Dunkelste Stunden. – Der Kanzler öffnet die Akten über die deutsche Einheit. Die Dokumente zeigen: Frankreich hat das schnelle Ende der Mark erzwungen.; spiegel.de 2. März 1998: Weg ohne Wiederkehr. – Hinter der Fassade ihrer deutsch-französischen Freundschaft haben Helmut Kohl und François Mitterrand erbittert um Einheit und Euro gerungen, wie jetzt neue Dokumente aus dem Kanzleramt zeigen.
- spiegel.de 8. May 2012: Operation Self-Deceit: New Documents Shine Light on Euro Birth Defects
- François Mitterrand et la démocratie en Afrique, huit ans après, by Albert Bourgi, Centre d'études et de recherches internationales (CERI) (mixed study unit with the "CNRS, dependent of the "Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques) (French)
- Les 22 premières conférences des chefs d'Etat de France et d'Afrique, on French government website – URL accessed in January 2007 (French)
- Le discours de la Baule et le pluralisme en Afrique noire francophone. Essai d'analyse d'une contribution à l'instauration de la démocratie dans les états d'Afrique noire d'expression française, 1993–94 "DEA mémoire of Félix François Lissouck, under the direction of Paul Bacot, held in the "Political Studies Institute (IEP) of Lyon. (French)
- "Allocution de M. François Mitterrand, Président de la République, aux cérémonies du tricentenaire de la Révocation de l'Edit de Nantes, sur la tolérance en matière politique et religieuse et l'histoire du protestantisme en France, Paris, Palais de l'UNESCO". Discours.vie-publique.fr. 1985-10-11. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- Whitney, Craig R. (9 January 1996). "Francois Mitterrand Dies at 79; Champion of a Unified Europe". The New York Times. The New York Times Company: 1. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- See discussion page, including reference to the accounts of Roger Hanin and George-Marc Benhamou (Link at: http://www.denistouret.net/textes/Benamou.html). See also "The Last Meal" by Michael Paterniti, Esquire Magazine, 1 May 1998. Accessed on 1 January 2011 at: http://www.esquire.com/features/The-Last-Meal-0598.
- "(Subscription)". Le Monde. France. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- Von Derschau, Verena. "Le procès des "écoutes de l'Elysée" doit commencer lundi à Paris". La Presse Canadienne.
- "La police française déploie ses grandes oreilles, 30 mai 2007". News.fr. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- Les oreilles du Président de "Jean-Marie Pontaut et Jérome Dupuis, "Fayard, 1996. Les mots volés de "Edwy Plenel, Stock, 1997. Le Journaliste et le Président de "Edwy Plenel, 2006.
- « Carole Bouquet victime des écoutes de l'Elysée », "L'Express, mardi 13 mars 2007, 18h19 ; « Carole Bouquet rétablie comme victime des écoutes de l'Elysée », PARIS (Reuters), mardi 13 mars 2007, 17h03, cité par Yahoo! News ; "Libération, 17 mars 2007 cité dans « Les écoutes de l’Élysée » : la cour d’appel de Paris à l’écoute ... d’une nouvelle civilisation, "AgoraVox, le média citoyen
- J.-B., Écoutes de l'Elysée : l'État devra indemniser la famille Hallier, "Le Figaro, 25 juillet 2008
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- Louvre inauguration speech by Mitterrand
- François Mitterrand Institute
- French President Poll (01/2006)
- "Mitterrand's Legacy" (1996) in "The Nation
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